Airline Reservation System
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AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM
1. PROBLEM DEFINATION
2. FEASIBILITY STUDY
o ECONOMIC FEASIBIITY
o TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
o OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY.
3. SYSTEM ANALYSIS
4. BLOCK DIAGRAM
5. DATA COLLECTION
6. SYSTEM DESIGN
o E-R DIAGRAM o DATA FLOW DIAGRAM o INPUT SCREEN o REPORTS o TABLES.
7. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
8. TESTING AND DEBUGGING
10.SCOPE OF IMPROVEMENT
Hardware & Software Requirements:-
The first step in the system development life cycle is the identification of the needs. This is a user’s request to change,
improve or enhance an existing system. Because there is likely to be a stream of such requests, standard procedures
must be established to deal with them. The preliminary investigation is one way of handling this. The objective is to
determine whether the request is valid and feasible before a recommendation is reached to do nothing, improve or
modify the existing system or build a new one.
In my project, there are very simple requirements in the computer. To achieve my purpose
my hardware and software requirements one as follows:-
Hardware Requirements The basic minimum hardware requirement for operating this project efficiency is:
Processor Pentium 166M Hz or up
Speed 266 MHZ or more
RAM 256 MB or more Cache
Memory 512 KB or more
Monitor VGA Color
Printer Color/black & white
Hard Disk 1.2 GB or more
Floppy Disk 1.44MB
CD -ROM 48x/52x
Software Requirements: The software requirements for this project are:-
Operating SystemWindows XP, Window Vista, Window 7
Front EndMicrosoft Visual Studio 2008,Photoshop
Back End MySQL Server, Microsoft Access
The definition of our problem lies in manual system and a fully automated system.
Manual system : The system is very time consuming and lazy. This system is more prone to errors and sometimes the approach to various problems is unstructured.
Technical system : With the advent of latest technology if we do not update our system then our business result in losses gradually with time. The technical systems contains the tools of latest trend i.e. computers printers, fax, Internet etc. The systems with this technology are very fast, accurate, user-friendly and reliable.
Need of Airlines system A few factors that directs us to develop a new system are given below -: 1) Faster System 2) Accuracy 3) Reliability 4) Informative 5) Reservations and cancellations from any where to any place
Feasibility study is to check the viability of the project under consideration. Theoretically various types of feasibilities are conducted, but we have conducted three type of feasibilities explained as under.
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY With the manual system the operating cost of the system is about 60 Lacks P.A.. This cost comprises salary of 25 people, stationary, building rent, electricity, water, telephone etc. But with the new system this reoccurring cost comes out to be about 20 Lacks P.A. Hence the new system is economically feasible.
TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY The new system requires only 6 trained person to work with the system and in overall 10 people per office are sufficient. So we will identify 6 best people from existing system and train them.
As our existing system is purely manual, so we need a one time investment of Rs 4 Laks for the purchase of 7 computers, 5 Ticket printers, a laser printer, AC and networking etc. It requires 20 Lacks PA as a operating cost.
With the above details our system is technically feasible as after investing 24 Lacks in a year, the company is still saving Rs 25 Lacks PA.
The new solution is feasible in all sence but operationally it is not. The new system demands the expulsion of at least 15 people from the company. It creates an environment of joblessness and fear among the employees. It can lead to an indefinite strike in the company also. So the management must take corrective actions prior in advance in order to start the further proceedings.
This was the most important phase of my project life cycle .It had connected my maximum time .The block diagram given bellow depict various fact which were understood by one during the analysis phase.
RECEIVEFlight MAINTENANCE, CUSTOMER
Booking, cancellation REQUEST
RESERVATIONSYSTEM WAITING LIST
DATA STIRAGE DATA ACCESS
Passenger list, Fleet info
Ticket reservationCancellation, database Request for enquiry
concessionFlight information, Fare details,
In that phase initially I had observed the system by visiting to IndiragandhiAirport(domestic terminal) and a few airline reservation agency.Pardes Airline agencies , Lotus Airline agencies.
After getting solution my queries I started studying database structure used in the existing system . In this connection I had come to know about various master files as
In passenger list : Passenger name,Address , tel_no , d_o_b, profession father name,
Fleet info: No aircraft, club_pre_capacity, economic capacity, engine type,cruisespeed,air length,
Flight info: f_name, f_code, c_code,t_exeseat no, t_economic seat no.
Concession: concession name , concession code , class , discount , v_o_t , baggage allowance , fare.
Move of payment: Passenger code ,Date of paid ,Current date, cash, Debit,cheque,credit.
Fare: route , destination place ,source place ,Departure time, Arrival time,Flight code,class,Fare.
Reservation: Ticket report, PNR, flight code, destination place, source place, departure time arrival time , Class, number of passenger, Age, sex, Fare, seat .
Enquiry: Ticket no, seat number , pnr.
Cancellation : Pnr, ticket no, Days left, Basic amount, Cancel amount .
In this phase initially I had designed E-R diagram of the processes , in order to identify various entities and relation ship set ,entity set ,attributers, link attributes The Diagram of this process as under.
After this step We had tried design the data base for the new system and normalized it The tables motivated in data dictionaries enclosed as annex II is an out come of this step
The symbol of entities are shown bellow
Relation ship set
E-R DIAGRAM FOR BOOKING DEPARTMENT
BOOKING 1 (ON THE SPOT)
MODE OF PAYMENT
STATUS CASH PAID
D NO STATUS
DATE OF DEP
BOOKING 2(ON THE SPOT) NAME
E-R DIAGRAM FOR CANCELLATION
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
In order to design a better solution. I had designed the DFD for system including all technical processing details is given bellow
LEVEL 0 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
REQUEST FOR INFORMATIONFLIGHT/FARE/DISCOUNT
1.0 GENERAL ENQUIRY
NEW PNR INFORMATION 2.0PASSENGERENQUIRY
RESERVATION REQUEST3.0BOOKING COUNTER
TICKET CONFIRMATION &STATUS
LEVEL 1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM OF GENERAL ENQUIRY
R E Q U E ST
REQUEST FOR INFOR MATION
A T IO
I QI N U
R N F EE F O SQ O R TU R ME M AS A TT T I
I OO M N
1.2 1.3FARE DISCOUNT ENQUIRY
R I R I
LEVEL 1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM OF PASSENGER ENQUIRY
ENTRY OF NEW RECORD OR EXISTINGPASSENGER ENQUIRY
NEW PNR OR REQUIRED INFORMATION
I RR E Q U E S T
N IQ U E P N R
N EF Q
E S T
LEVEL 2 DFD OF BOOKING
TICKET(ON THE SPOT) ACKNOLEDGEMENT(STAND BY)
SET STATUS TO CONFIRM/WAITING
3.2STAND BY BOOKING
ENTRY STAND BY DATE
CHOOSE MODE OF PAYMENT
PAY CASH 3.1.1MODE OF PAYMENT
S T A T
STATUS(PAID OR NOT)
TA CREDIT TU S
LEVEL 2 DFD OF CANCELLATION
REQUEST FORCANCELLATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A C K N OL NEWE DATE DG E
A C K
In this phase further I had designed algorithms for various technical sub problem a few than are enclosed here with.
A PERSON COME TO RESERVED ATICKET.
THEN HE GIVES HIS FULL DETAILS
IN CUSTOMER FORM THOSE DETAILS WERE WRITTEN.
THEN COMPUTER CHEQUE THE DATE WHAT DATE THE PERSON RESERVED
DATE WISE IT CHEQUE THE FLIGHTS
IF THE FLIGHT IS FLING THAT DAY
THEN SYSTEM JUSTIFY THE SPECIFIC FLIGHT ID
IT CHEQUE ITS SEAT CLASS.
IF THE PASSENGER WANT TO ECONOMIC CLASS AND WINDOW SIDE SEAT
THEN SYSTEM CHEQUE IF THERE ANY SEAT IN ECONOMIC CLASS WHICHIS INSIDE THE WINDOW
IF SEAT IS EMPTY THEN SYSTEM RESERVED THE SEAT .
THEN TICKET IS GENERATED.
THE TICKET IS CONFIRMED.
IF THE CONDITION IS NOT APPLIED THEN IT CHEQUE NEXT SEAT
AND JUSTIFIED IT .
IF IT IS NOT ALSO EMPTY THEN IT CHEQUE NEXT BY NEXT.
IF THERE IS NO SEAT THEN SYSTEM TAKE TICKET WHICH IS NOTCONFIRMED
THEN IT GIVE WAITING LIST.
A PASSENGER COME TO CANCEL THE TICKET
THEN THE SYSTEM OPEN THE DELET FORM
THEN CLICK SHOE COMMAND
IT DISPLAY ALL THE PASSENGER LIST
THEN SELECT THE PNR NUMBER AND CLICK DELET OPTION
THE SYSTEM SHOW RECORD IS DELETED.
WHEN PASSENGER COME TO RESERVED A TICKET THEN SYSTEM FIND OUT THE FLIGHT DETAILS.
SYSTEM CLICK FLIGHT DETAILS OPTION THEN THE FLIGHT DETAILS FORM OPEN
THOSE SYSTEM ARE FOLLOWED .
. IN FLIGHT DEAILS WE FIRST CREATE A FORM.
. THEN WE MAKE ALL TEXT BOX.
. WE CREATE COMMAN BOX.. . IN THIS FORM WE ARE USE VARIOUS COMMAND BOX THOSE ARE
PREVIOUS,FIRST,NEXT, ADD,NEW,UPDATE, DELETE, SAVE
. IN THIS FORM WE ADD NEW FLIGHT RECORD AND UPDATE IT THEN THE
VALU IS GO TO THE DATABASE.
.WHEN WE CLICK NEXT , LAST , PREVIOUS, FIRST COMMAND BUTTON
THEN IT SHOW VARIOUS THING SERIALLY.
A PERSON COME TO KNOW THE TIMMINGS FOR THE FLIGHT WHICH IS GO
FROM DELHI TO GAU.
THEN WE CLICK SHOW COMMAND BUTTON.
FIRST IT CLICK THE CONCESSION BOX.
CONCESSION BOX OPEN
IT SELCT THE CETEGORI.
THEN IT IS CALCULATE.
AND THE FARE IS CALCULATE.
THEN FINAL FARE IS GENERATE IN TICKET.
Those concessions are 1.Student
4. Blind passenger.
5. Armed force.
When we click any one of them the relevant condition are open.
In this form when we click locomotor category then it show its conditions
fare basis ………….service concerned.
In this form we are watching the flight information .It has several fields those are
Total seat number.
In this form we enter the flight detail .When we enter the new flight then we click add button and then update .Then it is automatically update .This is under master file. In this form first button work for show first record ,next button work for show next record. Preview show the just preview record
THE LIST OF TABLE ARE WRITTEN HERE WHICH ARE USED IN DATABASE.
FIELD TYPE TYPE DESCRIPTIONT _DATE TEXT TRAVEL DAT
CUST_NAME TEXT CUSTOMER NAME
FATHER _NAME TEXT CUSTOMER FATHER NAME
GENDER TEXT GENDER OF CUSTOMER
D_O_B DATE/TIME DATE OF
BIRTHOFCUCTOMERADDRESS TEXT ADDRESS OF CUSTOMERTEL_NO NUMBER CUSTOMER TELPHONE
NUMBERPROFESSION TEXT PROFESSION OF CUSTOMERSECURITY TEXT SECURITY OF CUSTOMERCONCESSION TEXT CONCESSION OF SECURITY
F_NAME TEXT FLIGHT NAME
F_CODE NUMBER FLIGHT CODE
C_CODE TEXT CLASS CODE
T_EXE SEATNO NUMBER TOTAL EXECUTIVE SEATNUM,BER
T_ECO SEATNO NUMBER TOTAL ECONOMIC SEAT NUMBER
FIELD NAME DATATYPE DESCRIPTIONNO_AIRCRAFT TEXT NUMBER OF AIRCRAFTCLUB_PRE_CAPACITY TEXT CLUB PRE CAPACITYECO_CAPACITY TEXT ECONOMIC CAPACITYENGINE_TYPE TEXT ENGINE TYPECRUISESPEED TEXT CRUISESPEEDAIR_LENGTH TEXT LENGTH OF AIRWING_SPAM TEXT WING_SPAM
CONCE_NAME TEXT CONCESSION NAMECONCE_CODE NUMBER CODE OF CONCESSIONCLASS TEXT CLASS OF CONCESSIONDISCOUNT TEXT DISCOUNT CONCESSION
BASISV_O_T TEXT VALIDITY OF TICKETBAG_ALLOW TEXT BAGGAGE ALLOWANCEFARE_BASIC TEXT FARE BASIC FIXED
FIELD NAME DATATYPE DESCRIPTIONROUTE_CODE TEXT CODE NUMBER OF ROUTES_PLACE TEXT SOURCE PLACEVIA TEXT VIAD_PLACE TEXT DESTINATION PLACED_TIME DATE/TIME DEPARTUE TIMEA_TIME DATE/TIME ARRIVAL TIMEF_CODE TEXT FLIGHT CODEC_CODE TEXT CLASS CODEFARE TEXT FARE OF CLASS
TICKET NO NUMBER TICKET NUMBERPNR NUMBER PASSENGER NUMBERF_ID TEXT FLIGHT IDS_PLACE TEXT SOURCE PLACED_PLACE TEXT DESTINATION PLACET_DATE TEXT TRAVEL DATED_TIME DATE/TIME DEPARTURE TIMEA_TIME DATE/TIME ARIVAL TIMEFARE 1 NUMBER FARE OF FIRSTPASSENGERFARE 2 NUMBER FARE OF SECOND
PASSENGERFARE 3 NUMBER FARE OF HIRDPASSENGERFARE 4 NUMBER FARE OF FOURTH
PASSENGERFARE 5 NUMBER FARE OF FIFTHPASSENGERFARE 6 NUMBER FARE OF SIXTHPASSENGERSEAT_NO 1 NUMBER SEAT NUMBER OF 1ST
PASSENGER SEAT_NO 2 NUMBER SEAT NUMBER OF 2ND
PASSENGER SEAT_NO 3 NUMBER SEAT NUMBER OF 3RD
PASSENGER SEAT_NO 4 NUMBER SEAT NUMBER OF 4TH
PASSENGER SEAT_NO 5 NUMBER SEAT NUMBER OF 5TH
PASSENGER SEAT_NO 6 NUMBER SEAT NUMBER OF 6TH
PASSENGERAGE 1 NUMBER AGE OF 1ST PASSENGERAGE 2 NUMBER AGE OF2ND PASSENGERAGE 3 NUMBER AGE OF 3RD PASSENGERAGE 4 NUMBER AGE OF 4TH PASSENGERAGE 5 NUMBER AGE OF 5TH PASSENGERAGE 6 NUMBER AGE OF 6TH PASSENGERCLASS TEXT CLASSPASSENGER NUMBER TOTAL PASSENGER
T_NO TEXT TICKET NUMBERF_NAME TEXT FLIGHT NAMEF_CODE NUMBER FLIGHT CODEC_SEATNO NUMBER CLASS SEAT NUMBERC_FARE NUMBER CLASS FARECUST_CODE NUMBER CUSTOMER CODET_DATE TEXT TRAVEL DATET_TIME DATE/TIME TRAVEL TIME
CUST_CODE TEXT CUSTOMER CODECLASS TEXT CLASSS_NO NUMBER SEAT NUMBERDAYS LEFT DATE/TIME DAYS LEFTHOURS LEFT DATE/TIME HOURS LEFTBASIC AMMOUNT TEXT BASIC AMMOUNTCANCELAMMOUNT NUMBER CANCEL AMMOUNT
Introduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)
UML stands for Unified Modeling Language
In the field of software engineering, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized
visual specification language for object modeling. UML is a general-purpose modeling
language that includes a graphical notation used to create an abstract model of a system,
referred to as a UML model. The Unified Modeling Language or UML is a mostly graphical
modeling language that is used to express designs. It is a standardized language in which to
specify the artifacts and components of a software system. It is important to understand that
the UML describes a notation and not a process. It does not put forth a single method or
process of design, but rather is a standardized tool that can be used in a design process.
There are two broad categories of diagrams and then are again divided into sub-categories:
1. Structural Diagrams
2. Behavioral Diagrams
1. Structural Diagrams:
The structural diagrams represent the static aspect of the system. These static aspects
represent those parts of a diagram which forms the main structure and therefore stable.
These static parts are represents by classes, interfaces, objects, components and nodes. The
four structural diagrams are:
1. Class diagram
2. Object diagram
3. Component diagram
4. Deployment diagram
2. Behavioral Diagrams:
Any system can have two aspects, static and dynamic. So a model is considered as complete
when both the aspects are covered fully.
Behavioral diagrams basically capture the dynamic aspect of a system. Dynamic aspect can
be further described as the changing/moving parts of a system.
UML has the following five types of behavioral diagrams:
1. Use case diagram
2. Sequence diagram
3. Collaboration diagram
4. State chart diagram
5. Activity diagram
Different types of diagrams and views supported in UML:
Structural View Behavioural ViewClass diagram Sequence diagramObject diagram Colleboration diagramState-chart diagram
Implementation View Environmental ViewComponent View Deployment View
User’s ViewUse case Diagram
User’s ViewUse case Diagram
UML Diagram Types:
WHY AND WHERE UML?
A model captures the important aspects of the thing being modeled from the certain point of view and simplifies or omits the rest. Engineering, architecture, and many other creative fields use models. A model is expressed in a medium that is convenient for working. A model of software system is made in modeling language such as UML.
The UML also contains organizational constructs for arranging models into packages that permit software teams to partition large system into workable pieces. It contains construct for representing implementation decisions and for organizing run-time elements into components.
Well-suited to the new demands of the brave new e-world, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) was designed to be distributed, concurrent, and connected. It is based on objects. Objects are distributed -- each one maintains its own state, distinct from all others. Objects are concurrent -- each one can potentially execute in parallel with all others. Objects are connected -- each one can send messages to others through a Web of links.
UML is not tied to a single platform or programming language; therefore it is well suited to bridge networks of different systems. UML was designed with extensibility in mind, so it can adapt to new issues as they arise. Let's look at the question from the point of view of the construction trade. Architects design buildings. Builders use the designs to create buildings. The more complicated the building, the more critical the communication between architect and builder. Blueprints are the standard graphical language that both architects and builders must learn as part of their trade. Writing software is not unlike constructing a building. The more complicated the underlying system, the more critical the communication among everyone involved in creating and deploying the software. In the past decade, the UML has emerged as the software blueprint language for analysts, designers, and programmers alike. It is now part of the software trade. The UML gives everyone from business analyst to designer to programmer a common vocabulary to talk about software design.
The UML is applicable to object-oriented problem solving.
Application of UML
UML is intended to be universal, general-purpose modeling language for discrete systems such as those made of software, firmware, or digital logic.
The UML is an evolutionary general-purpose, broadly applicable, tool-supported, and industry-standardized modeling language. It applies to a multitude of different types of systems, domains, and methods or processes.
As a general-purpose modeling language, it focuses on a core set of concepts for acquiring, sharing, and utilizing knowledge coupled with extensibility mechanisms. As a broadly applicable modeling language, it may be applied to different types of systems (software and non-software), domains (business versus software), and methods or processes. As a tool-supported modeling language, tools are readily available to support the application of the language to specify, visualize, construct, and document systems. As an industry-standardized modeling language, it is not a proprietary and closed language but an open and fully extensible industry-recognized language.
The UML enables the capturing, communicating, and leveraging of strategic, tactical, and operational knowledge to facilitate increasing value by increasing quality, reducing costs,
and reducing time-to-market while managing risks and being proactive in regard to ever-increasing change and complexity.
The UML more specialized tool, with a special language used for specialized domains, such as GUI layout, VLSI circuit design, or rule based artificial intelligence. The UML is intended primarily for software- intensive systems. It has been used effectively for such domains as
Enterprise information systems Banking and financial services Telecommunication Transportation Defense/aerospace Retails Medical electronics Scientific Distributed web-based services
The UML is not limited to modeling software. Infect, it is expressive enough to model nonsoftware systems, such as workflow in the legal system, the structure and behavior of a patient healthcare system, and design of hardware.
STRUCTURE OF UML
Classifiers: A classifier is a discrete concept in the model, having identity , state, behavior and relationships The UML defines 11 kinds of classifiers:
Classifier functions notation
Actor: an outside user of a system
Class: a concept from the modeled system
Classifier role: a class restricted to particular usage in a collaboration
class-in-state : a class restricted to being in a given state
component : a physical piece of a system
data type : a descriptor of a set of primitive values that lack identity name
Interface: a named set of operation that characterize behavior
node: a computational resource
signal : an asynchronous communication among objects
subsystem : a package that is treated as a unit with a specification, implementation and identity
use case: a specification of behavior of an entity in its interactions with outside agents
Diagrams in UML A diagram is a graphical presentation of a set of elements . Diagrams are drawn to visualize a system from different perspectives, so diagram is a projection into a system .Diagram may contain any combination of things and relationships.
Introduction to Rational Rose
IntroductionRational Rose is the Case tool that supports the Rational Unified Process (RUP), a methodology for object oriented systems analysis and design, and based on the UML notation.
The Rational Software Corporation produces a whole range of products that together form a complete CASE environment – The Rational Suite. The whole suite is comprehensive and COMPLEX. It can be used for modeling business requirements, systems design, managing documentation, data modeling, automated code generation in several languages, implementation, testing, project planning and handling change requests.
At this point we will be looking at a very small part of the Rational Rose part of the suite
Rational Rose is a visual modeling tool, enabling the creation, analysis, design and modification of components in a software system.
This guide is intended to show you how to draw the main diagrams within Rational Rose
Setting up Rational Rose for the first time Start up the PC and logon as you would normally
Using windows explorer or My Computer, go to the H: drive
Create yourself a subdirectory/folder called Rational
Then create a further sub directory/folder within it for your project
Exit Windows Explorer
Running Rational RoseWhen starting rational rose the following screen is displayed, click on cancel (unless you have already started the diagram in which case click on recent or existing and select the required project).
The screen should now look like this:
Parts of the screen1. Browser 2. Toolbar 3. Diagram area
4. Documenation Window
The browser shows the main diagrams you can produce for a project (in this case it is
untitled) and there are three main diagrams, the use case view, the logical view and the
component view. In this example we wish to produce a class diagram so we need to be using
the logical view. If you click on the + beside the logical view folder it will expand to show
what makes up the logical view. The browser will change as you add to the diagram these
extra elements correspond to what you have added.
1. Browser Window
This presents a hierarchical view of the analysis and design model, including all the diagrams
and all the individual elements that make up a diagram.
2. Drawing Tools
This tool presents a set of icons that indicate the different elements that can be added to a
diagram. The elements that can be used will change, depending on the type of diagram being
created. Different diagram types have different sets of icons. If you were creating a different
diagram type, you would see a different set of icons. The above example is a class diagram in
3. Diagram Window
This is where the diagram is actually created. You will see that the diagram shown in the
drawing window represents a high-level model of this course. Course content can be seen as a
system composed of four interacting subsystems, two of which involve software. We have
used the Package element to represent the subsystems, and the Note element to indicate
which packages contain software.
4. Documentation Window
It is strongly recommended that each element added to a diagram have documentation to
accompany it. To add documentation, right click on the element, select specification, and fill
in the documentation field. The documentation will then be shown in the documentation
window each time the mouse is clicked on the element. Documentation can also be added
directly to the documentation window.