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Transcript of Approaches to Treatment and Therapy Chapter 16 Chapter 16 16 - 1.

  • Approaches to Treatment and TherapyChapter 1616 - *

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • Chapter OutlineBiological Treatments for Mental Disorders

    Kinds of Psychotherapy

    Evaluating Psychotherapy

    16 - *

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • Challenging Life Events*

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  • Biological TreatmentsContemporary view alternates between mental disorders as diseases (medical treatment) & emotional problems (psychological treatment)

    16 - *

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • Antipsychotic DrugsDrugs used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia & other psychotic disorders Blocks or reduces sensitivity of dopamine receptorsReduce agitation, delusions, and hallucinationsSide effects such as muscular rigidity, tremors, and involuntary muscle movements, drastic weight gain (up to 100 pounds a year) leading to further health problems

    16 - *

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • Antidepressant Drugs

    Drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression & anxiety

    Produce unpleasant physical reactions (dry mouth, stomach problems, headaches, weight gain, reduced sex drive) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OTZvnAF7UsA

    16 - *

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  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors *

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  • Anti-anxiety Drugs (Tranquilizers)

    Addictive Useful as short-term treatment of panic disorderIncrease activity of GABA

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  • Cautions About Drug TreatmentsLimitations to drug treatments:

    The placebo effectThe apparent success of a medication or treatment due to the patients expectations or hope rather than to the drug itself

    High relapse and dropout rates

    Dosage problems - issues with different metabolisms 16 - *

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • Cautions About Drug TreatmentsMore limitations to drug treatments

    Disregard for effective, possibly better, nonmedical treatments- Medication is easier, faster, often cheaper but not the best solution

    Unknown long-term risks

    Untested off-label usesDrugs are sometimes prescribed for conditions outside their intended use

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    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • Direct Brain InterventionPsychosurgery

    Any surgical procedure that destroys selected areas of the brain

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

    A procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain seizure is inducedNewer alternatives like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) used for milder stimulation

    16 - *

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  • Brain*versus Mind

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  • Psychodynamic TherapyFreud https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hQh9LBIhjyM4 minutes 50 seconds16 - *

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  • Psychodynamic TherapyRelied on Freuds method of psychoanalysisThe talking cureIntense analysis of dreams and childhood memories would provide insight into the unconscious and emotional release

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  • Several Kinds of Psychotherapy

    Behavioural therapy Cognitive therapy Humanist therapy

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  • Behavioural TherapyTherapy that applies principles of classical and operant conditioning to help people change self-defeating or problematic behaviours

    Uses a variety of methods depending on the problem or situationssystematic desensitization, behavioural self-monitoring, skills training16 - *

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  • Behavioural TechniquesSystematic desensitization

    Systematic desensitization: step-by-step process of desensitizing a client to a feared object or experienceBased on counterconditioning: process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned responseCopyright 2013 Pearson Canada16 - *

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • Behavioural TechniquesBehavioural self-monitoring

    A method of keeping careful data on the frequency and consequences of the behaviour to be changed

    Skills training

    An effort to teach the client skills the he or she may lack, as well as new constructive behaviours to replace self-defeating ones16 - *

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  • Cognitive TherapyForm of therapy designed to identify and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking teach cognitive coping mechanismsChallenge clients unrealistic thoughts (e.g., overgeneralizations, catastrophizing) For depression and for anxiety

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  • Challenge Negative Thoughts1. Are these thoughts really true?2. Are the negative aspects of this situation overemphasized?3. What is the worst thing that could really happen?4. Is there anything that might be positive about this situation?5. Was a negative outcome assumed?*

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  • Challenge Negative Thoughts6. How do you know the situation will turn out badly?7. Is there another way to look at this situation?8. What difference will this make next week? In a month? In a year?9. If you had one month to live, how important would this be?10. Are you setting unrealistic standards for yourself? Would you be this harsh if the event had happened to a friend?*

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  • Humanist Therapy

    Form of psychotherapy based on the philosophy of humanism, which emphasizes the clients free will to change rather than past conflicts

    Client-centered therapy: emphasizes therapists empathy with the client and the use of unconditional positive regard

    Goal is to build the clients self-esteem and self-acceptance and become more productive at problem solving

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m30jsZx_Ngs

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    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • Evaluating PsychotherapyComplexity of situation i.e., Qualities of the therapist and client, the kind of therapy, the nature of the problem, and the duration of the therapy. Client effort? Defining success?

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  • Evaluating PsychotherapyTherapeutic alliance the client and therapist both respect and understand each other and agree on the goals of treatment Recognition of cultural differences

    Evaluating Therapy scientifically Therapist vs Scientist Testimonials vs randomized control trials 16 - *

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  • Evaluating Crisis DebreifingCritical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) used as an intervention immediately following disasters to decrease rates of PTSD

    16 - *Found that highly emotional reactions to incidents + CISD showed higher stress symptoms

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  • Values of PsychotherapySelf-acceptance versus self-improving? Consumers thinking about psychotherapy should carefully consider how they go about:

    Choosing a therapist credentials and trainingChoosing a therapy depends on the conditionDeciding when to leave short-term is usually sufficient16 - *

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  • When Therapy HarmsRisks to clients increase under these conditions:

    The use of empirically unsupported, potentially dangerous techniques (e.g., rebirthing, recovered memory therapies)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MfjWBhoM2k 2 min scared straight

    2. Inappropriate or coercive influence, which can create new problems for the client

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  • When Therapy HarmsRisks to clients increase under these conditions:

    Prejudice or cultural ignorance on the part of the therapist

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UAhb4mQ6Pj0 2 minutes

    4. Sexual intimacies or other unethical behaviour on the part of the therapist

    16 - *

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • The Brain That Changes Itselfhttp://www.cbc.ca/natureofthings/episodes/changing-your-mind23 minutes 41 minutes*

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

  • End of Chapter 1616 - *

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada

    Introducing PsychologyIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice Hall*Prepared by Cheryl Techentin, Ph.D. These slides 2013 Pearson Education Canada.

    1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing PsychologyThe brain is a physical organ but the mind is a result of what the brain can do. Freuds theory was about the mind, not the brain. *1999 Prentice HallIntroducing PsychologyImplicit 1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology*1999 Prentice HallIntroducing Psychology1999 Prentice Hall