Animal Kingdom

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Animal Kingdom. What is an Animal?. Most diverse kingdom in appearance Each phylum has its own typical body plan (arrangement). Characteristics. All multicellular ( metazoans ) & eukaryotic Cells lack cell walls & come in a variety of shapes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Animal Kingdom

Animal KingdomWhat is an Animal?Most diverse kingdom in appearanceEach phylum has its own typical body plan (arrangement)

CharacteristicsAll multicellular (metazoans) & eukaryoticCells lack cell walls & come in a variety of shapesIngestive heterotrophs (take in food & internally digest it)Store food reserves temporarily as glycogen in the liverHave some type of skeletal supportCharacteristicsExoskeletons found in arthropods cover the outside of the body but limit sizeEndoskeletons found in all vertebrates are found inside the body & are made of cartilage &/or boneWorms have fluid-filled internal cavities giving them skeletal supportSponges have the simplest skeletonMay be sessile (attached & non-moving) or motile (able to move around)Muscular tissue provides energy for movement

CharacteristicsReproduce sexuallyShow levels of organization including cell, tissue, organ, & systemCells are specialized for particular functionsMost vertebrates have a backbone or spine made of repeating bones called vertebrae that protect the spinal cordSome show cephalization (have a head with sensory organs concentrated there)

InvertebratesSimplest animalsContains the greatest number of animal speciesMost found in waterDo not have an backboneIncludes sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, annelids (segmented worms), mollusks, arthropods, & echinoderms

VertebratesMore complex animalsMost have a backboneIncludes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, & mammals

Body Areas

SymmetrySymmetry is the arrangement of body parts around a central plane or axisthe body plan of an animal, how its parts are arrangedAsymmetry occurs when the body can't be divided into similar sections (sponges)

AsymmetryAsymmetry occurs when the body can't be divided into similar sections SpongesCorals

Radial SymmetryRadial symmetry occurs when similar body parts are arranged around a central point like spokes on a wheel Echinoderms(starfish, hydra, jellyfish)

Most animals with radial symmetry are sessile (attached) or sedentary (move very little)

Bilateral SymmetryBilateral symmetry occurs when animals can be divided into equal halves along a single plane (right & left sides that are mirror images)Animals with bilateral symmetry are more complex, usually motile organisms, such as worms, arthropods, and all vertebratesAnimals with bilateral symmetry show cephalization & have anterior & posterior ends

Bilateral Symmetry

Bilateral Symmetry

Types of Animals

anterior - toward the headposterior - toward the taildorsal - back sideventral - belly sideSegmentation - "advanced" animals have body segments, and specialization of tissue (even humans are segmented, look at the ribs and spine)

PhylumExamplesEvolutionary Milestone


Cnidariajellyfish, hydra, coraltissues

Platyhelminthesflatwormsbilateral symmetry


Molluscaclams, squids, snailscoelom

Annalidaearthworms, leechessegmentation

Arthropodainsects, spiders, crustaceansjointed appendages