Baroque Final

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• Early Baroque (maderona designed façade of st. peter ca. 1600-25 • High Baroque ca. 1625-75 )Bernini and Borromini (sacred architecture) • Late Baroque ca. 1675-1725 chateaux (Versailles) • Rococco, Austria/southern Germany (churches) • England – St. paul cathedral London

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Early Baroque (maderona designed faade of st. peterca. 1600-25High Baroqueca. 1625-75 )Bernini and Borromini (sacred architecture)Late Baroqueca. 1675-1725 chateaux (Versailles)Rococco, Austria/southern Germany (churches)England St. paul cathedral London The fundamental characteristic of Baroque art is dynamism (a sense of motion). Strong curves, rich decoration, and general complexity are all typical features of Baroque art (see Western Aesthetics). While the full-blown Baroque aesthetic (full Baroque) was embraced in southern Western Europe, northern Western Europe struck a classical-Baroque compromise (restrained Baroque). (See also Diffusion of Baroque.)The full Baroque aesthetic developed during the Early Baroque period (ca. 1600-25), then culminated during the High Baroque period (ca. 1625-75). Both periods were led by Italy. The restrained Baroque aesthetic culminated during the Late Baroque period (ca. 1675-1725). The Baroque age concluded with the French-born Rococo style (ca. 1725-1800), in which the violence and drama of Baroque was quieted to a gentle, playful dynamism. The Late Baroque and Rococo periods were led by France.Baroque architecture is distinguished primarily by richly sculpted surfaces. Whereas Renaissance architects coated flat surfaces in a classical veneer (planar classicism), Baroque architects freely moulded surfaces to achieve three-dimensional sculpted classicism (see example). And while the surface of a Renaissance building is typically neatly divided into sections (in accordance with classical clarity and order), a Baroque surface is treated as a continuous, textured whole.6Indeed, a Renaissance facade often consists of many identical sections, such that ones eye is not drawn to any particular part of the building. A Baroque facade, on the other hand, often features a concentration of rich elements (e.g. curved walls, columns, blind arches, statues, relief sculpture) around a central entrance, which strongly draws the eye.F303Churches are the most splendid form of Baroque architecture in Italy, while chateaux (country mansions) are the outstanding Baroque works of France.England should also be noted in a discussion of Baroque architecture, for two reasons. Firstly, this period featured Christopher Wren, often considered the greatest of all English architects. Wren designed many of the buildings erected in London following the Great Fire, including St Pauls Cathedral (his masterpiece). Secondly, the Baroque age witnessed the slow but steady rise of Palladian-style architecture in England, which became massively popular during the subsequent Neoclassical period.

Prior to Maderno, Saint Peters had featured a central-plan design, upon which various architects had worked (especially Michelangelo). Maderno converted the building into a Latin cross basilica by extending the nave (thus pushing the main entrance of the church forward). Consequently, Saint Peters can be roughly divided into two parts: the core (designed largely by Michelangelo) and the front extension (designed by Maderno). The great dome of Saint Peters is also chiefly Michelangelos work, although Maderno did adjust its proportions (by stretching it vertically).G326The facade of Saint Peters features a number of typical Baroque elements, including double columns (close-set pairs of columns), layered columns (in which a column is flanked by two half-columns, which lie behind the full column), colossal columns (columns that span multiple stories), and broken pediments (in which the bottom and/or top of a pediment features a gap, often due to ornamentation that bursts through the pediment). (In the preceding descriptions, pilaster can be substituted for column.) All of these elements were pioneered during the Late Renaissance, in mannerist architecture.H758St Peters also makes extensive use of coffered ceilings, a common feature of monumental Western architecture. (A coffer is a sunken panel in a ceiling, typically square or octagonal in shape.)St. Peter ChurchThe facade of Saint Peters features a number of typical Baroque elements, including double columns (close-set pairs of columns), layered columns (in which a column is flanked by two half-columns, which lie behind the full column), colossal columns (columns that span multiple stories), and broken pediments (in which the bottom and/or top of a pediment features a gap, often due to ornamentation that bursts through the pedimentSt Peters also makes extensive use of coffered ceilings, a common feature of monumental Western architecture. (A coffer is a sunken panel in a ceiling, typically square or octagonal in shape.)

features of Baroque architecture can include:In churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval formsFragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elements.dramatic use of light; either strong light-and-shade contrasts (chiaroscuro effects) as at the church of Weltenburg Abbey, or uniform lighting by means of several windows (e.g. church of Weingarten Abbey)opulent use of colour and ornaments (putti or figures made of wood (often gilded), plaster or stucco, marble or faux finishing)large-scale ceiling frescoesan external faade often characterized by a dramatic central projectionthe interior is a shell for painting, sculpture and stucco (especially in the late Baroque)illusory effects like trompe l'oeil(is an art technique involving extremely realistic imagery in order to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects appear in three dimensions.) and the blending of painting and architecturepear-shaped domes in the Bavarian, Czech, Polish and Ukrainian BaroqueBAROQUEThe Baroque is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. The style started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.[1]Baroque architecture,architectural style originating in late 16th-century Italy and lasting in some regions, notably Germany and colonial South America, until the 18th century. It had its origins in the Counter-Reformation, when the Catholic Church launched an overtly emotional and sensory appeal to the faithful through art and architecture.Early Baroque (carlo mederena designed faade of st. peterca. 1600-25High Baroqueca. 1625-75 ) Bernini and Borromini (sacred architecture)Late Baroqueca. 1675-1725 chateaux (Versailles)Rococco, Austria/southern Germany (churches)ARCHITECTS OF BAROQUE Outstanding practitioners in Italy included Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Carlo Maderno, Francesco Borromini, and Guarino GuariniEngland should also be noted in a discussion of Baroque architecture, for two reasons. Firstly, this period featured Christopher Wren, often considered the greatest of all English architects. Wren designed many of the buildings erected in London following the Great Fire, including St Pauls Cathedral FeaturesComplex architectural plan shapes, often based on the oval, and the dynamic opposition and interpenetration of spaces were favoured to heighten the feeling of motion and sensuality.Other characteristic qualities include grandeur, drama and contrast (especially in lighting), curvaceousness, and an often dizzying array of rich surface treatments, twisting elements, and gilded statuary.

Architects unabashedly applied bright colours and illusory, vividly painted ceilings. . Baroque architecture is distinguished primarily by richly sculpted surfaces.A Baroque faade, often features a concentration of rich elements (e.g. curved walls, columns, blind arches, statues, relief sculpture) around a central entrance, which strongly draws the eyes.large-scale ceiling frescoes.the interior is a shell for painting, sculpture and stucco (especially in the late Baroque)

Fragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elements.illusory effects like trompe l'oeil(is an art technique involving extremely realistic imagery in order to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects appear in three dimensions.) and the blending of painting and architecture.

High BaroqueThe two leading names in Baroque architecture are Bernini and Borromini. Both worked primarily in Rome.Two masterpieces of Gian Lorenzo Bernini are found at St Peters. One is the four-story baldachin that stands over the high altar.14 (A baldachin is an indoor canopy over a respected object, such as an altar or a throne.) The other is the curving colonnades that frame St Peters Square.Berninis most famous building is likely the small Church of SantAndrea al Quirinale (Church of Saint Andrews at the Quirinal). (The Quirinal is one of the hills of Rome.)

St. peters square

Francesco Borromini was the greatest practitioner of curved-wall architecture. Although he designed many large buildings, Borrominis most famous and influential work may be the small Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Church of Saint Charles at the Four Fountains). This building is also found on Quirinal Hill.Image Gallery: Borromini

Late baroqueThe Late Baroque era marks the ascent of France as the heart of Western culture. Baroque art of France (and northern Europe generally) tends to be restrained, such that it can be described as a classical-Baroque compromise. The most distinctive element of French Baroque architecture is the double-sloped mansard roof (a French innovation).Late Baroqueeast faade of LOUVRE

The most famous Baroque structures of France are magnificent chateaux (grand country residences), greatest of which is the Palace of Versailles. It was built mainly under Louis XIV, whose patronage of the arts helped propel France to the crest of Western culture.1,7The palace facade admirably illustrates the classical-Baroque compromise of northern Europe. The walls are characterized largely by simple planar classicism, although they do feature such Baroque elements as sculpted busts, a triple stringcourse, double pilasters, and colossal pilasters. Additionally, the mansard roof features a sinuous metal railing and rich moulding around the dormer windows. Versailles became Europes model of palace architecture, inspiring similarly grand residences throughout the continent.6