Asas fotografi

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  • 1. Fotografi

2.

  • Sejarah perkembangan fotografi
  • Bahagian asas dan fungsi kamera
  • Jenis-jenis dan aksesori kamera
  • Jenis-jenis filem
  • Teknik penggambaran
  • Komposisi
  • Fotografi digital

3. Jenis-jenis kamera

  • Point and shoot
  • SLR and DSLR

4. Twin lens reflex Twin lens reflex camera Twin Lens cameras have two look-alike lenses, hence the name "twin lens." The scene before the camera is actually photographed through the bottom lens while viewed through the top lens. As the picture is focused through the top lens, the bottom lens is adjusted at the same time. 5. Single lens reflex The Single Lens Reflex (SLR) uses a series of mirrors so that one may view the scene to be photographed through the same lens that takes the picture. When the shutter release is depressed the lower mirror snaps up, the picture is taken, and the mirror returns to its original position. (Hence, a "reflex" action.) At the time the picture is taken, the viewfinder is blackened for a split second. 6. Instant camera cth: Polaroid 7. Disposable Camera 8. Media yang sensitif kpd cahaya (Light-sensitive medium) digital sensor filem Semakin banyak cahaya yang jatuh pada media ini, semakain cerah gambar tersebut 9. Kamera Lensa/kanta besarkan dan fokuskan imej pada media sensitif cahaya melalui satu pembukaan (aperture) Shutter Buka dan tutup bila shutter release dilepaskan, benarkan cahaya masuk Media yang sensitif kpd cahaya(light-sensitive device)(filem atau digital sensor) Viewfinder tempat kita lihat melalui kamera untukpilih bahagian gambar yang diperlukan dan fokus 10. 11. Lensa (kanta)

  • Digunakan untuk membentuk imej yang jelas di atas fillem/digital sensor
  • Diukur dalam unit mm yang menentukan focal length (jarak fokus)
  • Focal length yang berlainan membentuk saiz imej yang berlainan

12. Jenis Lensa (kanta)

  • sesuatu lensa diukur dalam bentuk mm yang dikenali sebagai focal length
  • 3 jenis utama:

Normal/ Standard/biasa Wide angle (bidang luas) Telephoto/ Foto Jauh 13. Jenis lensa

  • Normal/ standard lens (paparkan secara tepat apa yang boleh dilihat oleh mata manusia) cth 50mm
  • Telephoto
  • Wide angle(paparkan kawasan yang lebih luas) kurang daripada standard focal length, cth 24 & 35mm

14. Jenis Lensa Lain

  • Prime lens (mempunyaifocal length yang tetap, cth 35mm, 100mm)
  • Macro
  • Fisheye (uses an angle of view up to 180 degrees. The angle distorts the photograph so the four sides appear to be farther away)
  • Teleconverter (A teleconverter attaches between the camera and another lens. It increases the focal length of your lens)

15. Telephoto Lens

  • membawa objek jauh ke jarak yang dekat
    • 70-300mm
    • 85-120mm
    • 135-200mm
    • 300-600mm

16. Zoom Lens

  • Mempunyai gabungan beberapa jenis kanta pada satu unit
    • 28mm-50mm (sudut luas ke normal)
    • 50mm-100mm (normal ke sederhana)
    • 70-200mm (normal ke jauh)
    • 135-300mm (sederhana ke jauh)

17. Focal length dan komposisi gambar 18. Macro 19. Macro 20. Fish Eye 21. Fish Eye 22. Kawalan cahaya

    • Shutter speed (kelajuan pengatup)
    • ISO (100, 200, 400 dua kali ganda)
    • Aperture (saiz bukaan lensa)

23. Exposure

  • 'exposure' jumlah cahaya yang masuk pada media, filem atau digital sensor

24. Underexposed 25. Overexposed 26. If we get it just right, the image will look similar to what our eyes see 27. Shutter Speed Tempoh pembukaan pengatup Unit ukuran = saat / pecahan/fraction(cth: 1/1000, 1/30). 28. Shutter Speed (Pengatup) 29. Slow shutter speed - motion 30. Shutter speed 31. High shutter speed, freeze the action of this surfer 32. The shutter speeds are 1/30th of a second, 1/60th of a second, 1/125th of a second, 1/250th of a second, etc.Moving from one speed to the next one halves the amount of light that can enter the camera.On the other hand, moving the other way, to a slower shutter speed, doubles the amount of light that can get into the camera.The change from one speed to another (and halving or doubling the light that enters the camera) is called moving astop . 33. Petua untuk penggunaan shutter speed Shutter speed tidak boleh kurang daripada focal length. Cth: jika guna lensa 200mm, shutter speed sekurang-kurangnya 1/200 sec 34. Aperture The next item we can change on the camera isaperture . The aperture is the hole through which the light passes through to reach the sensor or film. You can actually control the diameter of this hole on your camera. On old style cameras, there is an aperture ring that goes around the outside of the lens. Moving it around changes the diameter of the aperture. Aperture rings look something like this: 35. Depth of Field (kawasan jelas)

  • Kawasan yang jelas dalam
  • Ditentukan oleh aperture dan jarak fokus

36. Depth Of Field 37. The following depth of field test was taken with the same focus distance and a 200 mm lens (320 mm field of view on a 35 mm camera), but with various apertures:f/8.0f/5.6f/2.8 38. Aperture vs DOF Kawasan mana yang jelas? Jenis aperture apa yang boleh digunakan untuk menghasilkan gambar ini? 39. Aperture vs DOF Aperture? 40. ISO vs Noise/Grain 41. ISO vs Noise 42. White Balance Proses mengeluarkan warna yang tidak dikehendaki supaya objek yang berwarna putih akan ditunjukkan sebagai warna putih dalam gambar Berkaitan dengancolor temperature satu cara untuk menyukat kualiti punca cahaya ( It is based on the ratio of the amount of blue light to the amount of red light, ignoring green light) . 43. White balance Reddish/Yellowish imageCorrect white balance 44. White Balance Gambar mana mempunyai white balance yang betul? 45. Incorrect white balance Correct white balance 46. Optical zoom vs digital zoom

  • Optical zoom gunakan lensa pada kamera untuk membawa sabjek jauh kepada jarak dekat
  • Digital zoom crop bahagian gambar berkenaan dan membesarkan bahagian yang dicrop sahaja kualiti terjejas

47. Komposisi Gambar 48. Rule of Third The rule of thirds simply says that, instead of placing the main focus of interest in the centre of the frame, which gets a little boring, that you look to position it on an intersection of the thirds. That is to say one third up and one third in or two thirds up and one third in etcPlacing the boat near the top of the picture tells the viewer that what they are supposed to be looking at is the reflection 49. Rule of third 50. Repetition of Form 51. Leading Lines railroad tracks bring your eye from the railroad worker to the train wreck behind him: 52. Framing the child is framed between the lines of the abacus 53. Layering the child drawing on the ground is the foreground element, but the children behind him add an additional layer. It shows that he is participating in an activity with others and isnt just by himself. 54. Bright Spots the subject in very bright light wearing colorful clothes while the rest of the image is very dark. 55. Negative Space the sky acts as the negative space and balances the buildings in the frame. 56. Selective Focus selectively focusing on the girl to draw attention to her and separate her from the environment. 57. Camera Height or Angle Shot from high angle 58. Lensing 59. Symmetry 60. Memberi fokus kepada objek melalui pemilihan DOF yang sesuai 61. Panning 62. Tilt Up 63. Tilt down 64. Tilt Down 65. Kad Memori 66. Aksesori kamera 67. Camera Accesories 68. Extension tube 69. 70. Perisian berkaitan dengan fotografi

  • Adobe photoshop
  • Microsoft Photo editor
  • Microsoft Paint

71. Apakah peranan gambar foto dalam P-P?