2013-14. Ancient – BC-500AD Medieval – 500-1400 Renaissance – 1400-1600 Baroque –...

of 22 /22
BAND NOTES 2013-14

Transcript of 2013-14. Ancient – BC-500AD Medieval – 500-1400 Renaissance – 1400-1600 Baroque –...

Page 1: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

BAND NOTES2013-14

Page 2: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Eras

Ancient – BC-500AD Medieval – 500-1400 Renaissance – 1400-1600 Baroque – 1600-1750 Classical – 1750-1820 Romantic – 1820-1900 Modern – 1900-present

Page 3: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Eras

Ancient BC – 500AD Highly developed Greeks, Romans Far East, Africa, Americas, Native Australia Modes came from ancient music No official written record so little is proven

about characteristics but we know it existed Composers unknown

Page 4: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Eras

Medieval 500-1400 Most music occurred in churches, monasteries

– Sacred music First written records of music and notation Gregorian chant Almost all vocal, few instruments Single lines, monophony Gneumes Texts were mostly Latin Composers – Hildegard von Bingen, Leonin,

Perotin

Page 5: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Eras

Renaissance 1400-1600 Repetition Court music Sacred and Secular music Instruments in small groups Polyphony Melody and accompaniment Composers – Palestrina, Josquin, William Byrd,

Thomas Tallis

Page 6: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Eras

Baroque 1600-1750 Highly ornamented Repetition Larger groups of instruments (still small) Oratorios Cantatas Fugues Figured Bass and improvisation Concertos for solo instruments with

accompaniment Composers – J.S. Bach, Antonio Vivaldi

Page 7: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Eras

Classical 1750-1820 More complicated harmonies More complicated forms First symphony – Haydn The beginning of orchestras as we know them

today Opera Composers – Mozart, Haydn

Page 8: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Eras

Romantic 1820-1900 Large ensembles and orchestras Symphony form perfected and elongated Dramatic music in terms of volume and style Music that tells a story Complicated harmonies, forms, use of

chromaticism and dissonance Beethoven – 9 symphonies Tchaikovsky Wagner Brahms

Page 9: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Eras

Modern 1900- present Complicated rhythms Atonal harmonies Mixed meters Folk music Nationalism Composers – Bernstein, Copland, Stravinsky,

Holst, Gershwin, Debussy

Page 10: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Enharmonics

Notes that sound the same but are spelled differently

Example – C# = Db Write down all the other enharmonics Half steps between white keys on the

keyboard Between E and F Between B and C

Page 11: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Instrument Keys

Concert Pitch or C – flute, oboe, bassoon, trombone, euphonium, tuba, percussion, piano

Bb – Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Tenor Sax, Trumpet

Eb – Alto Sax, Bari Sax F – English Horn, French Horn

Page 12: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Order of sharps

F, C, G, D, A, E B

Page 13: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Order of flats

Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, Cb, Fb

Page 14: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Key Signatures

Sharps – look at the last sharp (the one furthest to the right) and go up one Example - 2 sharps F and C = key of D

Flats – look at the flat before the last flat Example – 3 flats Bb, Eb, and Ab = key of Eb

Page 15: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Triads

CEG GBD DFA ACE EGB BDF FAC

Page 16: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Triads/Chords

Major Triad – 1, 3, 5 Augmented – 1, 3, raised 5 Minor Triad - 1, lowered 3, 5 Diminished Triad – 1 , lowered 3, lowered

5

Page 17: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Melodies

Conjunct – smooth, movement by step Disjunct – skips and leaps, not smooth Major Minor

Page 18: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Minor Scales

Two types Relative – share key signature Parallel – share starting and ending notes

Three forms Natural – same as key signature Harmonic – raise the 7th note Melodic – raise the 6th and 7th ascending and

lower the 6th and 7th descending (natural form descending)

Page 19: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Musical Expression

Ascending notes crescendo Descending notes decrescendo Short to long Weak to strong Long notes must have shape Melody must always be heard Background parts must have shape

Page 20: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Syncopation

Rhythmic emphasis on the upbeat as opposed to the downbeat

Page 21: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Recapitulation

Re-statement of the main theme usually following a development section

Page 22: 2013-14.  Ancient – BC-500AD  Medieval – 500-1400  Renaissance – 1400-1600  Baroque – 1600-1750  Classical – 1750-1820  Romantic – 1820-1900  Modern.

Form

How music is organized Overture ABA – ternary AB – binary Sonata AABA