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1. PHYLUM : PORIFERA( Porus=pore; ferre=bear; sponges) Porifera are commonly called sponges, mostly marine but may live in fresh water. Mostly sessile (stalk less) and attach to substratum. They are asymmetrical. They have cellular level organization. They have a single large opening called osculum. (intake and exit of food through a single opening). They lack mouth, digestive cavity and anus. Sponges are covered with hard outer skeleton. Reproduction is both asexual as well as sexual. Examples: sycon, euplectella , euspongia etc.

SPONGESYCON2. PHYLUM : COELENTERATA/CNIDRIA(koilos=hollow; enteron= gut) These all organisms are aquatic (marine or fresh water.) They may be solitary or colonial. They have tissue level of organization but lacks organ and organ system. Symmetry is radial. It has a single aperture, the mouth. It has no anus. Mouth bears tentacles (flexible processes). They have special stinging cells, called cnidoblasts for defense purposes. Reproduction is mainly asexual but sometimes undergoes sexual reproduction. Fertilization may be internal or external. Hard skeleton occurs in coralsExample: hydra(fresh water polyp), obelia (the sea fur), Aurelia (jelly fish).

AURELIA (JELLY FISH)HYDRASEAFUR (OBELIA)3. PHYLUM : PLATYHELMINTHES(platys=flat; helmins=worm; flatworm) These are most primitive, soft, leaf or ribbon like organisms without segmentation. These are mostly parasites, few are free living. They attach to the host by suckers or hooks. They are the first animals to have third primary germ layer, this shows tissue differentiation leading to organ formation. Digestive track is incomplete. They have flame-cells for excretion. They are mostly hermaphrophite (bisexual). Examples: dugesia (planaria), fasciola (liver fluke), taenia solium (tape worms).


DUGESIA (PLANARIA)4. PHYLUM : NEMATODA (Roundworms) Animal body is cylindrical, flattened, bilateral, triploblastic(third layer), unsegmented. Size of the body varies from microscopic to several centimeters in length. Body wall is covered with tough cuticle. Cilia are absent. Pseudocoelom (false body cavity) is present. Digestive track is complete. Sexes are separate (bisexual). These are generally parasites and causes diseases. They may be free living in soil or water. Examples: ascaris (intestinal sound-worm), hookworm, pinworm filarial worm.


ASCARIS (MALE AND FEMALE)5. PHYLUM : ANNELIDA (Annelus=a ring; segmented worms) Animal body is soft, elongated, bilateral, flattened. Body is divided into segments by rings like groove and annule. Body bears locomotory appendages, parapodia, setae. Alimentary canal is complete, straight and extends from mouth to anus. These are first animals to have true body cavity. The specialized cells called metanephridia helps in excretion. Closed circulatory system has appeared and nervous system starts developing. Reproduction occurs by sexual means. Sexes may be separate (unisexual) or united (hermaphroditic). Examples: nereis (the sandworm), pheretima (earthworm), tubiflex (bloodworm).

HIRUDINARIA (LEECH)PHERETIMA (EARTHWORM)6. PHYLUM : ARTHOPDA (Arthos=jointed; podos=foot; animals with jointed feet) It is the largest phylum includes prawn, crabs, insects, spiders, etc. They occur in soil, water and as parasites in plants and animals. Body is segmented externally but not separated internally. Body is divided into 3 regions: head, thorax and abdomen. Interior part of the body forms head and bears sense organs and small brain. Sexes are separate. Hard exoskeleton is made up of cuticle. Body contains blood, alimentary canal is complete, respiration take place by gills, trachea, book lungs etc. Examples: prawn, lobsters, housefly, dragon etc.


LOBSTER7. PHYLUM : MOLLUSCA(molluscus = soft) It includes aquatic organisms like snails, octopus, slugs, oysters etc. Animal body is soft, unsegmented without appendages.. Body is divided into 3 regions: head, visceral mass and foot.. Sometimes body is covered by fleshy folds called mantle.. In most cases, calcarious shell is secreted by mantle which covers the body.. Alimentary canal is complete. Respiration is through gills and sexes are separate.. Examples: octopus, snail, logio, sepia etc.

CHITONOCTOPUSSNAIL. These are marine, gregarious(at bottom), slow moving animals. . The shape of the animal ay be star-like, cylindrical, melon, flower-like etc.. Body is covered by spines. True body cavity, podia for movement and all animals lacks head.. Sexes are separate.. Examples: asterias (starfish), holothurians (sea-cucumber), antedon (feather star)8. PHYLUM : ECHINODERMATA(Spiny skinned animals)

ECHINODERMATA9. PHYLUM : CHORDATAPROTOCHORDATAVERTEBRATAPISCESAMPHIBIAREPTILIAAVESMAMMALIA. These animals have notochords at early stage of life.. Notochord provides place for attachment of muscles, internal support and locomotory powers.. These are mainly bilateral, unsegmented, triploblastic, have body cavity, marine, soft and have warm or vase like body. Examples : amphioxus, balanoglossus, herd mania. Subphylum : PROTOCHORDATA


balanoglossus Subphylum : VERTEBRATA. These are bilateral, triploblastic, have body cavity.. The animal body consists of 4 regions: head, neck, trunk and tail.. Well developed nervous system and sense organs.. There are 2 pairs of appendages (fins or limbs).. Respiration is through gills. Sexes are separate.. Vertebrata is divided into 5 classes:

Cold blooded animals having 2 chambered heart.Body may be long, laterally compressed and spindle shaped. It consists of head, trunk and tail. Skin is covered with scales. They are egg laying animals. Fertilization is external. Fishes breathe through gills. 1. PISCES


1. CYCLOSTOMATA : The round mouthed fishes. Example :- The hag fish, the lamprey.

2. CHONDRICHTHYES : The cartilaginous fishes.Examples :- Scoliodon (dog fish or the Indian Shark), Sting ray, electric ray (torpedo).There are many kinds of fishes. They have been broadly grouped under 3 categories:3. OSTEICHTHYES : The body fishes.Examples :- labio rogita (rohu), hippocampus (sea horse), tuna, etc.

Scoliodon (dog fish or the Indian Shark)

hippocampus (sea horse) 2. AMPHIBIAThe animals included in ambhibia are called amphibians. Respiration can takes place by gills, skin and lungs. Heart is 3 chambered. There are 2 pairs of pentadactyl limbs. The skin is smooth, moist, rich in mucous and poison glands. Scales are mostly absent. Amphibians occur in fresh water and moist land. There are no marine forms. Examples :- rana tigerina (Indian frog), bufo (toad), hyla (tree frog), necturus (mud puppy) etc.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS 3. REPTILIA It includes lizards, snakes, tortoises, turtles, etc. These are terrestrial animals and live in warmer regions. These are cold blooded. Body is covered by waterproof scales. Teeth are usually present in all reptiles except in tortoises and turtles. Respiration occurs by lungs. Heart is 3 chambered. Most reptiles are carnivorous or insectivorous but tortoises are herbivorous. Example: Hemidactylus (wall lizard), chameleon, varanus, python, Draco, cobra, crocodiles, etc.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF REPTILES 4. AVES The class aves includes birds which are the most beautiful. They range in size from smallest humming bird to largest ostrich. There are 2 pairs of limbs. The forelimbs are modified into wings. The body is covered by a n exoskeleton of feathers. Mouth is surrounded by beak and there are no teeth. Respiration takes place by lungs. Heart is 4 chambered. Examples : columbo (pigeon), struthio (ostrich), kite, pea fowl, etc.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF BIRDS 5. MAMMALIA Mammals are terrestrial. The body is divisible into head, neck, trunk and tail. The body is covered by exoskeleton of hair. Respiration occurs by lungs. Heart is 4 chambered. Mammals are mostly viviparous (alive-bearing) but some are oviparous and lay eggs like - platypus and echidna. Examples: kangaroo, bat, rattus (rat), oryctolagus (rabbit), felis (cat), etc.