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Page 1: Hausa Complete

Hausa Familiarization Course

Nigeria Niger

Table of Contents

Introduction Introduction 1 Lesson 1 People and Geography 15 Lesson 2 Living and Working 34 Lesson 3 Days of the Week, Numbers, and Ages 48 Lesson 4 Daily Activities 58 Lesson 5 Meeting the Family 80 Lesson 6 Around Town 94 Lesson 7 Shopping 107 Lesson 8 Eating Out 126 Lesson 9 Holidays Customs and Cultural Traditions 137 Lesson 10 Around the House 155 Lesson 11 Weather and Seasons 167 Lesson 12 Personal Appearance and Clothing 182 Lesson 13 Transportation 197 Lesson 14 Travel 211 Lesson 15 At School 230 Lesson 16 Recreation and Leisure 245 Lesson 17 Health and Human Body 261 Lesson 18 Political and International Events 276 Lesson 19 The Military 293 Lesson 20 In the Hospital 307

Developed by I Corps Foreign Language Training Center, Fort Lewis, WA

For the Special Operations Forces Language Office United States Special Operations Command

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HAUSA FAMILIARIZATION COURSE

Introduction

Hausaland Hausa is one of the most widely spoken languages in Africa. It stands on par with Swahili in terms of the number of speakers and use as a trade language. Although it is not generally very well known in the West, it is the most spoken African language in West Africa. In addition to being the native language of a large number of people in West Africa, it is also a trade language and a universal language of communication for West African Muslims. The Hausa speaking world is situated in West Africa in the climatic zone known as the Sahel. The Sahel is a sub-desert region that lies between the Sahara Desert and the forested regions that lie further south in West Africa. The majority of Hausa speakers live in Northern Nigeria, but it is also the native language of over half of the population of Niger. There are also smaller Hausa communities in Cameroon, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Burkina, Chad, and Sudan. In this book we focus on the core area that is the traditional home of Hausa. This area, where the Hausa language is the native language of most of the population, lies in present day Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger. It is sometimes referred to as Hausaland. It is estimated that the total number of native Hausa speakers ranges from 25 million to over 40 million. And there are at least an additional 15 to 20 million people who speak

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Hausa as a second language. These second language speakers of Hausa are generally non-Hausas living in a Hausa area, people who use Hausa as a trade language, or Muslims who use Hausa as a language of Islam. In Northern Nigeria, where the vast majority of Hausa speaker reside, Hausa is the main language used on a day to day basis. English is the administrative language of Nigeria, and there are other smaller language groups that exist there, but Hausa is the main language of communication in the entire northern part of Nigeria. In South Central Niger, where the northern part of Hausaland lies, Hausa holds a similar status. Here French is the administrative language, and other language groups exist as well, but Hausa is the main language used. Although the Hausa population in Niger is perhaps as little as a quarter of that in Nigeria, it represents over half of the total population of this much less populace country. Hausa is also the largest trade language in Niger, even in non-Hausa areas, and it is estimated that in total about eighty percent of the population of Niger speaks Hausa as either a native or foreign language. The Sahelian geography is flat, dry, and hot. The sandy soil of this semi-arid grassland and savanna manages to support some trees such as the Gao and the Baobab, but the trees are few and far between, with sandy soil and shrubs filling the space between them. The Hausas are historically farmers, and they still manage to coax some crops to grow in the bleached soil, even as the Sahara encroaches from one year to the next. Climate The climate in the Hausa speaking world is hot. During the hot season, Niger registers some of the hottest temperatures in the world, and Nigeria is not far behind. There are seasons in the Sahel, but they are less differentiated than temperate seasons. The main seasons are: the rainy season, from May through September, the cold season from October through February, and the hot season, from late February through May. The seasons are not always clearly defined, and there are periods within the seasons that are recognized and named by the locals, but these three periods give a broad picture of the seasons. Annual rainfall in the Sahel ranges from 20 to 60 cm, and most of that comes in bursts during the dramatic thunderstorms of the rainy season. The usual scarcity of rainfall is punctuated by drought years which can have catastrophic results for a population already on the brink of starvation. There is some variation in the climate of Hausaland according to latitude. In the southern part of Hausaland, in Northern Nigeria, there is much more annual rainfall and vegetation than at the northern edge of Hausaland. The far north of Hausaland lies in the region where the Sahel borders the Sahara.

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History It is believed that the original Hausa people were located in Nubia (in present day Sudan). They began moving westward over 1,500 years ago in a migration that would eventually lead them to the area that is now divided between Nigeria and Niger: Hausaland. By 500 CE to 700CE they had thoroughly mixed with the other races of the region, with many other people adopting the Hausa language as a lingua franca. It was during this time that the Hausa states were born. The Hausa Bakwai: The City States The Hausa states were a cluster of strong city states that comprised a sort of empire that ruled over Hausaland. This empire took the place of the declining power of the Nok and Sokoto that had previously ruled the area. The Hausa states, known as The Hausa Bakwai in Hausa (the Hausa seven), were as follows: Biram, Daura, Gobir, Kano, Katsina, Rano and Zazzau (Zaria). The Hausa aristocracy began to adopt Islam in the 11th century, and by the 12th century the Hausa Empire had become one of the greatest powers in Africa of that time. Although the aristocracy had begun to accept Islam, it was not until around the 14th century that Islam was truly established as the de facto religion of the aristocracy, and even at this time there were many dissenters. After the leadership had become truly Islamic, the population continued to embrace their animistic beliefs, or a mixture of animism and Islam. The more radical shift to a strictly Islamic population did not take place until the Jihad of the Fulan Usman Dan Fodio in 1810. At this point, a new hierarchy was established in which the Fulani people were the official aristocracy. But, even as the Fulani were the leading class, they were also becoming “hausaized.” Today many of the Fulani identify themselves more with Hausa than with their Fulani roots. Shortly after the Jihad, however, the British began to take control of present day Nigeria, and in the first years of the 20th century they established a protectorate in the area. The British continued to rule indirectly through the Fulani aristocracy for a time, but after the establishment of the unified Nigerian colony in 1914, the rule became more direct. The colonial leaders encouraged the use of Hausa, and it continued to establish itself as the lingua franca of Northern Nigeria. With the integration of the Muslim North and the Christian South, Hausa also became the language of Islam in the country. With independence in 1960, Hausa remained one of the three official national languages and continued to dominate the Muslim North of Nigeria. Along with independence, significant autonomy was given to the three major regions of the country, the Yoruba speaking area, the Igbo speaking area, and the Hausa speaking area. Through this autonomy, the North has maintained its Islamic and Hausa heritage. The area of Hausaland that falls in present day Niger was conquered by the French in the late 19th century as well. The French were somewhat less supportive of local languages than the British in Nigeria, but Hausa remained the dominant language in the area. After independence in 1960, Hausa was declared one of Niger’s national languages. In Niger, French remains the language taught in schools and used in all administrative situations.

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The Hausa People Hausa is not technically a racial group, it is merely a language. There are, in fact, a number of different races that together make up the majority of the people now known as Hausas. All the same, Hausa has become the equivalent of an ethnicity in that it is how people identify themselves. The simplest definition of a Hausa person is a person whose native language is Hausa and who does not identify himself with any other racial group and does not have any facial scarification that identifies him as non-Hausa. There were distinct Hausa people in early history, but through migration and racial mixing this status as a distinct ethnicity was lost. Today people from very different racial roots refer to themselves as Hausa. Hausas are generally sedentary people, living in villages and farming the land. The culture and lifestyle is built around this sedentary life. Community is very strong in a Hausa village. Generally every villager knows every other villager, and although this is somewhat different in the city, even their neighbors establish close relationships. This closeness has the positive effect of creating a support network in which people can turn to their neighbors for help and advice, or just for someone to talk to. Of course there is also the downside, this being that everyone is entwined in everyone else’s life, and this can lead to arguments, unpaid debts, and disagreements that involve the whole village. A village in Hausaland never lacks drama. Even in the smallest village there is usually enough daily intrigue to feed a constant flow of gossip around the well. Religion For most Hausas, to be Hausa is to be a Muslim. Hausa culture and language is so intertwined with Islam that it is difficult to imagine a non-Muslim Hausa. There are, of course some Hausas who are Christian, or Baha’i, or members of another foreign religion, but these people represent a miniscule percentage of the population. There are also some people who continue to practice pre-Islamic animistic religions in the area. A small number of these people do so overtly, and many more do so while publicly assenting to Islam. Evidence shows that Islam was present in Hausa culture as early as the 11th century, but it was not until the 14th century that it became a dominant force. It was the conquest of the Hausa by the forces of the Fulani leader Usman Dan Fodio in the early 1800s that brought a massive islamification among the Hausa. Under the rule of the Fulani, Islam became essentially the state religion in Hausaland. Even so, however, the process of islamification was an ongoing one even into the last century. There are villages in Hausaland that date their conversion to Islam at a mere 40 or 50 years ago, or even less. There even remain a few Hausa villages that have yet to convert to Islam. It is interesting to note that in Hausa culture religion is not really a personal decision. When villagers talk about their conversion to Islam they are referring to the date when the village as a whole converted to Islam. The village leaders made the decision to convert to Islam and as in all other areas of life, the village must act in unison.

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Today, Islam is the heart of Hausa culture. The version of Islam practiced in Hausaland has a distinct African flavor to it, but it is unmistakably Islam. All of the major events—birth, naming, marriage, death—are observed with Islamic prayers and according to Islamic rules. Some of the celebrations, however, still contain visible pre-Islamic remnants. There is some conflict between the extreme traditional Islam that has been gaining ground especially in Northern Nigeria and the more moderate traditionalism practiced by another segment of the population. Issues such as the cloistering of wives and the full covering of women are emblematic of this division. While many religious leaders in the area are promoting this Saudi style approach to the behavior of women, the majority of villagers still have a much more relaxed take on the rules. It is, however, generally seen as an acceptable practice to cloister wives, require women to cover themselves in public, or follow many of the other more extremist practices of traditional Islam. Even if the majority of the population does not practice this sort of Islam, they consider it acceptable in Islam. The truly modernist urban fringe of society is a distinct minority, albeit an increasingly vocal one. Culture & Customs Although Hausa is not a distinct racial group in the proper sense, it has developed into a culture with which people identify themselves. It has its own traditions and customs, many of which have pre-Islamic roots and survive today in syncretistic form. Festivals and Holidays The main festivals in Hausaland are the Islamic holidays of Eid Al-Adha and Eid Al-Fitr and the month of Ramadan. These are the major holidays that punctuate the year. The central ritual for Eid Al-Adha (the biggest holiday) is the ritual slaughter of a Ram. Every family that can afford it will buy a ram to slaughter. The meat is then preserved, and some is distributed to friends, family, and the poor, and the rest is saved to be eaten over time. The children all dress in their best clothes and circulate the village asking for a treat, which the adults provide. Later in the evening there is usually drumming and celebration well into the night. Scarification Like many African peoples, the Hausas practice facial scarification. For some, especially in urban areas, this tradition is now being abandoned, but for many it remains a tradition that is very much alive and well. Infants are given a pattern of cuts on the face soon after birth to form the scars that will mark them for life. There are many different patterns that are considered Hausa. Different groups and regions within the Hausa have their own distinctive marks, and which are recognizable to others as belonging to the Hausa family. The other neighboring peoples such as the Fulani and Kanuri people each have their own set of distinguishing scar patterns as well.

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Work Hausas are farmers and traders. Of course there are exceptions to this statement, but it is how they generally identify their place in society. Historically there were many Hausa hunters as well, but today farming is the main occupation of Hausas. Hausas also have a long history of being merchants. It was through trading, in fact, that Hausa first became such a widely spoken language. Hausa merchants were constantly traveling, and eventually Hausa became something of a trade language for the region. Almost every major West African city still has a Hausa sector, and a section of the market where Hausa merchants will be plying their wares. The work of farmers involves clearing, planting, tilling, and harvesting, as well as building granaries for food storage. In the off seasons they care for animals, build or mend houses, fix fences, garden, or get involved in some other small income producing job such as making ropes. Also, many will travel to the cities during the off season to seek work until the next farming season. The women spend most of their days pounding grain with a mortar and pestle and carrying water from the well one bucket at a time. They cook the meals, take care of the household and the children, and sometimes care for their own livestock. During the farming season they help with the planting and bring food and water to the men. Home Life Hausa households usually have several generations living together. There is a strong sense of social hierarchy and family obligation, and the grandfather remains the patriarch even after his sons are grown and have families of their own. Grown men will often live in the family home long after marriage, or even for life, and the bride will move into the family household of the husband. Gender roles remain very firm, and women and men generally socialize with their own gender. Women and men have very distinct functions, and rarely would one do the work of another. Music Drumming is a central part of Hausa culture. Almost every event is accompanied by a group of drummers, and sometimes a stringed instrument called a garaya or a wind instrument called an algaita. Although there are some radicalized Hausa Muslims who see music as something to be avoided, for the most part it is embraced by Hausas. The role of musician is often passed down through generations as a family occupation, and villagers generally have a good idea of who are the designated drummers in the village.

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Education Hausas consider Qur’anic education to be traditional Hausa education. A large percentage of boys, and some girls, are given instruction in Qur’anic recitation and religious practice. Few actually go on to learn to read Arabic, however, and thus remain functionally illiterate. Hausas continue to place a high value on religious education, and some efforts are being made to integrate Qur’anic education with literacy training and other secular education. State schools are meanwhile working toward the goal of Universal Basic Education, meaning that all children receive at least a grade school education in English in Nigeria or French in Niger. While this goal is far from being reached at the moment, there is significant progress, especially in Nigeria. Every year new schools are being built. There is also a movement to expand the use of education in Hausa in the regions where Hausa is the lingua franca, and as a result, there have been some experiments with integrating Hausa into the curriculum, and there has been a large growth in the number of rural adult education classes that focus on teaching adults to read and write in their native language. Naming Ceremonies Six days after the birth of a child is the day of the naming ceremony. During these six days the family is able to prepare for the ceremony. They acquire the food stuffs needed to have food for the guests, and arrange with the religious leader to lead the prayer and assign the name. With the crowd gathered, the prayer is said. At the end of the prayer the religious leader pronounces the name. Usually the parents choose the name and then tell it to the religious leader, but it is possible for the religious leader to declare a name of his choosing, if the parents don’t have any input. In any case, the name is only official once it is declared in the prayer. Marriage Traditionally marriages are arranged through a negotiation between the fathers. This, however, is not usually a blind arranged marriage as it often was in the past. These days it is more commonly the case that the young man pursues a young woman who gives him the signs of being agreeable to marriage, and it is only at this point that the parents get involved. Although parents often play a part in the decision, truly forced marriage is now rare. It is also becoming less common for extremely young girls to be married. In the past it was not uncommon for a girl to be married before her tenth birthday. In the present day there are some villages that see it as acceptable to marry off a six year old girl, but this is an illegal and dying practice. Today it is more common that a girl will not be married until she is at least 14 or 15 years old, and many stay unmarried until they are 17 or 18. In the cities you will even find many young women who remain single into their 20’s. During the wedding the bride and groom are in different places. The bride is prepared at her family house, and usually placed on a horse. After the prayer is said binding the man and woman together, the woman is taken in a procession to the house of the groom’s

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family. This will become her new home. Polygamy is the norm in Hausaland, and a man may have up to four wives. Funerals A funeral in a Hausa village is a public event. It is assumed that everyone knew the deceased or his family, and so it is an act of simple propriety to make an appearance at the funeral. After the body is prepared, the deceased is wrapped in a white cloth and carried to a burial site outside of the village. All in attendance participate in a prayer, and the body is buried. After returning to the village the immediate family of the deceased will essentially hold court at their house while people come by to extend their condolences. Many people will spend the day with the family. It is normal to give a small amount of money to the family as a token of sympathy. THE LANGUAGE Hausa belongs to the Western subgroup of the Chadic language group. The Chadic group is part of the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is thought to have originated in Nubia (Sudan) before a migration carried the language to its present location. It is related to the Semitic languages, such as Arabic. Hausa was first written, using Arabic script, around 1500 CE. This written language was used by religious leaders and political aristocracy, and a few works have survived, the most well known being The Kano Chronicle. As mentioned above, it is one of the most widely spoken languages in Africa. If we exclude the use of colonial languages (such as English and French), Hausa and Swahili are the two most spoken languages in Sub-Saharan Africa. And, of the hundreds of languages spoken in West Africa, Hausa is the most spoken. Hausa also holds the status of the language of Islam in West Africa. Across West Africa, Hausa is recognized as being a language of Islam, and many Muslims in non-Hausa areas have some knowledge of the language. Writing Systems Hausa is written using two distinct writing systems, one based on the Latin alphabet, and the other based on the Arabic alphabet. The Latin based Boko system—the one used in this course—is the most commonly used by publishers and Hausa literacy classes. The Arabic based version is used mainly for the publication of Islamic religious pamphlets by small publishers in Northern Nigeria. Modern written Hausa generally uses the boko Latin-based script, but this can come in several forms. The form used in this book is the standard for most Hausa publications today, and looks like this:

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<<Ƴan-uwana suna da ɗaki a wani ƙauye>> This form of written Hausa makes use of several hook letters to indicate the glottalized sounds that do not exist in English. Many publications, however, do not use these hooked letters. This is especially common on the internet. Instead they will use an apostrophe before the letter to indicate the glottalized form. See the example below. ’Yan-uwana suna da ‘daki a wani ‘kauye. Many will even leave out the apostrophes, leaving it to the reader to determine by context whether the letter is glottalized. See the example in this form. Yan-uwana suna da daki a wani kauye. Even when the glottalized letters are indicated, however, there remains some information that is not included. The tone pattern and vowel length are not indicated. There is a form of proper Hausa that not only uses the hooked letters, but also includes tone and length markers. These markers consist of accents, or diacritics, placed over the vowels. Rarely would a whole book or article be written in this form, but it is generally used in dictionaries and often in Hausa learning textbooks to eliminate the guesswork with unfamiliar words. See a Hausa dictionary such as Nicolas Awde’s Hausa-English / English-Hausa Dictionary for a more complete explication of this system. Literature and Media Hausa has a relatively short history as a written language. Although the earliest written Hausa texts (in the Arabic-based, or Ajami, script) date back to about the year 1500 CE, these were limited to a few court records, letters, and religious materials. In subsequent centuries there was some use of written Hausa for poetry, representing the first true literary use of written Hausa, but this also remained limited. It was only with the arrival of the British colonialists to Northern Nigeria that there began to be a concerted effort to promote the use of written Hausa in a widespread manner. It was during the beginning phases of this effort that the administration decided to use the Latin-based script as the standard for written Hausa rather than the Arabic-base Ajami. During the 20th century the British colonial administration set up a publishing house for the purpose of publishing in Hausa. There was a concerted effort to seek out and support Hausa authors, and the result was the beginning of a Hausa literary movement. This literary movement continues today, and although the number of great works of literature remains limited, there have been a large number of small books published in Hausa. The number continues to grow. These books are generally published by small publishing houses in Northern Nigeria, and usually go out of print quickly, making them difficult to obtain outside of Hausaland. Hausa also has a growing web presence with web-based magazines and news sites.

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But perhaps the most important Hausa language media comes in the form of short-wave radio broadcasts. The national radio stations of America, England, Germany, Iran, and China all broadcast news in Hausa to West Africa via shortwave. Nearly all men, and a large number of women, in Hausaland have access to a shortwave radio, and so this has become a window to the outside world for Hausas in the villages as well as in the cities. Meanwhile more and more Hausa books are available in the market as more people become literate. Most of these are either simple love stories or religious instructions, but other genres are making some inroads. Tonality Hausa is a tonal language, although not to the degree of some other African languages. In this course we will not use the tone and vowel length markers that are found in some dictionaries and language learning texts. The aspect of tonality is very important. It is worthwhile to mimic the intonation and speech rhythm of the native speaker in order to properly pronounce words and phrases.

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Alphabet The Latin-based Hausa alphabet is very similar to the one used in English, with just a handful of exceptions and differences in pronunciation. Consonants Hausa Letter Name of Letter in

Hausa English Example

’ hamza ____

A / a a long: father short: cat

B / b ba ball

Ɓ / ɓ ɓa ____

C / c ca church

D / d da dad

Ɗ / ɗ ɗa ____

E / e e long: stayed short: set

F / f fa fed (pronounced somewhat differently than the English)

G / g ga go

H / h ha head

I / i i long: see short: sin

J/ j ja job

K / k ka kid

Ƙ / ƙ ƙa ____

L / l la lag

M / m ma mother

N / n na nip

O / o o toe

R / r ra ring

S / s sa sing

Sh / sh sha shock

T / t ta timid

Ts / ts tsa hats

U / u u true

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W / w wa want

Y / y ya year

Ƴ / ƴ ƴa ____

Z / z za zit Vowels When the vowels are taught in Hausa, two diphthongs are included. The short i and the short u are often interchangeable. A / a a long: father

short: cat E / e e long: stay

short: set I / i i long: see

short: sin O / o o long: slow

U / u u long: true

Ai / ai ai long: sky

Au / au au long: cow Pronunciation Pronunciation of written Hausa is actually fairly simple. The words generally follow the rules in a fairly uniform manner. The vowel length and tonal pattern have to be memorized since they are not normally written, but there are no confusing spelling rules to deal with. Overall, it can be said that Hausa has a nasal and rhythmic sound. Word Patterns Although Hausa words are generally not written with the tone and vowel length indicated, you will become increasingly able to guess the pronunciation even if the word is not familiar. This is because there are tone and vowel length patterns that accompany certain types of words in Hausa. From the prefix, suffix, root, or context of the word it is often possible to make an educated guess as to the proper pronunciation.

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Doubled Letters There are some doubled letters, but this is done according to the sound of the word, not just as a spelling convention. A doubled consonant is pronounced with emphasis. You must almost stop on the consonant to give it its full emphasis. As in English it is important to differentiate between words with doubled letters and words without double letters. They will have different pronunciation and different meanings. Doubling ts and sh The consonants ts and sh are doubled by doubling the first letter. Thus, ts becomes tts and sh becomes ssh. The letter f The letter f is pronounced somewhat differently in Hausa than in English. It is pronounced by pronouncing the “fa” sound of English without placing your teeth on your lip. It ends up sounding more like “hwa.” Sometimes it is even written as “hw” rather than “f.” It is also common for the “h” to replace the “f” entirely in certain words. This is often a dialectical difference. Also note that some Hausas will pronounce the “f” more like a “p.” The letter “p” which does not exist in Hausa is usually pronounced as an “f” in Hausa when a loanword with a “p” is used in Hausa. The letter “p” is, however sometimes written when transcribing foreign words, and the majority of Hausa readers will recognize the letter as an equivalent of “f.” The letter r The “r” in Hausa can be either rolled or flapped. The rolled “r” is pronounced in such a way as to trill the tongue against the roof of the mouth. The flapped “r” is produced with a quick flap of the tongue against the roof of the mouth. A doubled “r” is pronounced as a long rolled “r.” For those familiar with Spanish, these will all be recognizable. The terminal n An “n” at the end of a Hausa word is usually pronounced with the nasal “ng” sound much like the sound created by the “ing” in English. Thus nan is pronounced “nang.” The letters ƴ, ɗ, ƙ, and ɓ These letters have no English equivalent. Linguistically speaking, they are glottalized sounds pronounced implosively, or sometimes explosively. In more practical terms one

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should learn them by duplicating the pronunciation of a native Hausa speaker. It is important to distinguish them from their non-glottalized counterparts because they are different letters and can thus change the meaning of the word. Thus, ƙafa (foot) is entirely different than kafa (to establish). The letter Hamza The hamza (‘) is ignored when listing words in alphabetical order. In terms of pronunciation it is simply a stop. Thus, the word a’a (no) is pronounced as two short “ah” sounds with clear break between them.

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Lesson 1 People and Geography

Mutane da Wurare

This lesson will introduce you to the following:

- Simple greetings and basic introductions in Hausa - How to greet people in formal and informal situations in the Hausa speaking

world - Personal pronouns - Possessive pronouns - How to express “to be” and “to live” in the present tense - Basic geographical names in Hausa-speaking Africa.

PEOPLE

1. Listen to these simple greetings and phrases in Hausa and repeat them after the speaker Hello. Hi. Sannu.Hi. (response to Sannu) Yawwa! Sannu.Good morning. Barka da safe.Good day. Barka da rana.Good evening. Barka da yamma.Thanks, same to you. (response to Barka from a man)

Yawwa! Barkarka dai.

Thanks, same to you. (response to Barka from a woman)

Yawwa! Barkarki dai.

How are you? (morning) Ina kwana?How are you? (noon – 2 p.m.) Muna lafiya?How are you? (afternoon/evening) Ina wuni?Very well, thanks. Lafiya lau.OK, goodnight. To, a kwana lafiya.

Greetings are the essence of the Hausa language. Even with relative strangers, you will find yourself in extensive exchanges asking about family members, destinations, and other information in a way that would seem a bit intrusive in Western culture. We introduce a few of the most essential questions in this chapter and will build upon these in subsequent chapters.While sometimes seeming superficial or time consuming, it is this ritual of greeting that establishes trust. Someone who consistently cuts short the greetings will not encounter as warm of a welcome as they would hope. This is especially so in rural areas.

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2. Exchange greetings with your teacher and your partner. What would you say at 7 a.m., at 10 a.m., at 2 p.m., at 5 p.m., and at 10 p.m.?

3. Familiarize yourself with personal pronouns. Listen to the audio and repeat after the speaker. I NiYou Kai (masc.) Ke (fem.)He Shi She ItaWe MuYou (plural)

Ku

They Su The pronouns in Hausa play a very important role and require much attention. This is because, in Hausa, it is the pronoun that is conjugated rather than the verb.You will have to learn all of the conjugations of the pronouns in order to speak the language correctly. On a positive side, Hausa is one of the rare languages where you will not have to memorize extensive verb conjugation charts. Examine the chart of continuous (present tense) pronouns below and the examples that follow. I Ina You (masc.) Kana You (fem.) Kina He Yana She Tana We Muna You ( pl.) Kuna They Suna One Ana Examples: Ina tafiya = I am going. Muna tafiya = We are going. Suna tafiya = They are going. Note that the verb remains the same; only the pronoun changes. We will introduce other pronoun forms as we progress.

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4. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Read the dialogues in pairs. In the morning Umaru: Good morning! Barka da safe!Mariama: Good morning to you too. Barkarka dai! During the midday (noon - 2 p.m.) Umaru: Good day! Barka da rana!Mariama: Good day to you too. How are you?

Yawwa! Barkarka dai. Muna lafiya?

Umaru: Very well. How is the tiredness? Lafiya lau. Ina gajiya?Mariama: There is no tiredness. And you, how are you?

Babu gajiya. Kai fa, kana lahiya?

Umaru: Very well. Lafiya lau.Mariama: Wonderful. To madalla.In the Evening Umaru: Mariama! Good evening. Mariama! Barka da yamma.Mariama: Thanks! Same to you. Yawwa! Barkarka dai. Umaru: How are you? Ina wuni?Mariama: Very well. How are you this evening?

Lafiya lau. Kana wuni lafiya?

Umaru: Very well. Lafiya lau. Mariama: Wonderful. OK, good night. To madalla! To, a kwana lafiya. Informal Umaru: Hi, Mariama. Sannu Mariama.Mariama: Hi! Yawwa! Sannu. Umaru: How are you? Kina lafiya?Mariama: Good. And you? Lafiya lau. Kai fa, kana lafiya?Umaru: Excellent! Lafiya lau wallai! Mariama: All right, see you later. To, sai an jima.Umaru: OK, see you later Mu jima da yawa!

A. Use the dialogues above as a model and compose your own similar dialogues. Work

in pairs or in small groups.

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GEOGRAPHY

Gender: As with many other languages, nouns in Hausa are either masculine or feminine. The Hausa gender system is actually quite simple and can be summarized in the following manner. Almost all nouns ending in a are feminine. Almost all nouns ending in any other vowel are masculine. All plural nouns are treated as masculine. As we proceed, we will take note of certain exceptions, including a few notable nouns and certain categories of proper nouns. For the moment, however, the above explanation will suffice. To Be: Note that Hausa does not have a verb that correlates to the English “to be.” There are, instead, ways of implying the idea without the use of a verb. The ne/ce stabilizer is used to express “to be” in certain nominal sentences. See the examples below: It is a horse. = Doki ne. It is a car. = Mota ce. They are cars. = Motoci ne. The “ne” in the first sentence is used to refer to the masculine noun doki (horse). The “ce” in the second sentence is used to refer to the feminine noun mota car. The “ne” in the third sentence is used to refer to the plural noun motoci (cars). All plurals are treated as masculine.

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-ke Form Pronouns Another way the “to be” is often expressed in Hausa is through the relative continuous form of the pronoun, often referred to as the “-ke form.” Like the continuous pronoun, the relative continuous pronoun is also used to express an idea in the present tense. As we proceed, pay special attention to which types of sentence structures use which type of pronoun. In the chart below, you will find the full conjugation of this form. I am from… Daga … nike You are from… (masc.) Daga … kake You are from … (fem.) Daga … kike He is from… Daga … yake (or variable shike) She is from… Daga … take It is from… Daga … yake / take We are from… Daga … muke You are from… Daga … kuke They are from… Daga … suke One is from … Daga … ake

6. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. 1. I am Nigerien. Ni mutumin Nijar ne/ce. I am from Niger. Daga Nijar nike.2. He is Nigerian. Shi mutumin Nijeriya ne. He is from Nigeria. Daga Nijeriya yake.3. She is Nigerien. Ita mutumniyar Nijar ce. She is from Niamey. Daga Yamai take.4. We are Nigerian. Mu mutanen Nijeriya ne. We are from Abuja. Daga Abuja muke.5. You are Nigerien. Ku mutanen Nijar ne. You are from Zinder. Daga Zinder kuke.6. They are Nigerian. Su mutanen Nijeriya ne. They are from Kano. Daga kano suke.

Note: In English, Nigerian is used to indicate a person from Nigeria while Nigerien is used to indicate a person from Niger.

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7. Pretend you and your classmates are from Nigeria or Niger. Introduce yourself and your classmates to your friend in Hausa. Use the model below and the map.

Model: Ni mutumin Nijeriya ne. Daga Kano nike. Ma’azu mutumin Nijar ne. Daga Maraɗi yake. Su Abdu and Mariama mutanen Nijeriya ne. Daga Abuja suke. “Where” Questions: Ina kake? = Where are you? Daga ina kake? = Where are you from? The words ina (where) and daga ina (from where) are used to introduce questions. These words, as well as a number of other such question words must be used with the –ke form of the pronoun. Where are you from? Daga ina kake / kike? Where is he (she/it) from? Daga ina yake / take? Where are we (they) from? Daga ina muke (suke)? Tonality: You may have noticed that there are two very different uses of ina in Hausa. Actually, they are two completely different words. This is because Hausa is a tonal language, and thus what appears to be the two instances of the same word can in fact be two different words that are differentiated by tonal pattern and/or vowel length. In order to fully use a Hausa dictionary, it is necessary to learn to read the tone and vowel length markings. For the moment, however, listen carefully to the sound recordings and/or your instructor in order to hear how the words are differentiated.

8. Listen to the following dialogues in Hausa. Repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. 1. A. I am from Kano. Daga Kano nike. Where are you from? Daga ina kake/kike? B. I am from Niamey. Daga Ƴamai nike.2. A. Zara is from Maradi. Zara, daga Maraɗi take. Where is Kabiru from? Daga ina Kabiru yake? B. He is from Zaria. Daga Zaria yake.

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3. A. I am from Sokoto. Daga Sakkwato nike. Where are you and Hadiza from? Daga ina kuke kai da Hadiza? B. We are from Maiduguri. Daga Maiduguri muke. 4. A. Ali is from Konni. Ali, daga Ƙwanni yake. Where are Amadu and Saude from?

Amadu da Saude, daga ina suke?

B. They are from Lagos. Daga Lagos suke.

9. Role-play the dialogues above using the maps of Nigeria and Niger.

We have already introduced the –ke form of the pronoun and the formula for introducing the question “from where” (daga ina). In the following chart, take note of the way in which the form ba … ba is used to negate this type of sentence. Am I from…? Yes, I am. No, I am not. Daga … nike? I, daga … nike. A’a, ba daga … nike ba. Are you from…? Yes, you are. No, you are not. Daga … kake/kike? I, daga … kake/kike. A’a, ba daga … kake/kike ba. Is he from…? Yes, he is. No, he is not. Daga … yake? I, daga … yake. A’a, ba daga … yake ba. Is she from…? Yes, she is. No, she is not. Daga … take? I, daga … take. A’a, ba daga … take ba. Is it from…? Yes, it is. No, it is not. Daga … yake/take? I, daga … yake/take. A’a, ba daga … yake/take ba. Are we from…? Yes, we are. No, we are not. Daga … muke? I, daga … muke. A’a, ba daga … muke ba. Are they from…? Yes, they are. No, they are not. Daga … suke? I, daga … suke. A’a, ba daga … suke ba.

Read the following dialogues and role-play them.

1. A. Are you from Kano? Daga Kano kake? B. No, I am not. I am from Niamey. A’a, daga Ƴamai nike. 2. A. Is Ousmane from Nigeria? Usman, daga Nijeriya yake? B. Yes, he is. I, daga Nijeriya yake. 3. A. Are Audu and Zara from Kaduna? Audu da Zara daga Kaduna suke? B. Yes, they are from Kaduna. I, daga Kaduna suke.

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Introductions: Greetings and introductions in Hausa are very important. The easiest way to offend a Hausa person is to neglect to take the time to greet them properly. I would like to introduce Audu = Ga Audu (literally: Here is Audu) There is no phrase in Hausa that translates as “pleased to meet you,” but the word madalla (Great! Wonderful!) is often used in that capacity. First names are commonly used in conversations regardless of the status of the speaker, but titles are often attached to names, especially when the speaker is speaking to someone of a higher status than himself. Those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca are referred to as Alhajji (masc.) or Hajjia (fem.). This title must be used regardless of your status. It is as if it becomes the person’s first name. For instance, Alhajji Ayuba could simply be called Alhajji, but he COULD NOT simply be called Ayuba (except perhaps by a few old friends). The title Malam (masc.) or Malama (fem.) can be translated as Mr. or Ms. in many situations, but literally it refers to a learned person. A teacher of a Koranic school, or someone who is known to be a scholar of the Koran, is referred to as a malam. Likewise, the term can be applied to a school teacher or any other sort of educator. When introduced to an older man, you can never go wrong by bowing and referring to him as Malam. In this case, it is simply a mark of respect. In addition, nicknames are very common; almost everyone has at least one. This is often very useful since there are some very common names and people have large circles of acquaintances. The pattern of first name followed by profession, race, or defining characteristic is something that the Hausa learner will quickly become accustomed to seeing. Additionally, people are often commonly referred to as “son of” (Ɗan) or “daughter of” (Ƴar). A common male example is Dan Hajjia (son of the Hajjia). This sort of name is especially common for young people, but very often the nickname sticks and is used all the way into old age. For many people this is the only name that you will ever hear them referred to by.

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What is your name? Mi sunanka What is your name? Mi sunanki My name is Amadou. Sunana Amadu. My name is Amina. Sunana Amina.

Independent Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns (Suffixed)

Referring to masculine noun

Referring to feminine noun

I Ni My -na -ta You (masc.) Kai Your (masc.) -nka -rka You (fem.) Ke Your (fem.) -nki -rki She Ita Her -nta -rta He Shi His -nsa (-nshi) - rsa (-rshi) It Shi.

Ita

Its -nsa (-nshi) -nta

-rsa (-rshi) -rta

You Ku Your -nku -rku They Su Their -nsu -rsu Possessive Pronouns (Independent)

Referring to masculine noun

Referring to feminine noun

Mine Nawa Tawa Yours (masculine) Naka Taka Yours (feminine) Naki Taki Hers Nata Tata His Nasa (Nashi) Tasa (Tashi) Its Nasa (Nashi)

Nata Tasa (Tashi) Tata

Yours (plural) Naku Taku Theirs Nasu Tasu

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What is her name? What is his name? Mi sunanta? Mi sunansa?

Her name is Zara. His name is Dan Ladi.

Sunanta Zara Sunansa Ɗan Ladi

11. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. A. Good morning! Barka da safe!B. Thanks, same to you! Yawwa! Barka kadai.A. My name is Ayuba. What is your name?

Sunana Ayuba. Kai fa mi sunanka?

B. My name is Usman. Sunana Usman.A. Wonderful. To madala.

12. Work in pairs or in small groups. Look at the pictures and make up similar dialogues.

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13. Listen to the following statements and repeat after the speaker.

My name is Kabiru. Sunana Kabiru.

His name is Sani. Sunansa Sani.

Her name is Awa. Sunanta Awa.

I live in Bauci. Bauci nike da zama.

He lives in Kano. Kano yake da zama.

She lives in Zaria. Zaria take da zama.

We live in Niamey. A Ƴamai muke da zama

They live in Kaduna. A Kaduna suke da zama.

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14. Read the following sentences. Translate them into English. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Audu, a Kaduna yake da zama. A Kano kake da zama? I. Aisha, ba ta zaune a Abuja. Ina kake da zama? A Bauci nike da zama. Lawali da Nura, ina suke da zama? A Zinder suke da zama.

15. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Make up a similar dialogue. Work in pairs or in small groups. Saude: Barka da rana!Audu: Yawwa! Barkarki dai. Saude: Sunana Saude. Kai fa, mi sunanka?Audu: Sunana Audu.Saude: To madala. … Daga ina kake Audu?Audu: Daga Kano nike. Ke fa, daga ina kike?Saude: Daga Zinder nike.

16. Imagine that you are new to the class. Ask your partner about the rest of the

students (their names and where they live). Use the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups.

Model: A. Mi sunansa? B. Sunansa Audu. A. Daga ina yake? B. A Kano yake da zama.

17. What is the question? Read the answers below and reproduce the questions

in Hausa. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

1. ____________________________? A’a, daga Katsina nike. 2. ____________________________? I, a Kano nike da zama.

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3. ____________________________? I daga Sakkwato yake. 4. ____________________________? I, a Zinder take da zama. 5. ____________________________? A’a, daga Bauci yake. 6. ____________________________? I sunana Amadu. 7. ____________________________? A’a, sunansa Usman. 8. ____________________________? I, daga Maraɗi nike.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Read the following sentences and translate them from English into Hausa. Check your translations with the Answer Key. A. My name is Tanya. I am from Moscow. B. Do you live in Seattle? Yes. C. His name is Joe. He lives in Berlin. D. We are from Vancouver. E. My name is Maurice. I am from Chicago F. His name is Bob. He lives in Boston. G. Her name is Susan. She lives in San Diego. H. What is your name? My name is Tony.

2. Pretend that you are at a party. Introduce yourself to other people and ask them their names, where they are from, and where they live. Work in pairs or in small groups. Use the model below. Model: A. Gaisuwa, sunana Abdu. Mi sunanka? B. Sunana Muɗe. A. Daga Nijeriya nike. Kai fa, daga ina kake? B. Ni, daga Nijar nike. A. Ina zaune a Kano. Ina kake da zama? B. Ina zaune a Zinder.

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3. Introduce your friend to your classmates. Use the model below. Model: Sunansa Hadi. Daga Nijar yake. Shi mutumin Nijar ne. A Maraɗi yake da zama.

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Vocabulary List Greetings Gaisuwa. Barka. Hi Sannu Good morning Barka da safe Good afternoon Barka da rana Good evening Barka da yamma Good night A kwana lafiya Good-bye Sai an jima To pass the day Wuni Tiredness Gajiya Goodnight. Sleep well. A kwana lafiya To sleep. To spend the night. Kwana Where Ina How are you? (morning) Ina kwana? Well. Health. Lafiya Very well Lafiya lau Thank you Na gode You are welcome Babu laifi Excellent! Thanks! Madalla Very much so. Really. I swear. Wallai. (Wallahi) Ok. Well. To My name is … Sunana Son of Ɗan Daughter of Ƴar One who has been to Mecca Alhajji (m.) Hajjia (f.) I Ni He Shi She Ita You Kai (masc.) Ke (fem.) We Mu You (plural) Ku They Su To live (in) Zama (a) No A’a Yes I (often pronounced E) To be (+ noun) Ne/Ce From Daga

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From where Daga ina Where are you from? Daga ina kake/kike? What is your name? Mi sunanka/ki? Where do you live? Ina kake da zama? or Ina kake zaune? I live in Zinder. A Zinder nike da zama. or Ina zaune a Zinder. Mine Nawa/Tawa Yours Naka/Taka Yours (fem.) Naki/Taki His Nasa (Nashi)/Tasa (Tashi) Hers Nata/Tata Ours Namu/Tamu Yours Naku/Taku Theirs Nasu/Tasu

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ANSWER KEY Activity 14 1. Audu lives in Kaduna. 2. Do you live in Kano? Yes, I do. 3. Aisha does not live in Abuja. 4. Where do you live? I live in Bauci. 5. Where do Lawali and Nura live? They live in Zinder.

Audu, a Kaduna yake da zama. A Kano kake da zama? I. Aisha, ba ta zaune a Abuja. Ina kake da zama? A Bauci nike da zama. Lawali da Nura, ina suke da zama? A Zinder suke da zama.

Activity 17 Your questions should be similar in grammatical form to those below although some city and people names may be different.

1. Daga Kano kake? -- (A’a, daga Katsina nike.) 2. Kana zaune a Kano? -- (I, a Kano nike da zama.) 3. Daga Sakkwato? -- (I daga Sakkwato yake.) 4. A Zinder take da zama? -- (I, a Zinder take da zama.) 5. Daga Ƴamai yake? -- (A’a, daga Bauci yake.) 6. Sunanka Amadu? -- (I sunana Amadu.) 7. Sunansa Kabiru? -- (A’a, sunansa Usman.) 8. Daga Maraɗi kake? -- (I, daga Maraɗi nike.)

End of Lesson Activity 1 A. Sunana Tanya. Daga Moscow nike. B. Kana zaune a Seattle? I. C. Sunansa Joe. A Berlin yake da zama. D. Daga Vancouver muke. E. Sunana Maurice. Daga Chicago nike. F. Sunansa Bob. Yana zaune a Boston. G. Sunanta Susan. A San Diego take da zama. H. Mi sunanka? Sunana Tony.

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A. My name is Tanya. I am from Moscow. B. Do you live in Seattle? Yes. C. His name is Joe. He lives in Berlin. D. We are from Vancouver. E. My name is Maurice. I am from Chicago F. His name is Bob. He lives in Boston. G. Her name is Susan. She lives in San Diego. H. What is your name? My name is Tony.

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Lesson 2 Living and Working

Harkoki da aiki

This lesson will introduce you to the following:

• Typical housing arrangements of most people living in Nigeria and Niger • Using “or” in questions about living arrangements and professions • The verb “to have” in the present tense • Names of professions (singular and plural forms).

The living conditions of the Hausa world are very much defined by poverty. As we approach the subject of housing and living conditions, it is important that we do so with an adequate understanding of how Hausas live. The first point to understand is that the vast majority of Hausa people are still rural subsistence farmers. Their homes are mud brick huts; their dirt compounds (delineated by mud brick or grass mat fencing) accommodate not only a large family, but often extended family and even animals. Even in the cities, a large percentage of people live in mud brick housing and in a similar fashion to the rural people. This being the case, there are many terms that resist concise translation, and often we find that the Hausa speaker in urban areas will simply resort to English (or French in Niger) to describe that which lacks an adequate Hausa translation. You will find that the Hausa gida (house/home) is fairly universally applied to all sorts of structures. It also describes the entire household, encompassing everything inside the compound walls (including the people). There is no good Hausa translation for apartment, and the same is true for a good number of other terms that describe types of housing or rooms and features of houses. Below are some useful Hausa terms for describing living spaces. House/Home Gida Room (inside of a ɗaki or inside of a shigifa) Ɗaki Round grass hut Ɗaki Small round grass hut in a farm Bukka Rectangular mud brick room Shigifa Round mud hut with a grass roof Kago Multistory house Soro Rental Gidan haya Upper story Gidan sama /soro

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1. Look at the pictures below and listen to the words. Repeat the words after the speaker.

Apartment Ɗaya daga gidajen

da ke cikin wani babban soro.

Apartment building Babban soro da ya ƙunshi gidaje

dayawa.

Room Ɗaki

House Gida

Military camp

SansaniTent Tanti

Barracks Bariki

Hotel Masauka/Hotal

2. Match the Hausa words on the left with their English equivalents on the right. Replay

the audio from the previous section if necessary. Tanti Hotel

Ɗaki Tent

Gida Barracks

Ɗaya daga gidajen da ke cikin wani babban soro.

Room

Masauka Military camp

Babban soro da ya ƙunshi gidaje dayawa. House

Bariki Apartment

Sansani Apartment building

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3. Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Lawali yana zaune cikin tanti a sansani. 2. Malama Hadiza tana zaune cikin wani ƙaramin gida. 3. Mariama da Hadi suna zaune cikin wani babban gida a Kano. 4. Nura yana zaune a wata masauka. 5. Sale da Mamadu suna zaune a bariki. 6. Ni da Hajiya muna zaune a gidanmu.

4. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Then, make up similar dialogues. Work in pairs or in small groups. 1. A. I live in a big house. Where do you live? B. I live in a tent in a military camp. Ina zaune a wani babban gida. Ina kake da zama? Ina zaune cikin tanti a wani bariki.2. A. Audu lives in the hotel. Where does Amina live? B. Amina lives upstairs in a big house. Audu yana zaune a masauka. Amina fa, ina take da zama?

Amina tana zaune a gidan sama cikin wani soro.

3. A. We live in the barracks. Where do Audu and Amina live?

B. They live in the military camp.

Muna zaune a bariki. Audu da Amina fa, ina suke da zama.

Suna zaune a sansani.

Grammar Notes: The Hausa ko is used very much like its English counterpart or. In the following examples, you will see how it is used in basic sentences. Daga ina kake? Nijar ko Nijeriya? Where are you from, Niger or Nigeria? Sunanta Amina ko Hadiza? Is her name Amina or Hadiza? It is, however, worth noting that ko is also used in many idiomatic phrases and constructs in addition. You will become accustomed to the many uses of this word.

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5. Read the following dialogues and translate them into English. Check your translations

with the Answer Key. Make up similar dialogues using the words below. Work in pairs or in small groups.

1. A. Kana zaune cikin kago ko soro? B. Ina zaune a soro. 2. A. Suna zaune cikin masauka ko gidan haya? B. Suna zaune cikin masauka.

6. Compose choice questions using the model and the words below. Check your work with

the Answer Key.

Model: Kana zaune cikin tanti ko bariki?

Kai Tanti / Bariki Su Masauka / Gida Shi Bene / Sansani Ita Ɗaki/ Gida Mu Gidan haya / Masauka

7. Listen to the speaker and circle the words you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Bariki Tanti 2. Gida Babban soro da ya ƙumshi gidaje dayawa 3. Sansani Ɗaki 4. Apartment Masauka

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<<To Have>> As with <<to be>> is no Hausa verb for <<to have>>. Rather, the following construct is used: the pronoun plus the preposition DA (with). This non-verb construct takes some getting used to for the English speaker, but it is actually quite simple once one gets accustomed to it. I have Ina da You have (masc.) Kana da You have (fem.) Kina da He has Yana da She has Tana da We have Muna da You (plural) have Kuna da They have Suna da One has Ana da

8. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. 1 I have a house in Kano. Ina da gida a Kano.2 We have a room in an apartment building. Muna da ɗaki cikin wani soro.3. Audu has an apartment in Zinder. Audu yana da gida cikin wani soro a

Zinder.4. Audu and Mariama’s house is in Kaduna. Gidansu Audu da Mariama, a Kaduna

yake. 9. Make up sentences using the correct form of the verb “to have.”

Model: na da gida. I

Ina Kana Gida Yana Tana Gidan haya Yana/Tana Muna Ɗaki Suna

da

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Work: The vast majority of Hausas are subsistence farmers, growing millet, sorghum, rice, cassava, beans, peanuts, and other field and garden crops for their family to eat. A large percentage of people also raise animals, such as goats, sheep, cows, and chickens. In addition, there are many other professions that people engage in to earn money. Common village professions include tailoring, cooking food to sell in the village, running a small shop that sells sugar, tea, batteries, and such., and of course the highly respected teachers of Koranic schools. There are also butchers, carpenters, barbers, healers, and religious leaders in almost every village. Most villages have market traders who import goods from large markets to sell at the smaller local weekly markets. In the cities, you will find that in addition to these trades, there are “white collar” professionals working for companies and non-governmental development organizations. Nigeria and Niger also both have large public sectors that employ many people in careers such as soldiers, police officers, agricultural agents, and school teachers. To work for the government or an organization is a very different life from that of the average villager. A strict schedule and an office environment are foreign imports to Hausa culture. It is important to understand that the Hausa language developed in this traditional rural setting and has only very recently begun to adapt to modern ways. Thus, as we speak of modern professions, it should be understood that the Hausa language is still in the process of forming and adopting words to describe these new concepts.

10. Listen to the new vocabulary related to professions and repeat after the speaker. Profession Sana’aDoctor Likita (Dakta) Nurse Nas / Majiyyaciya (f.)/ Mai jiyyaLaborer LeburaTeacher Malami (Niger: Mushe)Student Ɗalibi / ƊalibaSoldier SojiMechanic MakanikeFarmer ManomiPolice Officer Ɗan SandaWaitress SabisInterpreter Tafinta (Niger: Antamfereti)

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11. Circle the more likely profession of the two choices under the photo.

Nas ko malama? Ɗan sanda ko manomi?

Sabis ko likita? Soji ko tafinta?

12. Match the Hausa words on the right with their English equivalents on the left. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Profession A. Sabis 2. Doctor B. Manomi 3. Nurse C. Tafinta 4. Laborer D. Sana’a 5. Teacher E. Nas 6. Student F. Ɗan Sanda 7. Soldier G. Likita 8. Mechanic H. Lebura

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9. Farmer I. Ɗalibi 10. Police Officer J. Soji 11. Waitress K. Makanike 12. Interpreter L. Malami

Plurals: Below you will find your first introduction to Hausa plurals. You will quickly notice that there is more than way to make a word plural in Hausa. For some words, it requires a change in the internal structure of the word, while for others it may require a different ending or even repeating the word. In fact, there are 15 patterns, or classes, of plurals in the Hausa language. Because of this complex system of plural forms, the best way to learn Hausa plurals is to memorize them when you learn the word. As time goes on, you will begin to notice patterns, and you will be able to guess the plurals of some words. There is logic to the pluralizing patterns, even if they are sometimes inscrutable, and eventually the patterns will start to seem natural. Remember that all plurals, grammatically speaking, are treated as masculine. Malama is feminine, but its plural is Malamai, the same as for the masculine plural. Loanwords: Hausa, like most languages, has not developed in a cultural vacuum. The language has adopted many words from English, French, and Arabic, as well as from neighboring African languages—Fulani, Kanuri, and others. Of particular interest to us are the English and French borrowed words. While most of the Arabic loanwords are now fully integrated into the language, some of the English and French loanwords are more recent, and thus they are often not fully integrated in parts of the Hausa language. These words will often have a very non-Hausa sound to them and will often require the speaker to employ slightly different grammatical tools. They will sometimes have an awkward plural or even no real plural. It is also the case that certain English or French words that are used in urban Hausa may be absent from the more pure rural Hausa. Sometimes words that would be universally comprehensible in the city may draw vacant stares in the village. This fact can also have class implications as the Westernized urban Hausas will sometimes employ these words to show that they are of a more refined and educated urban class. There is no need to speak in depth on loanwords at this point, but the student, even at the elementary level, should be aware of this feature of the language. One final important note is that the border between Niger and Nigeria has a real and tangible effect on the language in terms of loanwords. The English loanwords of Nigeria are very often replaced in Niger by French loanwords. See for instance the word Tafinta, which is clearly the Hausa pronunciation of interpreter; likewise, its Nigerien counterpart (antamfareti) is simply the Hausa pronunciation of the French.

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13. Listen to the plural form of nouns that are the names of professions, and repeat after the speaker. Profession - Professions Sana’a Sana’o’iDoctor - Doctors Likita LikitociNurse - Nurses Nas Nas-nasLaborer - Laborers Lebura LeburoriTeacher - Teachers Malami MalamaiStudent - Students Ɗalibi ƊalibaiSoldier - Soldiers Soji SojojiMechanic - Mechanics Makanike MakanikaiFarmer - Farmers Manomi ManomaPolice officer - Police officers Ɗan Sanda Ƴan SandaWaitress - Waitresses

Sabis[no normal plural] Ƴan Sabis, Masu aikin sabis.

Interpreter - Interpreters Tafinta Tafintoci

14. Listen to the speaker and put a circle around each word you hear. Replay the audio as many times as you need. Check your answers with the Answer Key. A. mechanic / farmer. B. teachers / doctors. C. interpreter / student. D. officers / soldiers.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Give a brief introduction of yourself, listing your name, where you are from, where you

live, and what your occupation is, in Hausa. Model: Sunana Ali. Ni mutumin Nijeriya ne. Daga Nijeriya nike. A Kano nike da zama. Ni malami ne. Ina zaune cikin … 2. Circle the Hausa equivalents for the professions below. Check your work with the Answer Key. Interpreter, teacher, and student A. 1. sabis 2. ɗan sanda 3. tafinta B. 1. nas 2. malami

3. manomi

C. 1. likita 2. nas 3. ɗalibi

3. Reproduce the questions to the following answers. Compare your questions with those in

the Answer Key. 1. ____________________? Sunana Ali. 2. ____________________? Daga Nijar nike. 3. ____________________? I, ina zaune a Seattle. 4. ____________________? A’a, ba ni da gida. Ina da ɗaki. 5. ____________________? I, ni makaniki ne.

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Vocabulary List Apartment Ɗaya daga gidajen da ke cikin wani babban soro mai gidaje

dayawa. Apartment building Babban bene da ya ƙumshi gidaje dayawa. Barracks Bariki Military camp Sansani House Gida Rental Home Gidan Haya Square mud hut Soro Round mud hut Kago Multistory house Bene Tent Tanti Room Ɗaki Big Babba Small Ƙarami Profession Sana’a Farmer Manomi Doctor Likita Nurse Nas Laborer Lebura Teacher Malami, Mushe, Malamin Makaranta, Mushen Lakwal Student Ɗalibi Soldier Soji Mechanic Mekaniki Waitress Sabis Interpreter Tafinta Police officer Ɗan Sanda With Da To have Pronoun + da And you? (masc.) Kai fa ?

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ANSWER KEY Activity 3 1. Lawali lives in a tent at the military camp. (Lawali yana zaune cikin tanti a sansani.) 2. Malama Hadiza lives in a small house. (Malama Hadiza tana zaune cikin wani ƙaramin

gida.) 3. Mariama and Hadi live in a big house in Kano. (Mariama da Hadi suna zaune cikin wani

babban gida a Kano.) 4. Nura lives in a hotel. (Nura yana zaune a wata masauka.) 5. Sale and Mamadu live in the barracks. (Sale da Mamadu suna zaune a bariki.) 6. Hajiya and I live in our house. (Ni da Hajiya muna zaune a gidanmu.) Activity 5 1. A. Do you live in a round hut or a square hut?

B. I live in a square hut.

2. A. Do they live in a hotel or in a rental home? B. They live in a hotel. 1. A. Kana zaune cikin kago ko soro? B. Ina zaune a soro. 2. A. Suna zaune cikin masauka ko gidan haya? B. Suna zaune cikin masauka. Activity 6 Kana zama cikin tanti ko bariki? Suna zama a masauki ko gida? Yana zama cikin soro ko a sansani? Tana zama cikin ɗaki ko gida? Muna zama a gidan haya ko masauka? Activity 7 1. tent 2. house 3. military camp 4. hotel

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Activity 12 1. Profession D. Sana’a 2. Doctor G. Likita 3. Nurse E. Nas 4. Laborer H. Lebura 5. Teacher L. Malami 6. Student I. Ɗalibi 7. Soldier J. Soji 8. Mechanic K. Makanike 9. Farmer B. Manomi 10. Police Officer F. Ɗan Sanda 11. Waitress A. Sabis 12. Interpreter C. Tafinta Activity 14 A. farmer Manomi B. teachers Malamai C. interpreter Tafinta D. soldiers Sojoji End of Lesson Tasks Activity 2 A. 3 Tafinta interpreter

B. 2 Malami teacher

C. 3 Dalibi student Activity 3 1. Mi sunanka? 2. Daga ina kake? 3. A Bauci kake da zama? 4. Kana da gida ko ɗaki? 5. Kai makanike ne?

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1. ____________________? Sunana Ali. 2. ____________________? Daga Nijar nike. 3. ____________________? I, ina zaune a Seattle. 4. ____________________? A’a, ba ni da gida. Ina da ɗaki. 5. ____________________? I, ni makaniki ne.

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Lesson 3 Days of the Week, Numbers, Ages of People Ranukan Sati, Lambobi, Shekaru da Haifuwa

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Days of the week - Numbers from 0 to 100 - How to understand and respond to questions about what day it is - How to find out somebody’s age and tell how old you are.

1. Listen to the days of the week and repeat them after the speaker. Monday ran LitininTuesday ran TalataWednesday ran LarabaThursday ran AlhamisFriday ran Jumma’aSaturday ran Subdu (Niger)

ran AsabarSunday ran Lahadi

Read the days of the week several times, practicing pronunciation. Replay the audio if necessary.

2. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. Role-play the dialogues using the names of the other days of the week. Work in pairs or in small groups. ran Ladi ran Talata ran Alhamis ran Subdu ran Laraba ran Juma’a 1. What day is it today? Yau wacce rana ce? Today is Monday. Yau ran Litinin ce.2. Is today Monday? Yau ran Litinin ce? Yes, today is Monday. I, yau ran Litinin ce.3. Is today Monday? Yau ran Litinin ce? No, today is Tuesday. A’a, yau ran Talata ce.

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3. Listen to the pronunciations and read the numbers from 0 to 10.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sifili Ɗaya Biyu Ukku Huɗu Biyar Shidda Bakwai Takwas Tara Goma 4. Practice using the numbers. Work with a partner and tell them in Hausa your home telephone number, work number, address number, and so on. 5. Read the following dialogue. Pay attention to the numbers. A. What is your telephone number? Mece ce lambar wayarka? B. My telephone number is (360) 984 – 0217. Lambar wayata (360) 984-0217 ce. A. What is your house number? Mece ce lambar gidanka? B. My house number is 10456. Lambar gidana 10456 ce.

6. Role-play the dialogue with a partner using Exercise 5 as a model. Pretend one of you is a receptionist who wants to know the name, telephone number, and house number of the other person. Ask each other questions and use as many numbers in your answers as you can.

7. Listen to the sentences and write down the missing numbers you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key. Model: My telephone number is 567_8__4. 1. Lambar wayata 67_____653 ce.2. Lambar wayata 432_____01 ce.3. Lambar wayata 89645_____ ce.4. Lambar wayata 4____0692 ce.5. Lambar wayata 978____645 ce. The Numbers 11-19 The numbers from 11 through 19 follow a simple formula in Hausa. All of these numbers follow the pattern of goma sha, plus the number in the ones place. The only other point to remember is that in spoken Hausa, the goma is often left out. The result is that goma sha ɗaya becomes simply sha ɗaya. This abbreviated form is very common in day to day spoken Hausa.

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8. Listen as the speaker recites the numbers 11 to 19. Repeat after the speaker. 11 eleven Goma sha ɗaya12 twelve Goma sha biyu13 thirteen Goma sha ukku14 fourteen Goma sha huɗu15 fifteen Goma sha biyar16 sixteen Goma sha shidda17 seventeen Goma sha bakwai18 eighteen Goma sha takwas19 nineteen Goma sha tara

9. Practice saying the following numbers in Hausa: 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 12, 14, 16, 18 The Numbers 20-29 The numbers from 20 through 29 follow essentially the same pattern as 11 through 19. The only difference is that sha is replaced by da. Also, remember that only 11 through 19 can be shortened by leaving off the tens place. 20 twenty Ashirin 21 twenty-one Ashirin da ɗaya 22 twenty-two Ashirin da biyu 23 twenty-three Ashirin da ukku 24 twenty-four Ashirin da huɗu 25 twenty-five Ashirin da biyar 26 twenty-six Ashirin da shidda 27 twenty-seven Ashirin da bakwai 28 twenty-eight Ashirin da takwas 29 twenty-nine Ashirin da tara

10. Read the texts and translate into English. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Sunana Hadiza. A Zaria nike da zama. Ni sabis ce. Ina da gida. Lambar gidana 21 ce. 2. Ali soji ne. Yana da ɗaki cikin wani babban soro. Lambar ɗakinshi 25 ce. 3. Sunanta Zara. Ita malama ce. Tana zaune a wani gida. Lambar gidanta 16 ce. 4. Amadu da Nuri suna da gida a Zinder. Lambar gidansu 14 ce.

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The Numbers 30-100 The numbers from 30 through 100 all follow the same pattern as with 20 through 29. The only difficulty lies in memorizing the numbers for twenty, thirty, forty, and so on. These numbers are borrowed from Arabic and thus bear no resemblance to the Hausa numbers that were previously Introduced. Also note that there are two common words for <<ninety>>. Tisa’in - is perhaps the more standard lexical word, but Gomiya tara is also not uncommon.

11. Listen to the next set of numbers. Repeat after the speaker. 30 thirty Talatin40 forty Arba’in50 fifty Hamsin60 sixty Sittin70 seventy Saba’in80 eighty Tamanin90 ninety Tisa’in, Gomiya tara (In Niger) 100 one hundred Ɗari

12. Practice saying the following numbers in Hausa. 30, 31, 40, 42, 50, 53, 60, 64, 70, 75, 80, 86, 90, 97, 100. How old are you? Hausas are much less likely to find a question about age uncomfortable than Westerners for the simple reason that, in Hausaland, getting old is generally perceived in a positive light. There is an incredible respect for the aged in the Hausa world; an old man or woman is given very high status simply because of his or her age. However, although they are unlikely to be offended by a question about age, the fact is that a large percentage of Hausas—especially in rural areas—don’t actually know how old they are. Generally speaking, Hausas do not celebrate or even remember their birthdays, and in a large percentage of cases, age is only spoken of as an approximate. Below are a few useful phrases for discussing age. Shekara nawa gareki? How old are you?

Shekaru nawa gareki? How old are you? (alternate using the plural)

Shekara nawa gareki da haihuwa? How old are you? (lit., how many years do you have from birth)

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More on Plurals In Hausa, a singular will often be used where a plural would have been used in English. Specifically, in sentences in which the noun is quantified by a number, or in questions demanding a number (how many?), we find that the noun is more often than not left in the singular form rather than pluralized. This is not a colloquial abbreviation of proper Hausa; rather, it is a feature of proper Hausa. This is not an absolute rule, and thus there are many cases in which the plural is accepted or even preferred. See for example the above phrases for asking someone’s age. The plural shekaru is an acceptable alternative to the more usual shekara. The one major exception to remember is that with human nouns the plural is generally used. Example: Ina da gida. = I have a house Ina da gida ukku. = I have three houses NOT: Ina da gidaje ukku. (gidaje being the plural of gida)

13. Listen to several short exchanges asking about ages. Repeat after the speaker. 1. A. How old are you? Shekara nawa gareka? B. I am 32 years old. Ina da shekara 32. 2. A. How old is he? Shekara nawa gareshi? B. He is 11. Shekara 11 gareshi. 3. A. How old is she? Shekara nawa gareta? B. She is 86 years old. Tana da shekara 86. 4. A. Is she 34 years old? Ita, tana da shekara 34? B. No, she is 35. A’a, tana da shekara 35. 5. A. Are you 21? Shekara 21 gareka? B. Yes, I am 21. I, ina da shekara 21. 6. A. What is your age? Shekara nawa gareka? B. I am 47. Ina da shekara 47.

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14. Tell your classmates in Hausa how old you are and ask about their ages.

15. Listen and match the age with the name. Check your work with the Answer Key. Play Audio Saude 11 Nura 72 Ali 52 Aisha 29 Mamadu 43

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following statements in Hausa. Answer the questions for each statement. Pause or replay the audio as necessary until you understand the relevant information. 1. What is his or her name? 2. How old is he or she? 3. What is his or her profession? 2. Recite the following in Hausa. Ask what day it is. Say what day it is today. Ask someone’s age. Say how old you are.

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Vocabulary List Day Rana Today Yau Year Shekara Monday (ran) Litinin Tuesday (ran) Talata Wednesday (ran) Laraba Thursday (ran) Alhamis Friday (ran) Jumma’a Saturday (ran) Asabar

(ran) Subdu (Niger) Sunday (ran) Lahadi Telephone Talho (Niger: Tarho) What is Mene ne (masc.)

Mece ce (fem.) Wire (telephone) Waya Number Lamba Age Shekara How many Nawa To, with Gare Birth Haihuwa And, from, with Da To reach / attain Kai How old are you? Shekara nawa gareka? What day is it today? Yau wace rana ce? Today is Monday. Yau litinin ce. I am 25 years old. Shekara 25 gareni. 0 zero Sifili 1 one Ɗaya 2 two Biyu 3 three Ukku 4 four Huɗu 5 five Biyar 6 six Shidda 7 seven Bakwai 8 eight Takwas

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9 nine Tara 10 ten Goma 11 eleven Goma sha ɗaya 12 twelve Goma sha biyu 13 thirteen Goma sha ukku 14 fourteen Goma sha huɗu 15 fifteen Goma sha biyar 16 sixteen Goma sha shidda 17 seventeen Goma sha bakwai 18 eighteen Goma sha takwas 19 nineteen Goma sha tara 20 twenty Ashirin 21 twenty-one Ashirin da ɗaya 22 twenty-two Ashirin da biyu 23 twenty-three Ashirin da ukku 24 twenty-four Ashirin da huɗu 25 twenty-five Ashirin da biyar 26 twenty-six Ashirin da shidda 27 twenty-seven Ashirin da bakwai 28 twenty-eight Ashirin da takwas 29 twenty-nine Ashirin da tara 30 thirty Talatin 40 forty Arba’in 50 fifty Hamsin 60 sixty Sattin 70 seventy Saba’in 80 eighty Tamanin 90 ninety Gomiya tara

Tisa’in 100 one hundred Ɗari

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ANSWER KEY Activity 7 1. 4 2. 5 3. 0 4. 3 5. 2 Activity 10 1. My name is Hadiza. I live in Zaria. I am a waitress. I have a house. My house number is 21. 2. Ali is a soldier. He has a room in a large building. His room number is 25. 3. Her name is Zara. She is a teacher. She lives in a house. Her house number is 16. 4. Amadu and Nuri have a house in Zinder. Their house number is 14.

1. Sunana Hadiza. A Zaria nike da zama. Ni sabis ce. Ina da gida. Lambar gidana 21 ce. 2. Ali soji ne. Yana da ɗaki cikin wani babban soro. Lambar ɗakinshi 25 ce. 3. Sunanta Zara. Ita malama ce. Tana zaune a wani gida. Lambar gidanta 16 ce. 4. Amadu da Nuri suna da gida a Zinder. Lambar gidansu 14 ce. Activity 15 Saude is 52 years old. Saude, shekara 52 gareta. Aisha is 11 on Friday. Aisha, Rar Juma’a za ta kai shekara 11 da haihuwa. Is Nura 30 years old? No, he is 29.

Nura yana da shekara 30? A’a, shekara 29 gareshi.

Mariama is 72 years old. Mariama, shekarunta 72 da haihuwa. How old is Ali? He is 43.

Ali, shekara nawa gareshi? Yana da shekara 43.

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 A. Hi, my name is Amadu. I am 26 years old. I am a police officer. B. His name is Ashiru. He is 40. He is a soldier. C. Her name is Zaharia. She is 44. She is a teacher.

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Lesson 4 Daily Activities

Harkokin Yau da Kullum

This lesson will introduce you to the following:

- How to ask for and tell time - Typical daily activities in Niger and Nigeria - The verbs “to go,” “to study,” “to play,” “to work,” “to watch,” “to read,” “to eat,” and

“to get up” - The past tense of the verbs.

Telling Time: The Hausa speaking world is not an area known for punctuality. Time is generally a relaxed concept, and efficiency is usually given less importance than propriety and conversation. All the same, people tend to discuss time, and everyone wants to own a watch. Generally speaking, the 12-hour clock is used in Hausa. In Niger, the 24-hour clock is occasionally used, but this is usually only used when speaking French. It is fairly easy to get a grasp of telling the time of day, but to truly understand how to tell time in Hausa, one must understand how to speak about the Islamic prayer times. It is often the case that, rather than telling an exact time, one will refer to one of the five daily prayers, each of which has a time of day and a name in Hausa. The five daily prayers are listed below with their Hausa name. Asuba - dawn Azahar – about 2 p.m. La’asar – about 4 p.m. Magariba – dusk (about 6 p.m.) Lisha – nightfall (about 7 p.m.) As with English, there are words in Hausa for quarter till, half past, and so on. Quarter to four = Ƙarfe huɗu saura kwata. Quarter after four = Ƙarfe huɗu da kwata. Half past three = Ƙarfe ukku da rabi. Ten till five = Karfe biyar saura minti goma. Is it three yet = Ukku ta yi? Yes, it’s three = I, Ukku ta yi.

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1. Listen as the speaker tells time in Hausa. Repeat after the speaker.

What time is it now? It is four o’clock. What time is it? It is 4:15.

Ƙarfe nawa ne yanzu? Ƙarfe huɗu ne. Ƙarfe nawa ne? Huɗu da minti goma sha biyar.

What time is it? It is 4:30. What time is it? It is 4:45.

Ƙarfe nawa ne? ƙarfe huɗu da minti talatin ne.

Ƙarfe nawa? Huɗu da minti arba’in da biyar.

What time is it? It is 3:20. What time is it? It is 3:40.

Ƙarfe nawa ne? Ƙarfe ukku da minti ashirin.

Ƙarfe nawa ne? Ukku da minti arba’in.

You will also note that, rather than using a.m. or p.m., Hausa has several ways to break up the day. Da safe is the best translation for a.m., and da yamma is perhaps the closest translation for p.m., but there are a few other words that are used. Da safe is used in the morning, da rana is often used from about noon until about 4 p.m., da marece is often used from about 4 p.m. until dinnertime, and da dare is often used from after dinnertime until about 2:00 or 3:00 in the morning. In all of these forms, you will sometimes hear na used instead of da. The meaning is essentially the same. Note also that in the following examples there are longer and shorter ways of saying the same thing, and that it is acceptable to leave off the word ƙarfe and/or the ne/ce stabilizer in many cases.

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2. What time is it? Fill in the clock faces with the correct times according to how they are listed in Hausa below. A. Ukku da rabi da rana. E. Goma sha ɗaya da minti talatin da dare. B. Takwas da minti arba’in da biyar da safe.

F. Ƙarfe ɗaya da minti hamsin da biyar.

C. Shidda da minti goma da safe. G. Ƙarfe goma sha biyu da rana or tsakar rana.

D. Ƙarfe tara da safe. H. Ƙarfe huɗu da minti sha biyar da safe.

A. B. C. D.

E. F. G. H.

3. Listen to the following exchanges and identify the clock time mentioned in each. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. 8:15 - 9:00 B. 9:50 - 9:15 C. 5:10 - 8:50 D. 4:13 - 4:30 E. 7: 50 - 7:10

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4. Compose dialogues according to the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups. Use the times listed below. Model: A. - Ƙarfe nawa ne yanzu? B. - Ƙarfe biyu da rana ne. 8:00 a.m., 7:15 a.m., 10:30 a.m., 2:10 p.m., 4:45 p.m., 6:50 p.m., 12:00, 11:05 Verbs in Hausa: There are not as many verbs in Hausa as there are in English, at least not in day to day Hausa. As a result, the verb “to do” takes on a special importance in Hausa. For instance, rather than saying “I work,” in Hausa we say, “I do work.” This use of nouns to express verbal concepts is widespread in Hausa and something that you will become very much accustomed to. In the following set of explanations and examples we will explain the basic rules that govern the use of present tense verbs in Hausa.

• In the continuous tense, the verbal noun is used in place of the verb unless there is a direct or indirect object after the verb. This is somewhat confusing on first glance, but it is actually quite easy to get used to. In the following example, note that karatu (reading) is the verbal noun of karanta (to read). (note that you will also see the verbal noun.

• karantawa used at times)

Ina karatu = I am reading. Ina karanta wani litafi = I am reading a book (direct object). Ina karanta wa yaro litafi = I am reading the book to the boy. (indirect object) As we progress, we will add information about this construct and the ways in which the verbal noun is formed and manipulated, but the basic principle is encapsulated in the above example. In a large number of cases, verbs will form their verbal noun by simply. adding –wa to the end of the verb. In other cases, there is no change in the letters. And in some case, as with the above example, the verb is changed in some other way.

• The verb yi (to do) is often used to express a verbal concept with a noun where Hausa lacks an actual verb. For instance, yi aiki is used to express to work using the noun aiki (work). The tricky part of this is that in normal Hausa, it is acceptable to leave out the verb yi, leaving only the pronoun and the noun. For example: Mi kake yi? = What are you doing? Ina (yin) aiki. or Aiki nike (yi). = I am working. (Note that the parenthetical yi or yin is often left out and just implied).

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• As we see above with yi, certain verbs will take an n suffix in the continuous tense when referring to a direct object. It is best just to memorize which verbs apply this rule. Verbs that we have seen thus far that fit in this category include yi and ci.

• Certain verbs will change their ending vowel depending on whether they refer to a direct

object, a direct object pronoun, or no direct object. Again, we will expound on this point further as we progress. For the moment it will suffice to say that changing the ending vowel is a feature of certain verbs (class 2). Verbs that we have seen thus far in this category include kalla.

• The continuous (ina, kana, etc…) and the relative continuous (nike, kake, etc.) often

represent different ways of expressing the same sentence. For example: Ina (yin) aiki. = Aiki nike (yi). In the second sentence, we have moved work to the beginning of the sentence, putting greater focus on it. In some cases you will find that one form is distinctly better than the other. In other cases, however, it is a matter of shades of meaning and emphasis. Remember, though, that when you are asking questions that start with words such as what, how, when, and who, the relative pronoun will be used.

• Finally, note that there is an almost endless list of exceptions and dialectical variations. It is good to have the rules in the back of your mind, but you should always learn first and foremost by listening to native speakers.

I go Ina tafiya I study Ina yin karatu You go (m) Kana tafiya You study (m) Kana yin karatu You go (f) Kina tafiya You study (f) Tana yin karatu He goes Yana tafiya He studies Yana yin karatu We go Muna tafiya We study Muna yin karatu You go Kuna tafiya You study Kuna yin karatu They go Suna tafiya They study Suna yin karatu One goes Ana tafiya One studies Ana yin karatu

I work Ina yin aiki I watch Ina kallo You work (m) Kana yin aiki You watch (m) Kana kallo You work (f) Kina yin aiki You watch (f) Kina kallo He works Yana yin aiki He watches Yana kallo We work Muna yin aiki We watch Muna kallo You work Kuna yin aiki You watch Kuna kallo They work Suna yin aiki They watch Suna kallo One works Ana yin aiki One watches Ana kallo

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I eat Ina cin abinci I read Ina (yin) karatu You eat (m) Kana cin abinci You read (m) Kana (yin) karatu You eat (f) Kina cin abinci You read (f) Kina (yin) karatu He eats Yana cin abinci He reads Yana (yin) karatu We eat Muna cin abinci We read Muna (yin) karatu You eat Kuna cin abinci You read Kuna (yin) karatu They eat Suna cin abinci They read Suna (yin) karatu One eats Ana cin abinci One reads Ana (yin) karatu I play Ina yin wasa I get up Ina tashi You play (m) Kana yin wasa You get up (m) Kana tashi You play (f) Kina yin wasa You get up (f) Kina tashi He plays Yana yin wasa He gets up Yana tashi You play Kuna yin wasa You get up Kuna tashi They play Suna yin wasa They get up Suna tashi We play Muna yin wasa We get up Muna tashi One plays Ana yin wasa One gets up Ana tashi

Ina tafiya Ba ni tafiya Kana tafiya Ba ka tafiya Kina tafiya Ba ki tafiya Yana tafiya Ba ya tafiya Tana tafiya Ba ta tafiya Suna tafiya Ba su tafiya Muna tafiya Ba mu tafiya Kuna tafiya Ba ku tafiya Ana tafiya Ba a tafiya Negation of Verbs: Before proceeding any further, we should take a little time to discuss negation of verbs somewhat more in depth. We briefly touched upon the use of the particle ba for negation in an earlier chapter, now we need to explain the rules that govern this construct. With the continuous pronoun the negation is as follows: In the first row, we see “I am going” on the left, and the negation “I am not going” on the right.

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The Habitual Pronoun: The following chart shows the conjugation of the habitual pronoun. This is used to express habitual actions. For example, “I wake up at 7:00” expresses a habitual action, as does “I play soccer on the weekends.” In a great number of cases, a Hausa speaker will use the regular continuous rather than the habitual, but it is still important to at least be able to recognize the habitual. The habitual pronoun will be used only occasionally in this book. I Nikan (nakan) you Kakan you Kikan he Yakan she Takan we Mukan you Kukan they Sukan one Akan Example: Yakan tashi a ƙarfe takwas da safe. = He gets up at 8 a.m. Generally speaking, rather than negating the habitual pronoun, the negative continuous (see above) will be used.

5. Listen to the short statements that describe each activity in the pictures below. Repeat after the speaker. Pay attention to new verbs and other new vocabulary.

Suna yin wasan ƙwallon kwando Tana tafiya kasuwa.

They are playing basketball. She is going to the market.

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Suna yin karatu a makaranta. Tana aiki a asibiti.

They are studying at school. She works in the hospital.

Yana yin wasan ƙwallon ƙafa. Yarinya tana cin abincin rana.

He is playing soccer. The girl is eating lunch.

Namiji yana karanta littafi. Mace tana kallon talabijan.

The man is reading a book. The woman is watching television.

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Prepositions: Prepositions in Hausa are often multi-purpose and do not always translate perfectly to English equivalents. Below, we will introduce some common Hausa prepositions with their approximate English translations. You will need to take careful note of how they are used in the texts and sound files in order to fully understand how these prepositions are used. To Zuwa

(often implied)

Zuwa ina kike tafiya? = To where are you going? Ina tafiya kasuwa. = I am going (to) the market.

At A Ina zaune a gida. = I live at home. In Cikin Yana cikin mota. = He is in the car. On Bisa

A kan Tana bisa doki. = She is on the horse. Yana zaune a kan doki. = He is sitting on the horse.

Note that the prepositional meaning of “to” is different from the other meanings attached to the word in English. The Hausa zuwa is a translation of only the prepositional meaning.

6. Listen to the following statements in Hausa and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. Replay the audio if necessary. Take note of how the word kullum (always) or kowacce rana (every day) is used in certain sentences rather than the habitual pronoun. This is very common in Hausa. 1. The boy goes to school at 7:30. Kullum yaro yana tafiya makaranta a

ƙarfe 7:30 da safe.2. The man eats breakfast at seven o’clock. Namiji yana karya kumallo a ƙarfe 7:00. 3. The woman watches television in the evening.

Mace, tana kallon talabijin da dare.

4. The girl studies at home in the afternoon. Yarinya tana karatu a gida kullum da marece.

5. Ladi goes to the market in the morning. Ladi tana tahiya kasuwa kullum da safe.6. Lami plays soccer on Friday. Lami yana yin ƙwallon ƙafa kowacce

Juma’a.7. I get up at 7:00. Ina tashi a ƙarfe 7:00.

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7. Match the following sentences with the pictures below. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. Kullum ina tafiya makaranta a ƙarfe 9:30. 2. Kullum suna karya kumallo a ƙarfe 7:00. 3. Muna yin karatu da safe. 4. Tana karanta wani littafi da marece.

A #______________ B #_______________

C #____________ D #_________________ 8. Read the following text and answer the questions below in complete sentences in Hausa. If you have any difficulty, you may go to the Answer Key to check the text or the questions in English. Then, check your answers to the questions with the Answer Key. Amadu ɗalibi ne. Yana yin karatu a makaranta. Kullum da safe yana tashi a ƙarfe 7:15. Yana karya kumallo a ƙarfe 7:30. Yana tafiya zuwa makaranta a ƙarfe 8:00. Bayan ya tashi daga makaranta yana yin wasan ƙwallon kwando. Kullum yana karanta littattafai da kallon talabijin da dare. Amadu, ba ya yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi. 1. Amadu malamin makaranta ne? 2. Ina yake yin karatu? 3. Mi yakan yi a ƙarfe 7:15? 4. Yaushe yake karya kumallo? 5. Mi yake yi a ƙarfe 8:00? 6. Yaushe yake yi wasan ƙwallon kwando?

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7. Mi yake yi da dare? 8. Yana yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi ? 9. Rearrange the following statements into a logical order for a daily schedule. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Ina tafiya wurin abinci da rana tare da abokaina. 2. Ina kallon talabijin. 3. Ina tafiya makaranta. 4. Ina cin abincin dare tare da abokina. 5. Ina yin wasan ƙwallon kwando. 6. Ina karya kumallo. 7. Ina yin karatu a gida. 10. Tell your partner about your daily schedule. Use the words and word combinations given below.

Kowace rana Tashi Karya kumallo Tafiya wurin aiki Cin abincin rana Yi wasan ƙwallon kwando

Tafiya kasuwa Karanta wani littafi

Yin kallon telebijin Da dare

11. Listen to the five short statements. Circle the English statement that is the equivalent of each Hausa statement you hear. Replay the audio as many times as you need.

1. A. I play soccer after school. B. I play soccer after dinner. C. I play soccer after work.

2. A. She goes to the market in the evening. B. She goes to the market in the afternoon. C. She goes to the market in the morning.

3. A. I go to work in the morning. B. I go to school in the morning. C. I go to the market in the morning. 4. A. I study at home on Saturday. B. I play soccer at home on Saturday. C. I eat breakfast at home on Saturday.

5. A. He watches television in the afternoon. B. He watches television in the evening. C. He watches television in the morning.

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The Past (completive) Tense Pronoun: Below, we introduce the simple past tense in Hausa, also known as the completive. It is perhaps the simplest form of the pronoun to use, and it is used constantly. No conjugation chart is needed; simply study the conjugations of the following verbs to see the pattern. I went Na tafi I studied Na yi karatu You went Ka tafi You studied Ka yi karatu You went Kin tafi You studied Kin yi karatu He went Ya tafi He studied Ya yi karatu We went Mun tafi We studied Mun yi karatu You went Kun tafi You studied Kun yi karatu They went Sun tafi They studied Sun yi karatu One went An tafi One went An yi karatu I worked Na yi aiki I watched Na kalla You worked Ka yi aiki You watched Ka kalla You worked Kin yi aiki You watched Kin kalla He worked Ya yi aiki He watched Ya kalla We worked Mun yi aiki We watched Mun kalla You worked Kun yi aiki You watched Kun kalla They worked

Sun yi aiki They watched Sun kalla

One worked An yi aiki One watched An kalla I ate Na ci I read Na karanta You ate Ka ci You read Ka karanta You ate Kin ci You read Kin karanta He ate Ya ci He read Ya karanta We ate Mun ci We read Mun karanta You ate Kun ci You read Kun karanta They ate Sun ci They read Sun karanta One ate An ci One read An karanta I played Na yi wasa I got up Na tashi You played Ka yi wasa You got up Ka tashi You played Kin yi wasa You played Kin tashi He played Ya yi wasa He got up Ya tashi

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We played Mun yi wasa We got up Mun tashi You played Kun yi wasa You got up Kun tashi They played Sun yi wasa They got up Sun tashi One played An yi wasa One got up An tashi

Negation of Completive: The completive pronoun is negated using the formula ba … ba. Note that while the first half of this construct is syntactically fixed, the second ba has some flexibility. Positive Negative Na tafi Ban tafi ba Ka tafe Ba ka tafi ba Kin tafi Ba ki tafi ba Ya tafi Ba ya tafi ba./ Bai tafi ba. Ta tafi Ba ta tafi ba. Mun tafi. Ba mu tafi ba. Kun tafi. Ba ku tafi ba. Sun tafi. Ba su tafi ba. An tafi. Ba a tafi ba. The Relative-Completive: (and it’s negation) The completive pronoun (above) is the past tense of the regular continuous pronoun. In the same way the relative-completive pronoun is the past tense of the relative continuous pronoun. Below are a few examples showing the use of this pronoun form and a conjugation chart. I Na You Ka You Kika He Ya She Ta We Muka You Kuka They Suka One Aka

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Examples: Mi kike yi? = What are you doing? Mi kika yi? = What did you do? Note that the negation of the relative completive is formed essentially like the regular completive. Ba tahiya ba kika yi? Or Ba tahiya kika yi ba? 12. Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Jiya na tafi makaranta. 2. Bara ni da abokaina mun yi wasan ƙwallon kwando. 3. Sun ci kasuwa sati da ya wuce. 4. Na tafi gida a ƙarfe 9:00 jiya. 5. Jiya mun ci abincin dare a ƙarfe 6 :00. 6. Yaro ya yi karatun kiɗa da lissafi a makaranta bara. 7. Yarinya ta yi kallon telebijin jiya. 8. Ran Lahadin da ta wuce na karanta wani littafi. 9. Bara war haka na tafi Paris. 10. Ya yi shekara biyu muna da gida a Ƴamai. Yesterday – Jiya Last year – Bara Last week- Sati da ya wuce / makon jiya Last Sunday – Rar Lahadi da ta wuce A year ago – ya yi shekara ɗaya 13. Complete the following sentences using the verbs located in the box below. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Studied played watched got up went worked ate Yi karatu Yi wasa Kalli Tashi Tafi Yi aiki Ci 1. Na ________________ a ƙarfe 7:00 jiya. 2. Na ________________ abincin rana tare da uwayena. 3. Na ________________ kasuwa rar Lahadi da ta wuce. 4. Na ________________ wasan ƙwallon kwanda ran Litinin da ta wuce. 5. Na ________________ telebijin jiya.

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6. Na ________________ a Hotal bara. 7. Ya yi shekara ukku na ________________ a makaranta

14. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations given below. Work in pairs or in small groups. A. Mi kika yi jiya? B. Jiya na kalli talabijin. A. Awa nawa ka kalli talabijin jiya? B. Awa ɗaya. 15. Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations given below. Work in pairs or in small groups. 1. Jiya – kalli talabijin – awa ɗaya 2. Jiya – yi sayayya – awa biyu 3. Bara – yi aiki a masauki – sati huɗu 4. Bara – yi karatu a makaranta – sati takwas 5. Ran lahadi da ya wuce – karanta wani littafi – awa ɗaya 6. Ya yi shekara ɗaya – yi wasan ƙwallon kwando – sati shidda 7. Ya yi shekara ɗaya – zama a Nijeriya – sati biyu

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following statements read in Hausa. Circle the times you hear. 1. 6:30 - 5:30 2. 6:00 - 7:00 3. 9:30 - 8:30 4. 5:30 - 5:45 5. in the morning - in the evening 6. 6:00 - 8:00

2. Read the following text in Hausa. Put T (True) or F (False) next to the statements that are written below the text. Check your work with the Answer Key. Sannu. Sunana Nuri. A Katsina nike da zama. Ina da wani ƙaramin gida. Ni malamin makaranta ne. Ina koyan lissafi da kiɗa. Kowacce rana ina tashi a ƙarfe 6:00 da safe. Bayan karin kumallo ina tafiya makaranta. A ƙarfe 8:00 ina makaranta. Ran Talata da ran Alhamis ina yin wasan ƙwallon ƙafa awa biyu. Bayan mun tashi daga makaranta ina tafiya sayayya. Ina a gida a ƙarfe 5:00. Da dare ina kallon telebijin awa ɗaya kuma ina karanta littittafai awa biyu. 1. _______ The man lives in Katsina. 2. _______ He lives in small house. 3. _______ He is a student. 4. _______ He studies math and music. 5. _______ Everyday he gets up at 6:00 a.m. 6. _______ He does not have breakfast. 7. _______ He is at school at 8:00. 8. _______ Nuri plays soccer on Saturday and Monday for 3 hours. 9. _______ He goes shopping after school. 10. _______ In the evening he works for 2 hours.

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3. Describe your daily schedule of activities, including the times, in Hausa. For example, start with what time you get up, then eat breakfast, etc. “I get up at 6:00 and eat breakfast at 6:30. I go to school at …..”

4. Find out what your partner did yesterday at 7 a.m., 7:30 a.m., 10 a.m., 1 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m., and how long each activity lasted. Work in pairs or in small groups.

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Vocabulary List After Bayan In the morning Da safe In the afternoon Da rana/ da marece In the evening Da marece/ da dare Everyday Kowacce rana/ kullum Last week Sati da ya wuce/ makon jiya A year ago Ya yi shekara ɗaya Last Sunday (Monday, Tuesday, etc.)

Rar Lahadin da ta gabata/ da ta wuce

At school A makaranta Math Lissafi Music (instrumental) Kiɗa Music (singing) Waƙa Book Litafi (pl., littattafai) Breakfast Karin kumallo Lunch Abincin rana Dinner Abincin dare Home Gida (pl., gidaje) Place Wuri (pl., wurare) At home A gida Market Kasuwa (pl., kasuwowi) On Sunday (Monday, Tuesday…)

Rar Lahadi

To do Yi To go (to) Tafi / je To go shopping Ci kasuwa To play soccer Yi wasan ƙwallon ƙafa To play basketball Yi wasan ƙwallon kwando (Niger: Basket) To watch television Kallo/ kalla Breakfast Karin kumallo To eat breakfast Karya kumallo To eat Ci To get up Tashi To wake up Farka To read Karanta/ karatu To study Yi karatu To work Yi aiki

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To sit Zauna To come, arrive Zo/ zowa Horse Doki (pl., dawaki) Small Ƙarami Time Lokaci O’clock Ƙarfe Remainder Saura Quarter Kwata Half Rabi What time is it? Ƙarfe nawa ne? It is three o’clock. Ƙarfe ukku ne? In the morning Da safe In the midday Da rana In the late afternoon/ evening

Da marece/ Da yamma

At night Da dare Noon Tsakar rana When Yaushe Now Yanzu Also, again, and Kuma To Zuwa At A In Ciki, cikin On Bisa, a kan If, when In Man Namiji (pl., Maza) Woman Mace (pl., Mata) Boy Yaro (pl., Yara) Girl Yarinya (pl., ƴan mata)

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ANSWER KEY Activity 3 A. 8:15 a.m. B. 9:50 C. 5:10 D. 4:30 p.m. E. 7:10 Activity 7 A 3. We study in the morning. (Muna yin karatu da safe.) B 1. I go to school at 9:30. (Kullum ina tafiya makaranta a ƙarfe 9:30.) C. 2. They eat breakfast at 7:00. (Kullum suna karya kumallo a ƙarfe 7:00.) D 4. She reads a book in the evening. (Tana karanta wani littafi da marece.) Activity 8 Amadu is a student. He studies at school. Everyday he gets up at 7:15. He has breakfast at 7:30. He goes to school at 8:00. After school he plays basketball. He reads books and watches TV in the evening. He does not study on Saturday and Sunday. 1. Is Amadu a teacher? A’a Amadu ɗalibi ne. 2. Where does he study? Yana yin karatu a makaranta. 3. What does he do at 7:15? Kullum da safe yana tashi a ƙarfe 7:15. 4. When does he have breakfast? Yana karya kumallo a ƙarfe 7:30 5. What does he do at 8:00? Yana tafiya zuwa makaranta a ƙarfe 8:00. 6. When does he play basketball? Bayan ya tashi daga makaranta yana yin

wasan ƙwallon kwando. 7. What does he do in the evening? Kullum yana karanta littattafai da kallon

talabijin da marece. 8. Does he study on Saturday and Sunday? Amadu, ba ya yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi.

Activity 9 Your answers may vary. However, did you understand the statements? 6. I eat breakfast. (Ina karya kumallo.) 3. I go to school. (Ina tafiya makaranta.) 1. I go to lunch with my friends. (Ina tafiya wurin abinci da rana tare da abokaina.) 5. I play basketball. (Ina yin wasan ƙwallon kwando.) 4. I eat dinner with my friend. (Ina cin abincin dare tare da abokina.)

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7. I study at home. (Ina yin karatu a gida.) 2. I watch television.(Ina kallon talabijin.) Activity 11 1. B I play soccer after dinner. 2. C She goes to the market in the morning. 3. A I go to work in the morning. 4. B I play soccer at home on Saturday. 5. A He watches television in the afternoon. Activity 12 1. Yesterday I went to school. 2. Last year my friends and I played basketball. 3. They went shopping last week. 4. I was at home at 9:00 yesterday. 5. We ate dinner at 6:00 yesterday. 6. The boy studied music and math at school last year. 7. The girl watched television yesterday. 8. Last Sunday I read a book. 9. I was in Paris a year ago. 10. We had a house in Niamey two years ago. 1. Jiya na tafi makaranta. 2. Bara ni da abokaina mun yi wasan ƙwallon kwando. 3. Sun ci kasuwa sati da ya wuce. 4. Na tafi gida a ƙarfe 9:00 jiya. 5. Jiya mun ci abincin dare a ƙarfe 6 :00. 6. Yaro ya yi karatun kiɗa da lissafi a makaranta bara. 7. Yarinya ta yi kallon telebijin jiya. 8. Ran Lahadin da ta wuce na karanta wani littafi. 9. Bara war haka na tafi Paris. 10. Ya yi shekara biyu muna da gida a Ƴamai. Activity 13 1. tashi I got up at 7:00 yesterday.

2. ci I ate breakfast with my parents.

3. tafi I went shopping last Sunday.

4. yi wasan I played basketball last Monday.

5. kalli I watched television yesterday.

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6. yi aiki I was at the hotel last year.

7. yi karatu I studied at school three years ago. 1. Na ________________ a ƙarfe 7:00 jiya. 2. Na ________________ abincin rana tare da uwayena. 3. Na ________________ kasuwa rar Lahadi da ta wuce. 4. Na ________________ wasan ƙwallon kwanda ran Litinin da ta wuce. 5. Na ________________ telebijin jiya. 6. Na ________________ a Hotal bara. 7. Ya yi shekara ukku na ________________ a makaranta

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 1. 6:30 2. 7:00 3. 9:30 4. 5:45 5. in the morning 6. 8:00 Activity 2 1. T The man lives in Katsina. 2. T He lives in small house. 3. F He is a student. 4. F He studies math and music. 5. T Everyday he gets up at 6:00 a.m. 6. F He does not have breakfast. 7. T He is at school at 8:00. 8. F Nuri plays soccer on Saturday and Monday for 3 hours. 9. T He goes shopping after school. 10. F In the evening he works for 2 hours. Hello. My name is Nuri. I live in Katsina. I have a small house. I am a teacher at this school. I teach math and music. Everyday I get up at 6:00 a.m. I eat breakfast and go to school. I am at school at 8:00 a.m. On Tuesday and Thursday I play soccer for 2 hours. After school, I go shopping. I am home at 5:00. In the evening I watch TV for an hour and read books for 2 hours.

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Lesson 5 Meeting the Family

Gabatarwa da Ƴan Gida This lesson will introduce you to the following:

- The kinship terms used for immediate and extended family - How to ask and answer simple questions about family members - The pronouns “who,” “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those”

Talking about Family There is no way that we could place too much emphasis on the importance of family relationships in the Hausa culture. The family is the core of a person’s social network, the forum for all decision making, and a financial security net for the majority of Hausas. Therefore, it should not be surprising that when speaking Hausa, one spends a lot of time discussing family affairs and, yes, family gossip. The Hausa family organization is patriarchal, a traditional patriarchy that has long since adjusted to Islamic rules. Polygamy is the norm in the Hausa culture. Men are allowed up to four wives according to the version of Islam that is prevalent in Africa. In the case of divorce, children go to the father - as soon as they are old enough to be independent of their mother. This patriarchal view of family is also reflected in the naming system. Rather than a last name, the father’s name is used. Thus, if Lawali is the son of Audu, his name is Lawali Audu. And, if this Audu is the son of Ali, then Lawali’s full name is Lawali Audu Ali. This is why professions and characteristics are often used to differentiate between people and to identify them with a certain family. For instance, Lawali may be the son of the village forager, and so rather than using his father’s name, one would simple refer to him as Lawali of the Foragers. Sons and daughters generally live with their families until they are married, and even then it is normal for them to section off an area of the family household and continue to live with the larger family. Thus, there will very often be large extended families living together. This traditional approach is fading somewhat among some young upwardly mobile men in the cities, but it continues to be the norm. An ordinary family, meaning the nuclear family of a man and his wives, may have anywhere from five or six children to twenty or more depending on the number of wives, vitality, and health. The father continues to be the head of the household until death, not only over his immediate family, but second and third generations as well. Below are some useful terms for talking about family in Hausa.

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1. Look at these photos of families. Listen to the kinship terms and repeat after the speaker.

Family IyaliFamily (all household members) Ƴan gidaRelatives DangiParents UwayeMother UwaFather UbaChildren Ƴaƴa/ YaraDaughter ƊiyaSon ƊaGrandparents Kakanni

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Grandfather KakaGrandmother KakaSister* Ƴar’uwaOlder sister YaYounger sister ƘanwaSisters Ƴan’uwa mataBrother* Ɗan’uwaOlder brother WaYounger brother ƘaneOlder siblings YayaYounger siblings Ƙanne Brothers Ƴan’uwa maza

*Note: Although there is a generic word for brother and sister in Hausa, it is much more common to use the more specific words denoting younger brother or sister, and older brother or sister. Also, the generic words for brother and sister are often used to denote a more general relationship, somewhat like relative. Also, note that the words for grandmother and grandfather are the same. They are differentiated either by the pronoun that is attached to them or by some other external indication such as a subject pronoun. Determiners/ Pronouns: The Hausa words for who, this, these, that, and those will now be introduced. First look at the following list, and then study the examples below: Wa Who (m/f)

Wane Who (m)

Wace Who (f)

Wannan This (m/f)

Wancan That (m)

Waccan That (f)

Waɗanan These

Waɗancan Those As in English, these words can often be used interchangeably with “he,” “she,” or “they,” depending on the situation. Wannan namiji ne. = This is a man. Wannan mace ce. = This is a woman. Wancan namiji ne. = That is a man.

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Waccan mace ce. = That is a woman. Waɗanan ƴan gidanmu ne. = These are members of our household. Wane ne? = Who is it? (masculine) Wace ce? = Who is it? (feminine) Wa ya zo? = Who arrived? Note: In some dialects wanga will be used in place of wannan.

2. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat them after the speaker. Role-play the dialogues using the pictures above. 1. A. Who is this? Wace ce wannan? B. This is my mother. Ita uwata ce. 2. A. Who is that? Wace ce waccan? B. That is my younger

sister. Waccan ƙanwata ce.

3. A. Who are they? Su wane ne? B. They are my parents. Su uwayena ne. 4. A. Who are they? Su wane ne? B. They are my

grandparents. Su kakannina ne.

3. Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Uwata da ubana suna da ɗa guda da ɗiya biyu. 2. Ina zaune tare da kakannina cikin wani babban gida. 3. Uwayensa suna zaune a Kaduna. Su leburori ne. 4. Ina da wa da ƙane. Su sojoji ne. A wani sansani suke da zama. 5. Tana da ƙanwa. Sunanta Hadiza. 6. Wana yana da shekara 30. Yana da ɗa guda da ɗiya guda.

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4. Talk about your mother/father/sister/brother/grandfather/grandmother according to the scheme below: 1. Name 2. Age 3. Occupation 4. Where they live (city and type of residence) Model: Wannan ubana ne. Sunansa Amadu. Shekara 48 gareshi. Shi malamin makaranta ne. A Maraɗi yake da zama. Yana da wani ƙaramin gida. 5. Create questions in Hausa to the following answers. Check your work with the Answer Key for some suggested questions. 1. __________________? I, wannan ƙanena ne. 2. __________________? Sunansa Amadu 3. __________________? A Maiduguri yake da zama. 4. __________________? Shi Likita ne. 5. __________________? Yakan tafiya wurin aiki ranar Litinin. 6. __________________? A’a, yana yin wasan ƙwallon gora ta “baseball” kowace ranar Talata.

6. Listen to the audio. Circle the word you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Mother - Father

2. Daughter - Son 3. Family - Parents 4. Children - Grandparents 5. Younger sister - Older brother 6. Grandmother - Mother

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7. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. Husband MijiWife MataMarried Da aureUnmarried young woman Budurwa Previously married woman

Zawara / Bazawara

Previously married man GwauroUnmarried man (older) TuzuruUnmarried Marar aureYoung man Saurayi

8. Fill in the blanks using the words written in the boxes below. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. ɗa shekara 5 shekara 30 -sa da aure -ta likita Ƙanena yana ___________. Matarsa _________ ce. Sunan____ Sa’adiya. Tana da _________________. Suna da ____________. Yana da _____________. Sunan____ Mamadu. 2. da aure -sa shekara 8 ɗiya -ta ƙanwa shekara 10 soji -su Bello yana da ________. Sunan___ Hadiza. Tana ________. Mijinta _________ ne. Sunan______ Ali. Suna da __________ biyu. Sunan____ Hawa da Saude. Hawa ce baba. Tana da _________. Saude tana da ____________. 9. Make up short stories in Hausa about the people listed below. 1. Aisha – da aure, da shekara 31, mijinta, lebura ne, ɗa guda da ɗiya guda. 2. Ɗanladi – da aure, da shekare 28, matarsa, malama ce, babu ƴaƴa. 3. Mariama – budurwa, da shekara 20, tare da uwayenta, ɗaliba ce, da ƙane.

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10. Listen to several short dialogues as people answer questions about their family members. Circle the correct answer for each question. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. A. Wace ce? B. Ita uwata ce / ƙanwata ce / kakata ce. 2. A. Tana da aure? B. A’a, ita budurwa ce / likita ce / zawara ce. 3. A. Shi wane ne? B. Shi matata ce / mijina ne / ubana ne. 4. A. Su wane ne? B. Su uwayena ne / ƴaƴana ne / kakannina ne. 5. A. Ina suke da zama? B. Suna zama a bariki / cikin tanti / cikin gida. 6. A. Kana da yaya ko ƙanne? B. I, ina da wa biyu / ƴa biyu / ɗa biyu. 7. A. Wace ce wannan? B. Wannan matata ce / uwata ce / mijina ne. 8. A. Tana da ƴaƴa? B. I, tana da ƙane biyu / ƙanwa biyu / ɗa biyu. 11. Read and translate the text. Put T (True) or F (False) next to the statements below. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Lawali yana da kakanni biyu, kakansa da kakarsa. Suna zaune tare da Alhajji Sa’idu da iyalinsa. Lawali ba ya da wa ko ƙane. Amma yana da ƴa da ƙanwa. Su ɗalibai ne. Lawali yana da aure. Matarsa likita ce. Lawali da matarsa suna da ɗiya guda da ɗa guda.

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1. ________Lawali yana da uwaye.

2. ________Lawali yana da aure.

3. ________Yana da ƴa da ƙanwa.

4. ________Lawali da matarsa ɗalibai ne.

5. ________Lawali likita ne.

6. ________Lawali yana da ƴaƴa biyu.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Give a brief description in Hausa of your immediate family. Include the age, name, and profession of each person, and tell whether each person is married or single, and where he or she lives. If you want to, use real pictures of your family members. 2. Ask your classmate in Hausa about his or her family (mother, father, sister, brother, etc.) What are their names, how old are they, where do they live, and what are their professions? 3. Work in small groups. Describe the pictures below. Use new vocabulary.

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Vocabulary List Parents Uwaye Father Uba Mother Uwa Children Ƴaƴa Son ɗa Daughter ɗiya Brother (relative) Ɗan’uwa Older brother Wa Younger brother Ƙane Sister (relative) Ƴar’uwa Older sister Ya Younger sister Ƙanwa Older siblings Yaya Younger siblings Ƙannai Grandparents Kakanni Grandmother Kaka Grandfather Kaka Husband Miji Wife Mata Married Da aure Unmarried Marar aure (f)/ Maras aure (m) Unmarried/ Single young woman Budurwa Divorced single woman Zawara/ Bazawara Young man Saurayi Previously married man Gwauro Unmarried man (older) Tuzuru Who is he/she? Shi wane ne?

Ita wace ce? Who are they? Su wane ne? He is … Shi … ne. She is … Ita … ce. These/ Those are… Su … ne. One/ A single Guda This (m/f) Wannan Who (in questions) Wa That (m) Wancan

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That (f) Waccan These Waɗanan Those Waɗancan Baseball Wasan ƙwallon gora ta “baseball” Occupation/ Profession Sana’a Owner of/ the one with Mai Big (f) Babba

Note: Note that the word guda is used very much like ɗaya in many cases. These words have overlapping uses, and they are both very common.

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ANSWER KEY Activity 3 1. My mother and father have one son and two daughters. 2. I live with my grandparents in a big house. 3. His parents live in Kaduna. They are laborers. 4. I have two brothers. They are soldiers. They live in a military camp. 5. She has a sister. Her name is Hadiza. 6. My brother is 30 years old. He has a son and a daughter. 1. Uwata da ubana suna da ɗa guda da ɗiya biyu. 2. Ina zaune tare da kakannina cikin wani babban gida.) 3. Uwayensa suna zaune a Kaduna. Su leburori ne. 4. Ina da wa da ƙane. Su sojoji ne. A wani sansani suke da zama. 5. Tana da ƙanwa. Sunanta Hadiza. 6. Wana yana da shekara 30. Yana da ɗa guda da ɗiya guda. Activity 5 These are some possible questions.Yours may vary slightly.

1. Mi sunansa? What is his name?

2. Wannan ƙanenka ne? Is this your brother?

3. Ina yake da zama? Where does he live?

4. Mine ne sana’arsa? What is his occupation?

5. Yaushe yakan tafiya wurin aiki? When does he go to work?

6. Yana aiki ran Talata? Does he work on Tuesday? Activity 6 1. Father 2. Daughter 3. Family 4. Grandparents 5. Older sister 6. Younger sister 7. Grandmother

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Activity 8 1. Ƙanena yana da aure. Matarsa likita ce. Sunanta Sa’adiya. Tana da shekara 30. Suna da ɗa guda. Yana da shekara 5. Sunansa Mamadu.. 1. My brother is married. His wife is a doctor. Her name is Sa’adiya. His wife is 30 years old. They have a son. He is 5 years old. His name is Mamadu. 2. Bello yana da ƙanwa. Sunanta Hadiza. Tana da aure. Mijinta soji ne. Sunansa Ali. Suna da ɗiya biyu. Sunansu Hawa da Saude. Hawa ce babba. Tana da shekara 10. Saude tana da shekara 8. 2. Bello has a sister. Her name is Hadiza. She is married. Her husband is a soldier. His name is Ali. They have two daughters. Their names are Hawa and Saude. Hawa is older and is 10 years old. Saude is 8 years old. Activity 10 1. Ita wace ce? Ita ƙanwata ce. 2. Tana da aure? A’a, ita budurwa ce. 3. Shi wane ne? Shi mijina ne. 4. Su wane ne? Su ƴaƴana ne. 5. Ina suke da zama? Suna zama cikin gidan haya. 6. Kina da wa ko ƙane? I, ina da wa guda da ƙane guda. 7. Wace ce wannan? Ita matata ce. 8. Tana da ƴaƴa? I, tana da ɗa biyu. 1. Who is she? She is my sister. 2. Is she married? No, she is single. 3. Who is he? He is my husband. 4. Who are they? They are my children. 5. Where do they live? They live in the apartment. 6. Do you have any brothers? Yes, I have two brothers. 7. Who is that? That is my wife. 8. Does she have any children? Yes, she has two sons. Activity 11 1. F Lawali has parents. 2. T Lawali is married. 3. T He has two sisters 4. F Lawali and his wife are students. 5. F Lawali is a doctor. 6. T Lawali has two children.

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Lawali has a grandfather and a grandmother. They live with Lawali and his family. Lawali has no brothers. He has two sisters. They are students. Lawali is married. His wife is a doctor. Lawali and his wife have a daughter and a son.

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Lesson 6 Around Town Cikin Gari

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Cardinal directions - Names of urban buildings and landmarks - How to ask and answer questions about locations of places and buildings.

1. Listen to and repeat the cardinal directions.

North Arewa

Northeast Arewa maso gabasNorthwest Arewa maso yamma

East Gabas

Southeast Kudu maso gabas

South Kudu/ Gusum

West Yamma

Southwest Kudu maso yamma

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2. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook.

Zinder is north of Kano. Zinder tana arewa da Kano.Niamey is west of Maradi. Yamai tana yamma da Maraɗi.

3. Work with a partner. Tell each other where certain cities or locations are in relation to other cities or locations. Compose sentences according to the exercise above and the model below. Model: Los Angeles is south of San Francisco. Los Angeles tana kudu da San Francisco. The building is east of the military camp. Gini yana gabas da sansani.

4.Topographical features, urban buildings and landmarks are useful reference points when getting to know a new area or for giving and receiving directions. Listen to a list of common sites and features. Repeat after the speaker while following along in your workbook. Airport Filin jirgin samaTown Gari City Birni/ MarayaSmall rural village Ƙauye Bank Banki

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Building Gini/ SoroHouse GidaRoad HanyaSmall street, alley TitiNeighborhood UnguwaBush taxi station TashaCar Mota Bus station Tashar bas

(Niger: Tashar kar)Train station Tashar jirgen ƙasaPolice station Ofishin ƴan sandaCafé Gidan gahuwaRestaurant Gidan abinciChurch CociMosque MasallaciMovie theater Siliman/ Gidan siliman Hospital Asibiti/ MajiyyataMarket KasuwaStreet vendor Mai teburPharmacy Kantin Magani

(Niger: farmasi)Post office Gidan wayaStore Shago/ KantiPark (city park) Wurin ShaƙatawaPark (game park) Gandun dajiFactory Masana’antaBridge GadaFarm, field GonaThe Bush Daji Tropical Forest Kurmi Lake Tafki (tabki)Mountain Dutsi (literally, rock) Hill TuduRiver KogiTree IcceOpen bush, rural area Karkara

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5. Match the English word in the left column with the Hausa equivalent in the right column. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Airport A. Masana’anta 2. Bank B. Asibiti 3. Bus Station C. Filin jirgin sama 4. Café D. Kantin magani 5. Church E. Gidan abinci 6. Movie Theater F. Wurin shaƙatawa 7. Factory G. Gidan waya 8. Hospital H. Tashar bas 9. Park I. Banki 10. Pharmacy J. Gidan gahuwa 11. Post Office K. Siliman 12. Restaurant L. Coci Directions: Before continuing on to section six, we will introduce a second way of stating cardinal directions. You have already been introduced to the direction + da formula. Now, we will introduce the second common formula. Below are the same sentences that were used previously with their equivalents using the words arewacin, kudancin, yammacin, and gabashin. Zinder tana arewa da Kano. = Zinder tana arewacin Kano. Niamey tana yamma da Maraɗi. = Niamey tana yammacin Maraɗi. Abuja tana kudu da Zaria. = Abuja tana kudancin Zaria. Maiduguri tant gabas da Katsina. = Maiduguri tana gabashin Katsina. 6. Translate the following sentences from Hausa into English. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Kasuwa, tana kudancin banki. 2. Kogi, yana gabas da tudunan nan. 3. Filin jirgin sama, yana yammacin masauka. 4. Duwatsu da tafkuna, suna gabas da daji. 5. Kogi yana kudancin gona. 6. Siliman yana gabas da asibiti. 7. Tafki yana arewa da wurin shaƙatawa.

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7. Practice composing and pronouncing the vocabulary. Create sentences according to the model. Use the words below.

Model: Wurin shaƙatawa yana gabashin gidan waya. 1. Filin jirgin sama -gabas da -tafki 2. Banki -kudancin -asibiti 3. Kantin Magani -yamma da -gidan waya 4. Gada -arewacin -kogi 5. Tashar bas -gabas da -ofishin ƴan sanda 6. Masana’anta -kudancin -gona 7. Gona -yamma da -gari 8. Wurin shaƙatawa -arewacin -tafki

8. Listen to the speaker and circle the term you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. north west south 2. bank park bridge 3. train station bus station airport 4. restaurant café factory 5. post office pharmacy hospital 6. church movie theater factory 7. lake river farm 8. building bridge mountain

9. Listen to the following words and word combinations and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Where is …? Questions of location or direction in Hausa are formed using the word ina, which means “where.” We have already seen this word in earlier chapters and noted that it is differentiated by tone and vowel length from the pronoun ina. In the examples in the next section, there is a series of where questions and their answers. Note that a question such as “Ina coci yake?” can also be shortened to “Ina coci?” in most cases.

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In front of…… Gaban … Next to…… Dab da … Between…… and…… Tsakanin … da … Across the street Ƙetaren hanya Facing … Fuskantar … (kallon …)Near … Kusa da … (kusan…)Far from … Nesa da … Turn left … Yi hagu …Turn right … Yi dama … Go straight … Miƙe … Turn the corner … Sha kwana … Follow the road … Bi hanya … Where is the bank? Ina banki?

Ina banki yake?The bank is over there. Banki yana can.Here NanThere CanIs it far? Yana da nisa? By foot A ƙasaBy car A motaHow many minutes to … Minti nawa da zuwa …From here Daga nanOn the right Hannun damaOn the left Hannun hagu

10. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Then translate them into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Ina tafki yake? Tafki yana dab da daji.2. Ina kasuwa take? Kasuwa tana tsakanin ofishin ƴan sanda da coci.3. Ina gidan waya yake? Gidan waya yana kusa da asibiti. 4. Ina tashar jirgin ƙasa take? Tashar jirgin ƙasa tana fuskantar wurin shaƙatawa.5. Ina gidan gahuwa yake? Gidan gahuwa yana gaban hotal.

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11. Work with a partner. Compose similar dialogues using the words below. Role-play your dialogues. Model: A. Gafara dai Malam. Ina wurin shaƙatawa yake? B. Wurin shaƙatawa yana gaban asibiti. A. To, na gode. B. Babu laifi. 1. wurin shaƙatawa gaban asibiti 2. filin jirgin sama fuskantar tashar bas 3. daji dab da dutsi 4. ofishin ƴan sanda kusa da siliman 5. coci tsakanin masana’anta da wurin shaƙatawa

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Translate each phrase into Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. The restaurant is next to the hotel. B. The park is north of the lake. C. The bank is between the church and the bus station. D. The market is south of the bridge. E. The café is across from the bookstore. F. The field is in front of the town. 2. Work with a partner or in small groups. In Hausa, come up with a list of the facilities on your base. Then draw a schematic map of the base. Now describe the location of each facility. Use the following vocabulary: shago, asibiti, ofishin ƴan sanda, siliman, wurin shaƙatawa, masauki, coci, filin jirgin sama, gidan abinci, daji, and your language training facility. Use these prepositions: tsakanin, dab da, fuskantar, and gaban.

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Vocabulary List Where (interrogative) Ina North Arewa South Kudu / Gusum East Gabas West Yamma North of … Arewacin South of … Kudancin / gusumcin East of … Gabashin West of … Yammacin Town Gari (pl. garuruwa) City Birni (pl. birane) Small rural village Ƙauye (pl. ƙauyuka) Neighborhood Unguwa (pl. unguwowi) Mountain Babban tudu / Dutsi Hill Tudu (pl. tuduna) Lake Tafki / Tabki (pl. tafkuna) River Kogi (pl. Kogaye) Forest Daji (pl. dazuzzuka) Bridge Gada (pl. gadoji) Road / Street Hanya (pl. hanyoyi) Small street / alley Titi (pl. tituna) Store Shago (Niger: kanti) Street vendor Mai tebur Market Kasuwa (pl. kasuwanni / kasuwowi) Church Coci Mosque Masallaci (pl. masallatai) Restaurant Gidan abinci (pl. gidajen …) Café Gidan gahuwa City park Wurin shaƙatawa (pl. wuraren …) Game park Gandun daji (pl. gandayen daji) Bank Banki (pl. bankuna) Car Mota (pl. motoci) Airport Filin jiragen sama (pl. filayen …) Train station Tashar jiragen ƙasa (pl tashoshin …) Bus station Tashar bas Bush taxi station Tasha (pl. tashoshi)

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Pharmacy Kantin magani (pl. kantunan …) Hospital Asibiti (pl. asibitoci) Movie Theater Siliman / Gidan siliman Factory Masana’anta (pl. masana’antu) Farm / field Gona (pl. gonaki) Post office Gidan waya (pl. gidajen …) Police station Ofishin ƴan sanda (pl. ofisoshin …) Bookstore Kantin Littattafai Right Dama Left Hagu In front of Gaban Next to Dab da Between Tsakanin Close to Kusa da Across from Fuskantar Far (adv) Nesa Far (noun) Nisa Problem Laifi No problem / You’re welcome

Babu laifi / Ba Laifi

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ANSWER KEY Activity 5 1. Airport C. Filin jirgin sama 2. Bank I. Banki 3. Bus Station H. Tashar bas 4. Café J. Gidan gahuwa 5. Church L. Coci 6. Movie Theater K. Siliman 7. Factory A. Masana’anta 8. Hospital B. Asibiti 9. Park F. Wurin shaƙatawa 10. Pharmacy D. Kantin magani 11. Post Office G. Gidan waya 12. Restaurant E. Gidan abinci Activity 6 1. The market is south of the bank 2. The river is east of the mountains. 3. The airport is west of the hotel. 4. The mountains and lakes are east of the forest. 5. The river is south of the farm. 6. The movie theater is east of the hospital. 7. The lake is north of the park. 1. Kasuwa, tana kudancin banki. 2. Kogi, yana gabas da tudunan nan. 3. Filin jirgin sama, yana yammacin masauka. 4. Duwatsu da tafkuna, suna gabas da daji. 5. Kogi yana kudancin gona. 6. Siliman yana gabas da asibiti. 7. Tafki yana arewa da wurin shaƙatawa.

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Activity 8 1. north arewa 2. bridge gada 3. bus station tashar bas 4. café gidan gahuwa 5. post office gidan waya 6. church coci 7. farm gona 8. mountain dutsi Activity 10 1. Where is the lake? The lake is next to the forest. 2. Where is the market? The market is between the police station and the church. 3. Where is the post office? The post office is near the hospital. 4. Where is the train station? The train station is across from the park. 5. Where is the café? It is in front of the hotel. 1. Ina tafki yake? Tafki yana dab da daji. 2. Ina kasuwa take? Kasuwa tana tsakanin ofishin ƴan sanda da coci. 3. Ina gidan waya yake? Gidan waya yana kusa da asibiti. 4. Ina tashar jirgin ƙasa take? Tashar jirgin ƙasa tana fuskantar wurin shaƙatawa. 5. Ina gidan gahuwa yake? Gidan gahuwa yana gaban hotal. End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 A. Gidan abinci yana dab da masauki. B. Wurin shaƙatawa yana arewacin tafki. C. Banki, yana tsakanin coci da tashar bas. D. Kasuwa, tana kudancin gada. E. Gidan gahuwa, yana fuskantar kantin littattafai. F. Gona, tana gaban gari.

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A. The restaurant is next to the hotel. B. The park is north of the lake. C. The bank is between the church and the bus station. D. The market is south of the bridge. E. The café is across from the bookstore. F. The field is in front of the town.

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Lesson 7Shopping Sayayya

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Customs and practices accepted in the marketplaces of Nigeria and Niger - Names of foods and stores - How to make purchases in Nigeria and Niger - The verbs “to want,” “to buy,” “to pay,” and “to take” - The modal verb “can”.

Economy: Hausas have traditionally been merchants. It was, in fact, largely because of the many traveling Hausa merchants that Hausa became such a widespread trade language in West Africa. To this day, Hausa remains a trade language far beyond the borders of Hausaland proper. It is not uncommon to hear the meat vendors on the streets of Ghana calling out “suya” (a Hausa word meaning cooked meat) or to see the rows of Hausa money changers at the border. The traditional economy of Niger and Northern Nigeria remains largely unchanged today. Although currency is now used in place of gold, cowry shells, and other means of bartering, the basic system is the same. For the majority of the population, buying and selling take place in large open air markets, where the primary goods are locally grown and made. These goods include items such as millet, corn, milk, and livestock. There are some stores where the prices are listed on items, but for the most part bargaining is expected. For the outsider, bargaining is absolutely necessary. The average Hausa is poor by global standards, considering that he or she lives a subsistence lifestyle with relatively few luxuries. The cost of living in this area of the world is extremely cheap by Western standards; it is one of the cheapest in the world, in fact, but for locals it can still prove impossible to find money for food. The season before harvest is sometimes referred to as the “hunger season,” and many children do not make it through this period. In 2005, in fact, Niger won the dubious distinction of being at the very bottom of the Human Development Index. Nigeria is significantly better off economically, but is plagued by high crime rates and systemic corruption. The standard of living in urban areas is significantly higher than average, but still not high.

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Currency in Nigeria: The currency in Nigeria is called the Naira. The following chart shows the denominations of this currency and their Hausa names. Note that most of the bills and coins have a Hausa nickname in addition to their proper Hausa name. Coins: Notes: 1k Kwabo 5k Kwabo biyar / sisi ₦1 Naira 10k Kwabo goma / sule ₦5 Naira biyar / mai Tafawa Balewa 25k Kwabo ashirin da biyar / dala ₦10 Naira goma / balama 50k Kwabo hamsin / sule biyar ₦20 Naira ashirin / ƴar Murtala The abbreviation k in the above chart denotes kobo, which is to the Naira what the cent is to the dollar. The Hausa kwabo is derived from this word. Currency in Niger: The currency in Niger is the CFA Franc (tamma in Hausa), which is the currency of the majority of francophone West Africa. Due to the devaluation of the CFA franc, it has become standard in Hausa to count money with fives (dala) as the base increment, and it is rare that one would have any reason to refer to a tamma in day to day Hausa. When the counting is done in French, however, the base increment is the franc. There are nicknames for many of the coins, but as they are somewhat regional in nature, they are left out of this chart. Counting by fives looks a bit intimidating at first, but it is actually a fairly convenient way to talk about the currency.

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Coins: Notes: CFA 5 Dala CFA 1,000 Ƴar jika CFA 10 Dala biyu CFA 2,000 Ƴar jika biyu CFA 25 Dala biyar CFA 5,000 Ƴar jika biyar CFA 50 Dala goma CFA 10,000 Ƴar jika goma CFA 100 Dala ashirin CFA 200 Dala arba’in CFA 250 Dala Hamsin CFA 500 Dala ɗari Using the dala and the jika as your base, you must learn to talk about money in Hausa. See below some examples of this system.

CFA 125 Dala ashirin da biyar CFA 300 Dala sittin CFA 1,500 Ɗari ukku / jika da rabi CFA 290 Dala sittin ba biyu CFA 900 Jika ba ashirin / ɗari da tamanin

In these examples, take note of the fact that 1,500 is generally referred to as “a jika and a half” or “three hundred.” Note also the use of ba to indicate “minus.” Thus, rather than saying “fifty-eight,” one generally says “sixty minus two.” This is usually used when the amount is just a bit shy of a round number.

1. Listen to the following vocabulary and repeat after the speaker.

Ayaba Mangworo Tumatir Dankali

Madara Man shanu Ƙwai Cuku

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Millet Shinkafa Burodi Sukari Hatsi

Sorghum

Masara Kifi Naman kaza Dawa

Millet drink Millet mush

Fura Tuwo Alkama Kabewa

Nama Ruwa Wake Gujiya

Salati Kabeji / Shu

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2. Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask your partner what foods he or she has at home. Use the model below. Model: A. Wane irin abinci kake da shi a gida? B. Ina da ayaba da tumatir da dankalin turawa.

3. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow along in the workbook. Look at the pictures and try to guess the meaning of the underlined words.

Wannan kantin kayan cefane ne.

Hadiza, tana aiki a kantin kayan cefane. Ita kashiya ce.

Nura yana aiki a kantin kayan cefane. Shi mai jiran kanti ne.

Awa tana aiki a kantin tufafi. Ita mai jiran

kanti ce.Amadu yana aiki a kantin tufafi. Shi

kashiya ne. Did you understand the underlined words? Kantin kayan cefane means grocery store. Kashiya means cashier. Mai jiran kanti means salesclerk (usually referring to a person who runs a shop). Kantin tufafi means clothing store.

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Shops, Stores, and Street Vendors In Nigeria and Niger, there are some shops and markets that resemble Western shops and markets, especially in the urban areas. However, the majority of economic activity still takes place in open air markets or through street vendors who vend their wares from a table or even a mat by the side of the road. The informal sector makes up a large part of the economy, and small vendors predominate. Except in the expensive shops that specialize in Western goods, do not expect to find prices marked. Below are a few terms and words for describing businesses.

Mai Tebur A street or market vendor who sells goods from a table or even a mat by the roadside or in the market.

Mai saida … This title translates as “one who sells …” and is commonly used to distinguish a particular vendor specializing in a particular product.

Mai … Similar to the above example; “one who …” This is used to describe various professions such as “one who repairs radios.”

Ɗan kasuwa (m.) Ƴar kasuwa (f.)

Market trader. Any person involved in commerce.

Kanti/ Shago A small shop that usually sells an assortment of basic goods but sometime specializes in a particular type of product. Kanti tends to refer more to shops selling Western or modern goods, while shago tends to refer more to traditional shops that can be found in most villages.

Mai talla Wandering salesperson (often a young child) who sells food or other small goods. Usually this person carries the product on his or her head.

Another thing to remember is that the word kanti has a very broad range of application. This is because Hausa does not have words for different types of stores. Traditionally, there were no gift stores, bookstores, grocery stores, and such, and so the language has not formed words for these distinctions. One way that words are formed for these types of shops is to use the word kanti followed by the type of item that is sold. For example, Kantin littattafai is a bookstore. This is the simplest approach, and the one used in this textbook. But, one should bear in mind that often the descriptions are longer and more convoluted. For instance, rather than saying Kantin kyaututtuka for gift shop, one might say Kanti inda ake saida kyaututtuka, meaning the shop where gifts are sold. Likewise there is no set word for department store. The simplest translation, and the one used here, is simply babban kanti, meaning a large shop. Other possible translations would take the form of a description of a large shop where many different types of things are sold under one roof. The third option, one that is used often in the cities, is to simply refer to the place in English or French. All of this is something that one must bear in mind when learning Hausa, because on the street, and depending on where you live, the terminology may vary.

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4. Work in pairs or in small groups. Make up dialogues using the model below. Model:

A. Dan Ladi, ina yake aiki? A. Where does Dan Ladi work? B. Ɗan Ladi yana aiki a kantin kayan cefane. B. Dan Ladi works at the grocery store.

I want to: (introduction to the subjunctive) In English, when a transitive verb refers to another verb, we use the second verb in the infinitive. The result is “I want to play” or “I need to go.” This same principle is true for many Western languages. In Hausa, however, the infinitive is not used. Rather, the subjunctive form of the pronoun is used to connect the verbs. The subjunctive is used a lot in Hausa, and this is one of the most common of its uses. Below is a table showing the full conjugation of the phrase “I want to buy.” By studying this chart, you can see the full conjugation of the subjunctive pronoun. In the first sentence below, note that the first part, ina so, translates as “I want.” The second part, in saya, translates as “to buy,” but it literally translates as “I buy.” Therefore, the full sentence would literally translate as “I want I buy.” This use of the subjunctive is fairly easy to remember, however, as we can simply place the subjunctive pronoun where we would place “to” in English. Look over the following chart, focusing on the conjugation of the subjunctive pronoun. Keep in mind that while many of these pronouns appear to be the same as the past tense, they are differentiated from other similar pronouns by tone and vowel length. The subjunctive also acts as the imperative.

Ina so in saya

Kana so ka saya

Kina so ki saya

Yana so ya saya

Tana so ta saya

Muna so mu saya

Kuna so ku saya

Suna so su saya

Ana so a saya Note: Saya is a verb that changes its ending, depending on what kind of object it takes. When it takes a pronoun direct object, it ends in i. When it takes a direct object, it ends in e. And, the verbal noun is saye.

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5. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow along in your workbook. Look at the pictures and try to guess the meaning of the underlined words.

Nadia, tana so ta sayi littafi. Tana a kantin littattafai.

Sule, yana so ya sayi agogo. Yana a wani kantin kyaututtuka.

Did you understand the underlined words? Kantin littattafai means bookstore. Agogo means clock. Kantin kyaututtuka means gift store. 6. Match each Hausa sentence in the left column with the English equivalent in the right column. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. Ina so in sayi burodi da man shanu. A. Amadu wants to buy fish.

2. Abubakar, yana so ya sayi littafi. B. They want to buy cheese.

3. Amadu yana so ya sayi kifi. C. I want to buy bread and butter.

4. Kabiru, yana so ya sayi agogo. D. My sister wants to buy clothes.

5. Muna so mu sayi kyauta. E. Kabiru wants to buy a clock.

6. Suna so su sayi cuku. F. Abubakar wants to buy a book.

7. Ƙanwata tana so ta sayi tufafi. G. We want to buy a gift. Grammar Note There is no exact translation in Hausa for the English word “of.” However, the endings n and r play a very similar role. The n is attached to masculine nouns and the r to feminine nouns. See the following examples, many of which you have already seen. This is the same principle as the attached possessive pronouns except tht it applies to nouns instead of pronouns.

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Sunanka = your name (the name of you) Ruwan Lawali = Lawali’s water (ruwa is masculine) Ƙasar Niger = the country of Niger (ƙasa = country) Buying Things: Amounts In the Hausa marketplace, units of measurement differ somewhat from what we are used to in America. The terms “pound” or “kilo” are used for some things, just like in English, but there are many terms which would not normally be used in English. One must simply get used to which units of quantity are used in regard to different items. Below is a list of terminology that should give an idea of what terms are common and how they are used. Note that the term “pile” is used a lot. This is because the market vendors lay out their goods on a mat or table in little piles and charge per pile. It is also common to see a large pile of an item, in which case you would just tell the vendor how many francs’ (or Naira’s) worth you would like. To say this, you simply say the item followed by na for a masculine noun, or ta for a feminine noun and then the amount that you hope to spend. If the amount given is too small, just ask the vendor to add some. Grains, flour, sugar, and other such items are often sold by the kwano. This is a standard sized bowl that is used as an increment of measure. A kilo of rice Kilon shinkafa A box of sugar Kwalin sukari A mango Mangworo guda A packet Fakiti (Niger: fake) / ƙunshi / kwali

(kwalin sukari)² A bowl of sorghum Kwanon dawa A pile of sweet potatoes Dankali, kashi guda A loaf of bread Burodi guda A bottle of water Kwalbar ruwa A carton of milk Kwalin madara A dozen eggs Ƙwai dozen/ ƙwai goma sha biyu ₦50 worth of meat Nama na ₦50 7. Work with a partner or in small groups. Pretend that you are planning to have a surprise birthday party for one of your classmates. You need to buy some food and gifts. Make a shopping list and tell your partner in Hausa what you want to buy. How much is it? To ask how much something costs in Hausa, the interrogative nawa is used. However, because bargaining is usually necessary, there are a few more useful words that will be needed in order to get the right price. The following dialogue shows a simple bargaining scene and gives examples of some essential bargaining terminology. This dialogue uses some words and grammar that you

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are not yet familiar with, but it will give you a good idea of how bargaining sounds in Hausa, and there are certain terms used that should be memorized. Below, you will see the doubling of nawa to indicate “each” or “a piece.” And, you will notice that the last word in a given number is repeated to indicate “each” or “a piece” in the response. Ali: Mai tebur, ina kwana? Ali: Mai tebur, how are you?

Mai Tebur: Lafiya lau. Ina rana? Mai tebur: I’m good. How’s the heat.

Ali: Kai! Akwai rana. Ali: Man! It is hot out.

Mai Tebur: To, mi zan baka? Mai Tebur: Ok, so what can I get you?

Ali: Tumatir nike so. Ali: I would like some tomatoes.

Mai Tebur: To, nawa zan ba ka. Mai Tebur: Ok, how many would you like?

Ali: Guda biyar nike so. Nawa nawa ne? Ali: I would like five. How much each?

Mai tebur: Dala goma goma ne. Mai Tebur : Fifty francs a piece.

Ali: Ka rage mini. Ali: Reduce the price for me.

Mai Tebur: To, nawa za ka bada ? Mai Tebur: Ok, how much will you pay?

Ali: Zan ba ka shidda shidda. Ali: I’ll give you 30 francs a piece.

Mai Tebur: To kawo. Mai Tebur: Deal, give me the money.

Ali: Ga shi. Ali: Here is it.

Mai Tebur: To, na gode. Sai an jima. Mai Tebur: Ok, thanks. See you later.

Ali: Sai an jima. Ali: See you later. How much is it? = Nawa ne? How much each? = Nawa nawa? It costs CFA 25. = Kuɗinsa dala biyar. 25 francs each. = Dala biyar biyar. Reduce the price for me. = Rage mini. It’s a deal; give me the money. (lit., Ok, bring the money.) = To, kawo kuɗin. CFA 125 each. = Dala ashirin da biyar biyar. Give me more. = Ka ƙara mini.

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8. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. A. Excuse me. I want to buy cheese. How much is a pound? A. Gafara dai. Ina so in sayi cuku. Nawa ne kuɗin laba?B. A pound is ₦50. B. Ƙuɗin laba Naira hamsin ne.A. OK, thanks. A. To, na gode. B. No problem. B. Ba laifi. 9. Pretend you want to buy the items listed below. One of your classmates is a salesperson. Role-play an “In the Shop” dialogue using the dialogue above as a model. Work in pairs or in small groups. 1. Mangworo ukku CFA 275 2. Kifi, laba guda ₦65 3. Buhun dankali CFA 12,000 4. Ruwan kwalba, guda ₦35 5. Kwalin madara CFA 1,050 6. Burodi guda ₦25 7. Ƙwai goma sha biyu CFA 600 10. Complete the sentences using the words in the box. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Kantin tufafi Kantin kayan cefane Kantin

littattafai Kantin kyautuka

Babban kanti

1. Uwayena suna sayen kyatuka a __________________. 2. Suna sayen tomatir da dankalin turawa a _______________________. 3. Kanena yana sayen littattafai a ______________________. 4. Ni da yata muna sayen tufafi a ______________________. 5. Mun iya sayen tufafi da littattafai da kyautuka a __________________.

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11. Listen to the following sentences and circle the words you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. I buy books in the clothing store / bookstore. 2. My sister buys gifts at the gift store / grocery store.3. My mother buys sugar at the gift store / grocery store across from the bank. 4. My grandparents buy milk and butter at the bookstore / grocery store.5. We buy clothes, books, and gifts at the department store/ bookstore. The verb “can”: The verb iya (can/ to be able to) in Hausa has two features which must be remembered in order to use it correctly. First of all, it is usually used in the past tense, even when referring to the present. Note that in the following chart, the English present tense is used to translate the past tense of the Hausa. This is a feature of Hausa verbs that will reappear frequently as we continue. I can Na iya You can Ka iya You can Kin iya He can Ya iya She can Ta iya We can Mun iya You can Kun iya They can Sun iya One can An iya <<To Take>> The Hausa verb “to take” is one that will teach you to pronounce the glottalized “D.” You must also remember that this verb has endings that change depending on the type of object it takes. I take Ina ɗauka You take (m) Kana ɗauka You take (f) Kina ɗauka He takes Yana ɗauka She takes Tana ɗauka We take Muna ɗauka You take (pl) Kuna ɗauka They take Suna ɗauka One takes Ana ɗauka

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I took. = Na ɗauka. I took it. = Na ɗaukeshi. I took a tomato. = Na ɗauki tumatir.

12. a) Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. A. Hello. I want to buy a loaf of bread. How much is it? A. Barka da rana. Ina so in saye burodi guda. Nawa ne kuɗinsa?B. It is ₦50. B. Naira hamsin ne.A. Can I pay with a credit card? A. Na iya biya da katin bashi?B. I’m sorry, but we take cash. B. Gafara, sai kuɗin hannu. b) Role-play the dialogue. Make up similar dialogues using the words below. 1. Ruwa, kwalba biyu 2. Littafi 3. Madara, kwali guda 4. Cuku, laba guda 5. Ƙwai, dozin guda

13. Read along as you listen to the dialogue and then answer the follow-up questions. Check your work with the Answer Key. Lawali: Barka da rana Ali!Ali: Yawwa Lawali! Barkarka dai!Lawali: Ina za ka?Ali: Ina tafiya zuwa kantin kayan cefane.Lawali: Mi kake so ka saya?Ali: Ina so in sayi burodi, ruwan kwalba guda biyu, kuma mangworo biyar. Kai fa, ina za ka?Lawali: Ina tafiya babban kanti. Ali: Mi kake so ka saya?Lawali: Ina so in saya wa kakana kyauta. Ina so in sayi littafi ko agogo. Ali : Ni, ina sayen kyaututtuka a kantin kyaututtuka.

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Questions:

1. Where is Ali going? 2. What does she want to buy? 3. Where is Lawali going? 4. What does he want to buy?

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Translate the following into Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. Where do you buy tomatoes and potatoes? B. Can I pay with a credit card? No, we take cash. C. I will buy the gift for my sister in the clothing store. D. How much is a loaf of bread? - ₦25 2. In Hausa, explain where you buy groceries/gifts/books/clothes. 3. What would you tell a salesclerk in Nigeria if you wanted to buy a carton of milk/a

watch/a dozen eggs? How would you ask the price of each item? Role-play the dialogue.

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Vocabulary List How much …? Nawa ne… ? It is … Kuɗinsa… I want to buy sugar Ina so in sayi sukari As well Kuma Banana Ayaba Butter Man shanu Meat Nama Chicken Naman kaza Fish Kifi Sweet potato Dankali Milk Madara Traditional millet drink/food usually with “nono” mixed in (This is a Hausa staple food.)

Fura

Cooked pounded grain (usually millet) food (This is the traditional staple of the Hausa diet, and it is also a generic term for food.)

Tuwo

The traditional yoghurt that is usually mixed with “fura”

Nono

Tomato Tomatir Squash Kabewa Beans Wake Peanuts Gujiya/ Gyaɗa Lettuce/ Salad Salati Cabbage Kabeji (Niger: Shu) Mango Mangworo (pl., mangworori) Potato Dankalin turawa Sugar Sukari Millet Hatsi Sorghum Dawa Wheat Alkama Rice Shinkafa Cheese Cuku Eggs Ƙwai (pl., ƙwayoyi/ ƙwayaye) A pound/kilo of cheese Cuku, laba guda A sack of sweet potatoes Buhun dankali (pl. buhunhunan…) A loaf of bread Burodi A bottle of water Ruwan kwalba guda

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A dozen eggs Ƙwai goma sha biyu/ ƙwai dozin A box of … Akwatin … A carton of milk Kwali guda na madara Department Store Babban kanti Clothing Store Kantin tufafi Clothing Tufafi/ Kayan jiki Grocery Store Kantin kayan cefane Bookstore Kantin littattafai Bread Burodi To reduce Rage For me Mini Half Rabi Credit card Katin bashi (pl., katunnan…) Cash Kuɗin hannu Cashier Kashiya Salesclerk Mai jiran kanti To buy Saya To take Ɗauka To pay for Biya kuɗin Only, just Sai Note that in future lessons, we will explore the various uses of the word sai. In this lesson, we used this word to express “only” or “just,” but in future lessons, you will see that it has many other uses.

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ANSWER KEY Activity 6 . 1. Ina so in sayi burodi da man shanu. C. I want to buy bread and butter.

2. Abubakar, yana so ya sayi littafi. F. Abubakar wants to buy a book.

3. Amadu yana so ya sayi kifi. A. Amadu wants to buy fish.

4. Kabiru, yana so ya sayi agogo. E. Kabiru wants to buy a clock.

5. Muna so mu sayi kyauta. G. We want to buy a gift.

6. Suna so su sayi cuku. B. They want to buy cheese

7. Ƙanwata tana so ta sayi tufafi. D. My sister wants to buy clothes. Activity 10 1. kantin kyaututtuka My parents buy gifts at the gift

store. 2. kantin kayan cefane They buy tomatoes and potatoes at

the grocery store. 3. kantin litttattafai My brother buys books at the

bookstore. 4. kantin tufafi My sister and I buy clothes at the

clothing store. 5. babban kanti We can buy clothes, books and

gifts at the department store. 1. Uwayena suna sayen kyatuka a __________________. 2. Suna sayen tomatir da dankalin turawa a _______________________. 3. Kanena yana sayen littattafai a ______________________. 4. Ni da yata muna sayen tufafi a ______________________. 5. Mun iya sayen tufafi da littattafai da kyautuka a __________________. Activity 11 1. Ina sayen littattafai a kantin littattafai. I buy books in the bookstore.

2. Ƙanwata tana sayen kyaututtuka a kantin kyaututtuka.

My sister buys gifts at the gift store.

3. Uwata tana sayen sukari a kantin kayan cefane da yake kallon banki.

My mother buys sugar at the grocery store across from the bank.

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4. Kakannina suna sayen madara da man shanu a kantin kayan cefane.

My grandparents buy milk and butter at the grocery store.

5. Muna sayen tufafi da littattafai da kyaututtuka a babban kanti.

We buy clothes, books, and gifts at the department store.

Activity 13 1. Ali is going to the grocery store. 2. She wants buy bread, two bottles of water, and a pound of pears. 3. Lawali is going to the department store. 4. He wants to buy a book or a clock. Lawali: Barka da rana Ali! Ali: Yawwa Lawali! Barkarka dai! Lawali: Ina za ka? Ali: Ina tafiya zuwa kantin kayan cefane. Lawali: Mi kake so ka saya? Ali: Ina so in sayi burodi, ruwan kwalba guda biyu, kuma mangworo biyar. Kai fa, ina za ka? Lawali: Ina tafiya babban kanti. Ali: Mi kake so ka saya? Lawali: Ina so in saya wa kakana kyauta. Ina so in sayi littafi ko agogo. Ali: Ni, ina sayen kyaututtuka a kantin kyaututtuka. End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 A. Ina kake sayen tumatir da dankalin turawa? (Where do you buy tomatoes and potatoes?) B. Na iya biya da katin bashi? A’a, sai kuɗi hannu. (Can I pay with a credit card? No, we take cash.) C. Ina saya wa ƙanwata kyauta a kantin tufafi. (I will buy the gift for my sister in the clothing store.) D. Nawa ne burodi? – Naira ashirin da biyar. (How much is a loaf of bread? - ₦25)

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Lesson 8 Eating Out

Tafiya Zuwa Gidan Abinci

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Eating out in a restaurant in Nigeria and Niger - Various menu items - How to order menu items - Different table service items.

Eating Out: Eating out in Nigeria or Niger is completely unlike how it is done in America. For the majority of the people, eating out at an actual sit-down restaurant is rare, and many rural people have never gone to such a restaurant. What is more common is to eat food that is sold by street vendors. In the markets and in every village, there are a variety of street vendors selling food. These range from young girls selling snacks from a tray on their head, to the sedentary vendors who sell hot foods on a plate for those who are looking for more of a meal. The actual restaurants with menus are usually located in the cities and are frequented mainly by urban professionals, mainly men. The next section shows a sample of a menu from a restaurant of this sort, but before moving on to the menu, take a look at the following list of common street foods and vendors. Bean cakes (fried) Ƙosai Grain cakes (fried) Waina Meat skewer Tsire Meat Nama Millet porridge (watery and hot) Kunu/ Koko Fermented millet drink Fura Traditional Yoghurt (to mix with “fura”) Nono Rice and beans Shinkafa da wake Deep fried dough (wheat flour) Fanke (from “pancake”) Food made from bean flour and oil Ɗan wake Tofu Awara Hot pepper seasoning (used on all of the above) Yaji

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1. Look at the restaurant menu below. Repeat the words after the speaker while following along in the workbook.

Small World Restaurant

Item Price Rice with sauce Shinkafa da miya ₦500 / CFA 2000 Rice based dish with other ingredients mixed in

Shinkafa dafa-duka ₦500 / CFA 2000

Salad Salati ₦250 / CFA 1000 Pounded rice mash Tuwon shikafa ₦300 / CFA 1200 Rice and beans Shinkafa da wake ₦400 / CFA 1600 Fried sweet potatoes Soyayyen dankali ₦350 / CFA 1400 Pasta noodles with sauce Taliya da miya ₦400 / CFA 1600 Beans Wake ₦250 / CFA 1000 Chicken Naman Kaza ₦600 / CFA 2400 Mutton Naman Tunkiya ₦500 / CFA 2000 Goat Naman akuya ₦500 / CFA 2000 Fish Kifi ₦750 / CFA 3000 Orange juice Ruwan lemun-zaƙi ₦150 / CFA 600 Drinking water Ruwan sha ₦25 / CFA 100 Soft drink Lemu ₦150 / CFA 600 Coffee Gahuwa (Niger: Kafe) ₦100 / CFA 400 Milk Madara ₦100 / CFA 400 Tea Shayi ₦100 / CFA 400 Beer Giya ₦200 / CFA 800

Wine Giya (Niger: duban)/Maɗi

₦350 / CFA 1400

2. Imagine that you have ₦4,500 (CFA 18,500). What would you order at the “Small World Restaurant”?

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3. A) Listen while reading along with the following dialogue between a waiter and a patron. A. Sabis.A. Waiter. B. Mi kuke so?B. What would you like? A. Ina so in sha gahuwa.A. I want to drink coffee. B. To, ba mu da gahuwa. Sai shayi.B. We do not have coffee, only tea. B) Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations that are in the box. 1. kofin gahuwa – shayi 2. tambulan madara – shayi/gahuwa 3. tambulan ruwan lemun zaƙi – lemu 4. kifi da taliya – naman kaza da soyayyen dankalin turawa

4. Listen to the following dialogue that takes place at a restaurant. Follow along in your workbook. Pay attention to the new words. Role-play the dialogue. You can substitute some words with any food from the “Small World Restaurant” menu. A. Barka malam! Mi kake so ka ci?A. Hello, sir. What do you want to eat? B. To, mi yake da daɗi yau?B. Well, what’s good today? A. Muna da soyayyen naman kaza da kuma taliya. Suna da daɗi sosai.A. We have fried chicken and pasta. They are delicious. B. To. A kawo soyayyen naman kaza da taliya.B. Very well. Fried chicken and pasta, please. A. Mi za ka sha?A. What do you want to drink? B. Shayi da sukari da lemun tsami.B. Tea with sugar and lemon. A. Kuma, kana son kayan zaƙi?A. And would you like dessert? B. I, a kawo gutsuren kyat.B. Yes, bring a piece of cake.

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A. Ga lissafi, malam.A. Here is your bill, sir. B. Na iya biya da katin bashi?B. Can I pay with a credit card? A. I, babu matsala.A. Yes, no problem. I drink Ina sha I drank Na sha You drink Kana sha You drank Ka sha You drink Kina sha You drank Kin sha He drinks Yana sha He drank Ya sha We drink Muna sha We drank Mun sha You drink Kuna sha You drank Kun sha They drink Suna sha They drank Sun sha One drinks Ana sha One drank An sha

Note that this is a verb that takes a terminal “n” in the continuous tense when it is followed by a direct object. Saying “Please” As you may have noticed by now, there is no word in Hausa that truly translates the English “please.” The Hausa term that is most often used to translate “please” is don Allah, and while in certain situations it is a good translation for “please,” it is usually not quite the right word. In reality, don Allah (literally, for God) carries a more emphatic meaning than “please.” Often times it would be translated more precisely as “for Gods sake,” “for the love of God,” “really, I’m serious,” or “I beg of you.” Fortunately, however, in Hausa, the word “please” is not usually necessary. Hausa is a very direct language, and native speakers generally speak in commands. To the English speaker it can, in fact, sound like a very rude language, but once you become accustomed to the flow of the language, you will find that the subtleties, albeit not easily explained, are what determine whether one is speaking rudely or not. 5. Using the restaurant menu above, tell your classmates in Hausa what you ate and drank at a restaurant the last time you were there.

6. Listen and read along with the dialogue. Fill in the blanks with the missing word in English. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Ina ka ci abinci _____________ da ta wuce?Na ci abinci a ______________.Ka ci kai ɗaya?A’a, ___________ ya zo tare da ni.Mi ya ci?

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Ya ci taliya da _____.Mi ya ____?Ya sha _____.Mi ka ____?Na ci _____________ da soyayyen dankalin turawa.Mi ka sha? Na sha ___________.

7. Below are some table service items. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

Plate Bowl (metal) Cup Glass

Faranti Kwano Kofi Tambulan (Niger: Finjali)

Knife Fork Spoon Handkerchief Wuƙa Cokali mai yatsa Cokali / koshiya Hankici

Ladle Mug Clay Bowl Cooking Pot Ludayi Moɗa Kasko Tukunya

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8. Match the English words in the left column with the Hausa equivalents in the right column. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Plate A. Cokali 2. Metal bowl B. Tambulan 3. Cup C. Wuƙa 4. Glass D. Cokali mai yatsa 5. Knife E. Kwano 6. Fork F. Faranti 7. Spoon G. Hankici 8. Handkerchief H. Kofi

9. Listen to the following model. Repeat after the speaker. Compose similar sentences using the words below. Model: A. Ba ni da cokali. Don Allah ka kawo mini cokali. A. I do not have a spoon. Can I please have a spoon. B. To babu laifi. Ga shi nan. B. Yes, no problem. Here you are. 1. Hankici 2. Kofi 3. Cokali mai yatsa 4. Wuƙa 5. Tambulan

10. Listen to the speaker and circle the words you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. I want a glass of milk / juice. 2. We drank orange juice / soft drink at a restaurant. 3. Did you eat salad / pasta? 4. They ate fried potatoes and chicken / fish. 5. She had soup and hamburger / salad and beef. 6. Can I have a knife / fork? 7. He does not have a glass / plate.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Say in Hausa what you usually eat and drink for breakfast / lunch / dinner. 2. Say in Hausa what you ate and drank at a restaurant the last time you were there. 3. Pretend that you are at a restaurant now. What would you say in Hausa if you wanted

to eat salad and fried potatoes? You also want a cup of coffee, and you need a fork and a napkin. What would you say in Hausa if you did not know what to choose? Your classmate is a waiter. Role-play the dialogue. Work in pairs or in small groups.

4. Read and translate the following text into English. Answer the questions that follow in

complete sentences, in Hausa. Check the Answer Key to review your translation and to check your answers.

Ran Juma’a da ta wuce, bayan na sauka daga aiki, ni da wana da uwayenmu muka tafi gidan abinci mai suna “Small World”. Ƙaramin gidan abinci ne da ke fuskantar banki. Shi sabis ya ce a ganinsa naman kaza da salati da kuma taliya da miya suna da daɗi sosai. Wana ya ci naman shanu da dankali; ya kuma sha shayi da sukari da lemun tsami a ciki. Uwata ta ci naman shanu da miya. Ta sha lemu. Daga baya ta ci gutsuren kyat. Ubana ya ci naman shanu da soyayyen dankalin turawa da kuma tumatir. Shi ma ya ci gutsuren kyat, kuma ya sha gahuwa. Ni, na ci naman kaza da salati. Ya yi daɗi sosai! So na yi in biya da katin bashi, amma ubana ya biya da kuɗin hannu. Mun yi nishaɗi sosai! 1. Yaushe iyali suka tafi gidan abinci? 2. Ina gidan abinci yake? 3. Da mi da mi sabis ya ce suna da daɗi sosai? 4. Wana, mi ya ci? 5. Mi ya sha? 6. Uwata ta ci naman shanu da miya ? 7. Ta sha ruwan lemun zaƙi ko lemu? 8. Ta ci gutsuren kyat ? 9. Mi ubana ya ci? 10. Ya sha giya? 11. Ubana ya biya da katin bashi? 12. Mun yi nishaɗi a gidan abinci?

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Vocabulary List

Metal bowl Kwano (pl., kwanoni) Clay bowl Kasko (pl., kasake) Cake Kyat (Niger: gato) Coffee Gahuwa (Niger: kafe) Cup Kofi Mug Moɗa (pl. moɗaye) Ladle Ludayi Fork Cokali mai yatsa (pl. cokula masu …)Fried Soyayye (pl., soyayyu) Glass Tambulan (Niger: Finjali) Knife Wuƙa (pl., wuƙaƙe) Handkerchief Hankici Rag Tsumma (pl., tsummoki) Orange juice Ruwan lemun zaƙi Mango juice Ruwan mangworo Piece Gutsure/ Yanki (pl., yankuna) Plate Faranti Please* Don Allah Salad Salati Soup Miya Spoon Cokali (pl., cokula) Tea Shayi Beef Naman shanu Bring to me Kawo mini Here you are Ga shi nan/ Ga tan an To Drink/ Drank Sha To eat/ Ate Ci In his opinion A ganinsa Very much Sosai Delicious Da daɗi/ mai daɗi Very well Da kyau Lemon Lemun tsami Dessert Kayan zaƙi Bill Lissafin kuɗi Wine Giya (Niger: duban)/ Maɗi

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Beer Giya I wanted to … So na yi in … What all … (lit., “what and what?”) [interrogative]

Da mi da mi

A piece of Gutsuren … Afterwards Daga baya To get off work (lit., to step down from work)

Sauka daga aiki

That’s what she did Haka ta yi Only Kaɗai To enjoy oneself Yi nishaɗi By yourself Kai ɗaya Please* Don Allah

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ANSWER KEY Activity 6 Where did you eat last Sunday? Ina ka ci abinci _____________ da ta wuce? I ate at a restaurant. Na ci abinci a ______________. Did you eat alone? Ka ci kai ɗaya? No, my brother was with me. A’a, ___________ ya zo tare da ni. What did he eat? Mi ya ci? He ate pasta and fish. Ya ci taliya da _____. What did he drink? Mi ya ____? He drank tea. Ya sha _____. What did you eat? Mi ka ____? I ate chicken and fried potatoes. Na ci _____________ da soyayyen dankalin turawa. What did you drink? Mi ka sha? I drank coffee. Na sha ___________. Activity 8 1. Plate F Faranti 2. Metal bowl E Kwano 3. Cup H Kofi 4. Glass B Tambulan 5. Knife C Wuƙa 6. Fork D Cokali mai yatsa 7. Spoon A Cokali 8. Handkerchief G Hankici Activity 10 1. Madara Milk

2. Ruwan lemun zaƙi Orange juice

3. Taliya Pasta

4. Kifi Fish

5. Salati da naman shanu Salad and beef

6. Wuƙa Knife

7. Tambulan Glass

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End of Lesson Tasks Activity 4 Check your translation of the text. Then compare your answers to the questions below. Last Friday after work, my brother, our parents, and I went to the restaurant “Small World.” It’s a small restaurant across from the bank. The waiter said that in his opinion the fried chicken, salad, and pasta with sauce were very good. My brother ate beef and sweet potatoes; he drank tea with sugar and lemon in it. My mother ate beef and soup. She drank a soft drink. Afterwards she had a piece of cake. My father ate beef, fried potatoes, and tomatoes. He also ate a piece of cake, and he drank coffee. I ate chicken and salad. It was delicious! I wanted to pay with a credit card, but my father paid cash. We enjoyed ourselves very much. 1. When did the family go to the restaurant? Iyali sun tafi gidan abinci ran Juma’a da ta wuce. 2. Where is the restaurant? Gidan abinci yana fuskantar banki. 3. What did the waiter suggest? Ya ce soyayyen naman kaza, da salati, da taliya da miya suna da daɗi sosai. 4. What did my brother eat? Ya ci naman shanu da dankali. 5. What did he drink? Ya sha shayi da sukari da lemu a ciki. 6. Did my mother eat beef and soup? I, haka ta yi. 7. Did she drink orange or mango juice? A’a, ta sha lemu kaɗai. 8. Did she eat a piece of cake? I, ta ci gutsuren kyat. 9. What did my father eat? Ya ci naman shanu da soyayyen dankalin turawa, da tumatir. 10. Did he drink wine? I, ya sha giya. 11. Did my father pay with a credit card? A’a, ya biya da kuɗin hannu. 12. Was it a wonderful evening? I, mun yi nishaɗi sosai.

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Lesson 9 Holidays, Customs, and Cultural Traditions

Salloli, Bukukuwa, da Al’adu

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - How to read dates - How to use ordinal numbers - Names of the months - Holidays, customs, and cultural traditions of Nigeria and Niger.

Holidays: As we have mentioned, the vast majority of Hausas are Muslim, and thus the main holidays are Muslim holidays. A religious holiday (Salla) is thought of in a very different light than a secular holiday like “Ranar Hutu.” Generally, the religious and cultural holidays are the most celebrated, while the secular holidays are just given a nod, except by the urban elite for whom a national holiday constitutes a day off from work. Below is a list of the major holidays, and notes regarding their celebration. The major secular and non-Muslim holidays that are celebrated in both Nigeria and Niger are listed in a separate list. In addition to certain more specific greetings, one can say barka da ... followed by the name of just about any holiday or event, meaning “greetings on ...” In the case of Muslim religious holidays, their celebration always centers around some sort of prayer or benediction that is given by the limam, the religious leader.

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Hausa/ Muslim Holidays: English / Arabic

Hausa Notes

Eid Al-Adha Babbar Salla/ Sallar Layya

This is the holiday celebrated on the 10th day of the month of Zulhajji. Every head of household that is able, will slaughter a ram on this holiday. The meat will be preserved and then divided up. Some will be given to friends, some to the poor, and the rest will be kept for the family to eat over the coming months. Children circulate the village asking for a barka da salla, which in this case means candy or some money.

Eid Al-Fitr Ƙaramar Salla/ Sallar Azumi

This is the holiday celebrating the end of the Ramadan fast (azumi). This is a celebration that is marked by good food and energetic people who are enjoying the privilege of eating during the daytime.

Eid Al Maulud Mauludi Celebration of the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad

During the entire month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink from dawn till dusk. People rise at about 4:30 a.m. during this time in order to ensure that they have drunk plenty of water and eaten food before the ladan begins the call to prayer (kiran salla) at dawn. After this, they do not eat or drink anything until dusk. At dusk, as soon as the call to prayer rings out, everyone drinks a bland watery porridge that is easy on the stomach before eating solid food. Other Nigerian and Nigerien Holidays: October 1: Nigerian Independence Day Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijeriya) January 1: New Year’s Day Sabuwar Shekara August 3: Nigerien Independence Day Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijar) December 25: Christmas Day Krisimati (Niger: Nowal) Also, there are several other national holidays which are secular in nature in each nation. Additionally, both countries celebrate (officially) May Day and Easter. These holidays, while officially recognized, are barely noticed in the rural Hausa environment.

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Ordinal Numbers: Ordinal numbers are extremely easy to use in Hausa. You simply add “na” or “ta” before the cardinal number, and then you have the ordinal number. “Na” is used for an ordinal number that describes a masculine object, and “ta” is used for an ordinal number that describes a feminine object. As always, plurals will be treated as masculine. The ordinal number is an adjective and generally follows the noun that it describes.

1. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. 1 one ɗayaFirst na ɗaya/ ta ɗaya2 two biyuSecond na biyu/ ta biyu3 three ukkuThird na ukku/ ta ukku4 four huɗuFourth na huɗu/ ta huɗu5 five biyar Fifth na biyar/ ta biyar6 six shidda Sixth na shidda/ ta shidda7 seven bakwaiSeventh na bakwai/ ta bakwai8 eight takwasEighth na takwas/ ta takwas9 nine taraNinth na tara/ ta tara10 ten gomaTenth na goma/ ta goma

2. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentences. Use the words located in the box. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

ta biyar ta biyu ta farko ta shidda ta ukku ta bakwai ta huɗu ta bakwai

1. Ran Litinin ita ce rana ___________________ cikin sati. 2. Ran Talata ita ce rana __________________ cikin sati. 3. Ran Laraba ita ce rana ___________________ cikin sati. 4. Ran Alhamis ita ce rana _______________________ cikin sati. 5. Ran Juma’a ita ce rana __________________ cikin sati.

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6. Ran Asabar ita ce rana _______________________ cikin sati. 7. Ran Lahadi ita ce rana ____________________ cikin sati. Ordinal Numbers (11-19): The ordinal numbers from 11 through 19 are grammatically identical to those from 1 through 10.

3. Listen and repeat after the speaker the ordinal numbers 11 through 19. Follow along in the workbook.

11 eleven goma sha ɗayaeleventh na (ta) goma sha ɗaya12 twelve goma sha biyutwelfth na (ta) goma sha biyu13 thirteen goma sha ukkuthirteenth na (ta) goma sha ukku14 fourteen goma sha huɗufourteenth na (ta) goma sha huɗu15 fifteen goma sha biyarfifteenth na (ta) goma sha biyar16 sixteen goma sha shiddasixteenth na (ta) goma sha shidda17 seventeen goma sha bakwaiseventeenth na (ta) goma sha bakwai18 eighteen goma sha takwaseighteenth na (ta) goma sha takwas19 nineteen goma sha taranineteenth na (ta) goma sha tara20 twenty ashirintwentieth na (ta) ashinin

4. Practice saying the following ordinal numbers in Hausa. 11th, 13th, 15th, 17th, 19th, 12th, 14th, 16th, 18th

Ordinal Numbers (20-100): The ordinal numbers from 20 through 100 are grammatically identical to the previous ordinal numbers.

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5. Listen to the ordinal numbers 20-30 and repeat after the speaker. 20 twenty ashirinTwentieth na (ta) ashirin21 twenty-one ashirin da ɗayatwenty-first na (ta) ashirin da ɗaya22 twenty-two ashirin da biyutwenty-second na (ta) ashirin da biyu23 twenty-three ashirin da ukkutwenty-third na (ta) ashirin da ukku24 twenty-four ashirin da huɗutwenty-fourth na (ta) ashirin da huɗu25 twenty-five ashirin da biyartwenty-fifth na (ta) ashirin da biyar26 twenty-six ashirin da shiddatwenty-sixth na (ta) ashirin da shidda27 twenty-seven ashirin da bakwaitwenty-seventh na (ta) ashirin da bakwai28 twenty-eight ashirin da takwastwenty-eighth na (ta) ashirin da takwas29 twenty-nine ashirin da taratwenty-ninth na (ta) ashirin da tara30 thirty talatinThirtieth na (ta) talatin40 forty arba’in Fortieth na (ta) arba’in50 fifty hamsinFiftieth na (ta) hamsin60 sixty sittin Sixtieth na (ta) sittin70 seventy saba’in Seventieth na (ta) saba’in80 eighty tamaninEightieth na (ta) tamanin90 ninety tisa’in/ gomiya taraNinetieth na (ta) tisa’in/ na (ta) gomiya tara

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100 one hundred ɗarione hundredth na (ta) ɗari

6. Listen to the names of the months and repeat after the speaker. January JanairuFebruary FebrairuMarch MarisApril AfriluMay MayuJune YuniJuly YuliAugust AgustaSeptember SatumbaOctober OktobaNovember NuwambaDecember Disamba

Islamic Calendar Especially in rural areas, the lunar Islamic calendar is often used alongside the Gregorian calendar. These months do not correspond to Gregorian months because the year is about 11 days shorter by the Islamic calendar, and thus the correspondence of months is slightly different each year. You will not need to keep track of the Islamic date; however, it is good to be able to recognize the Islamic months when you hear them. You will also hear much more talk of the Islamic calendar as the month of Ramadan approaches. This is the month of fasting that is observed throughout the Hausa speaking world. See below the names of the months in the Islamic calendar. Muharram Safar Rabi’u Lawwal Rabi’u Lahir Jimada Lawwal Jimada Lahir Rajab Sha’aban Ramadan (Ramazan) Shawwal Zulƙida Zulhajji

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7. Look at the picture and say the dates and days of the week in Hausa. Practice the different dates, days, and months through the year. Model : Yau ranar 15 ga watan Afrilu na shekarar 1999. Yau Alhamis ce.

8. Listen as the speaker reads the following years. Repeat after the speaker. 1925 - nineteen twenty-five alif da ɗari tara da ashirin da biyu1900 - nineteen hundred alif da ɗari tara2004 - two thousand four dubu biyu da huɗu

Dates in Hausa: Telling dates in Hausa is fairly straightforward. The numbers are said in the same order as in English and connected by da (and). One thing that must be remembered is that rather than using the Hausa dubu to express “one thousand” in the dates from 1000 through 1999, the Arabic loanword alif is generally used. From the year 2000,however, the Hausa dubu is generally preferred. When writing dates in Hausa, you must use the European (dd/mm/yyyy) system although you will often find that Hausa speakers prefer to write out the name of the month. Also, note that the ne/ce stabilizer is often left out in these sentences. This is not uncommon in Hausa, and you will get used to identifying the places in which the stabilizer can be left out. In the same way, the word ran or ranar is often left out before the name of the day of the week. Thus, rather than saying, “Yau rar Juma’a ce,” one could simply say, “Yau Juma’a.” Finally, the ordinal numbers in dates can take an alternate form. Rather than saying rana ta goma ga wata, one could say ranar goma ga wata.

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9. Read the following years in Hausa. 2001 1987 1960 1945 2000 1700 1516

10. Listen and repeat after the speaker the names of Nigerian and Nigerien holidays. Follow along in the workbook. 1. Eid al-Kabir: Zulhajji 10th Babbar Salla: rana ta 10 ga watan Zulhajji2. Eid al-Fitr: Shawwal 1st Ƙaramar Salla: rana ta farko ga watan Shawwal3. Christmas: December 25th Sallar Krisimati (Niger: Nowal): rana ta 25 ga watan

Disamba4. Independence Day

Nigeria: October 1st Niger: August 3rd

Bikin Mulkin Kai: Nigeria: rana ta 1 ga watan October, Niger: rana ta 3 ga watan Agusta

11. Listen to the speakers talk about their dates of birth. Follow along in the workbook.

1. When were you born? 2. When were you born? 3. When were you born? Yaushe aka haifeka? Yaushe aka haifeka? Yaushe aka haifeki?

I was born on the 11th of June, 1936.

I was born on the 31st of July, 1960.

I was born on the 23rd of January, 1987.

An haifeni a ranar 11 ga watan Yuni na shekarar

1936.

An haifeni a ranar 31 ga watan Yuli na shekarar 1960.

An haifeni a ranar 23 ga watan Janairu na

shekarar 1987.

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12. Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask your partner when he was born. Use the model below. Model: A. I was born on the 15th of February, 1982. And you, when were you born? A. An haifeni a ranar 15 ga watan Febrairu a shekarar 1982. Kai fa, yaushe aka haife ka? B. I was born on the 4th of September, 1979. B. An haife ni a ranar 4 ga watan Satumban shekarar 1979. 13 Look at the picture below and imagine that this is your family. Describe each member. Use the model below. You can use real pictures of your family. Model: This is my brother. His name is… He is …years old. He was born on the …of…19… Model: Wannan ƙanena ne. Sunansa Zabairu. Yana da shekara 12. An haifeshi a ranar 21 ga watan Maris na shekarar 1994.

14. Read and translate the following text into English. Answer the questions below in English. Check your work with the Answer Key. Sunana Hama. Daga Nijeriya nike. A Kaduna nike da zama. Ina da babban iyali: mata guda, yara biyu, kuma da uwayena. Muna zaune a wani babban gida. Matata tana da shekara 30. An haifeta a ranar 23 ga watan Nuwamba a shekarar 1970. Ita likita ce, kuma tana da aiki a asibiti. Yaranmu ɗalibai ne. Suna yin karatu a makaranta. An haifi

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ɗiyata a ranar 26 ga watan Afrilu na shekarar 1992. Ɗana yana da shekara 8 da haifuwa. An haifeshi a ranar farko ta watan Mayu na shekarar 1996. Uwata ta tsufa sosai. Shekarunta 78 da haifuwa. An haifeta a ranar 22 ga watan Nuwamba na shekarar 1926. Ubana yana da shekara 79. An haifeshi a ranar 25 ga watan Agusta na shekarar 1925. Ba su aiki. Su, suna karanta littattafai da kallon talabijin ko kuma suna yin wasa da yaranmu. A gaskiya ina da iyalin kirki! 1. Where does the family live? 2. How old is the wife? 3. When was she born? 4. What is her occupation? 5. Where does she work? 6. How many children do they have? 7. How old is the son? When was he born? 8. How old is the daughter? 9. When was she born? 10. How old is the grandmother? 11. When was she born? 12. How old is the grandfather? 13. When was he born? 14. What do the grandparents do? Visits and Greetings: Paying a visit or dropping in are very important parts of Hausa culture. A good community member is someone who makes an appearance at all of the celebrations for birth, naming, marriage, death, and so on. To neglect to go and greet someone you know on any of these occasions is very rude. It is not necessary to have an extravagant gift, but a greeting and a little money as a gift are important. These greetings can be very simple. It is not necessary to spend the afternoon at the celebration of someone who is not a good friend, but a quick greeting goes a long way, especially for a foreigner. Each occasion has its own greetings that are appropriate, and it is important to know at least the basic greeting for each occasion. Below is a list of the most common occasions and a proper greeting for each. English Hausa Greeting

Birth Haifuwa Ina ɗan baƙo?/ Ina ƴar baƙuwa? These questions ask, “How is the

little guest?” Also, “Allah ya raya” could be added if you want to say, “May God grant the child life.” A small gift of money usually accompanies this greeting.

Naming Suna “Barka da suna.” The naming ceremony takes place six days after the birth. On this day, the father serves food, and friends and neighbors come to eat and take part in the prayer. The religious

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leader says a prayer for the child and pronounces the name of the child. The parents usually take part in the choosing of the name, but the choice is sometimes left to the religious leader. In any case, the name is only official once it is announced in this way.

Marriage Aure/ Arme “Barka!” “Allah ya bar ku tare.” (May God leave you together.) “Allah ya sa ku yi zaman lafiya. (May God cause you to live together in peace.) In Muslim Hausa culture, a man is allowed up to four wives. Women generally marry young and are taken to live with their new husband. There is a separate ceremony that takes place before the wedding in which the marriage is agreed to and a bride price is set. At the actual marriage ceremony, the bride is prepared and taken to her husband’s house. The groom has a separate celebration with friends during this time.

Death Mutuwa “Ina abin da ya samu?” means “How is the thing that has happened?” After the bereaved has responded, one could add “Allah ya bada haƙuri,” (May God grant you patience). Beyond this, one could add Sannu several times, which in this situation means “my condolences” or “I’m so sorry.” Again, money is often given. This use of money as a condolence gift may seem somewhat crass to our Western sensibilities, but it is truly acceptable and expected.

15. Listen to the following conversation between two people and repeat after the speakers. Follow along in the workbook, and then answer the questions that follow. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. Barka da rana Zabairu! Akwai bikin ranar tuna haifuwa a ranar 6 ga watan Mayu. Ina gayyatarka ka zo ka kawo mana ziyara, ni da iyalina.B. To, na gode Ashiru. A ƙarfe nawa?A. A ƙarfe biyar ko biyar da rabi.B. To, mene ne adireshinku?A. 10459, Hanyar Malamai.B. Yaya zan tafi can.A. Ka bi babbar hanya har ka kai Hanyar Malamai. A nan sai ka yi hagu. Ka bi Hanyar Malamai tsawon layi biyu. Gidanmu shi ne na ukku a hannunka na dama.B. To, mi ya kamata in kawo?A. A’a, babu komi.B. To, na gode da ka gayyace ni haka.

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1. What is the occasion for the invitation? 2. What is the date? 3. What time should he arrive? 4. What is the address? 5. What directions is he given to get there? 6. What should he bring? 16. Work with a partner. Invite him or her to your house to celebrate a holiday. Give him or her directions how to get to your house. Use the dialogue above as a model.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Tell in Hausa the date when:

- you were born - you graduated from high school - your wedding was - your child was born - you joined the military

2. Give the names of holidays in Niger and Nigeria and tell when they are celebrated (in Hausa). 3. Invite your roommate to a Christmas party and give him/her directions how to get there.

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Vocabulary List first na (ta) ɗaya second na (ta) biyu third na (ta) ukku fourth na (ta) huɗu fifth na (ta) biyar sixth na (ta) shidda seventh na (ta) bakwai eighth na (ta) takwas ninth na (ta) tara tenth na (ta) goma eleventh na (ta) goma sha ɗaya twelfth na (ta) goma sha biyu thirteenth na (ta) goma sha ukku fourteenth na (ta) goma sha huɗu fifteenth na (ta) goma sha biyar sixteenth na (ta) goma sha shidda seventeenth na (ta) goma sha bakwai eighteenth na (ta) goma sha takwas nineteenth na (ta) goma sha tara twentieth na (ta) ashirin twenty-first na (ta) ashirin da ɗaya twenty-second na (ta) ashirin da biyu twenty-third na (ta) ashirin da ukku twenty-fourth na (ta) ashirin da huɗu twenty-fifth na (ta) ashirin da biyar twenty-sixth na (ta) ashirin da shidda twenty-seventh na (ta) ashirin da bakwai twenty-eighth na (ta) ahsirin da takwas twenty-ninth na (ta) ashirin da tara one thousand dubu one thousand (in years) alif January Janairu February Febrairu March Maris April Afrilu

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May Mayu June Yuni July Yuli August Agusta September Satumba October Oktoba November Nuwamba December Disamba Was born haifa, haife, haifi To grow old tsufa Kindness / goodness kirki To invite gayyata Invitation gayya How yaya/ ƙaƙa I will zan I should ... Ya kamata in ... Address adireshi/ lambar gida /masama Drive tuƙa mota/ tafi To follow a road bi hanya Two blocks layi biyu/ hanya biyu Turn right yi dama Turn left yi hagu Come over zo To visit ziyarta To pay a visit kawo ziyara Birthday ranar tuna haifuwa Birthday party bikin ranar tuna haifuwa Wedding bikin aure (pl., bukukuwan aure)Funeral jana’iza Death mutuwa Religious holiday salla (pl., salloli) Non-religious holiday ranar hutu Muezzin (the one who chants the call to prayer)

Ladan/ Ladani

Imam (Muslim religious leader) Limam/ limami The Muslim call to prayer kiran salla To bring kawo(wa) I want to invite you … Ina so in gayyace ka

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Holidays Salloli da ranaikun hutu Eid al-Adha / Tabaski Babbar Salla/ Layya Eid al-Fitr Ƙaramar Salla Christmas Sallar Krisimati (Niger: Nowal) Ramadan Ramadan (Ramazan) Prophet Mohammed’s birthday Mauludi Nigerien Independance Day Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijar) Nigerian Independance Day Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijeriya)

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ANSWER KEY Activity 2 1. ta biyu Second

2. ta ukku Third

3. ta huɗu Fourth

4. ta biyar Fifth

5. ta shidda Sixth

6. ta bakwai Seventh

7. ta ɗaya First 1. Ran Litinin ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. 2. Ran Talata ita ce rana __________________cikin sati. 3. Ran Laraba ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. 4. Ran Alhamis ita ce rana ________________cikin sati. 5. Ran Juma’a ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. 6. Ran Asabar ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. 7. Ran Lahadi ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. Activity 14 1. Where does the family live? -- Kaduna, Nigeria 2. How old is the wife? -- 30 3. When was she born? -- November 23, 1970 4. What is her occupation? -- Doctor 5. Where does she work? -- Hospital 6. How many children do they have? -- 2 7. How old is the son? When was he born? -- 8 years old, May 1, 1996 8. How old is the daughter? -- 12 years old 9. When was she born? -- April 26, 1992 10. How old is the grandmother? -- 78 11. When was she born? -- November 22, 1926 12. How old is the grandfather? -- 79 13. When was he born? -- August 25, 1925 14. What do the grandparents do? -- Read books, watch television, and play with the grandchildren

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My name is Hama. I am from Nigeria. I live in Kaduna. I have a big family: a wife, two children, and my parents. We live in a big house. My wife is 30. She was born on November 23, 1970. She is a doctor and works at the hospital. My children are students. They study at school. My daughter was born on the April 26, 1992. My son is 8 years old. He was born on the 1st of May, 1996. My mother is very old. She is 78. She was born on the 22nd of November, 1926. My father is 79. He was born on the 25th of August, 1925. They do not work. They read books, watch television, or play with our children. I have a wonderful family. Activity 15 1. What is the occasion for the invitation? A birthday party 2. What is the date? May 6 3. What time should he arrive? 5:00 or 5:30 4. What is the address? 10459 Hanyar Malamai 5. What directions is he given to get there? Drive north on the main road to Hanyar Malamai and turn left. Drive along Hanyar Malamai two blocks and turn right. My house is the third house on the right. 6. What should he bring? Nothing A. Hi, Zabairu. There is birthday party the 6th of May. I invite you to come over and visit my family. B. Thank you, Ashiru. What time? A. Five or five thirty. B. What is your address? A. It is 10459 Hanyar Malamai. B. How can I get there? A. Drive north on the main road to Hanyar Malamai and turn left. Drive along Hanyar Malamai two blocks and turn right. My house is the third house on the right. B. What can I bring? A. Nothing, thanks. B. Thank you for the invitation.

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Lesson 10 Around the House

Cikin Gida

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Basic vocabulary related to the home - Rooms around the house - Furniture items you may see.,

Hausa Houses: Traditionally, Hausas have lived in several types of mud huts. This is a way of life that remains largely unchanged to the present day. Although there is now an urban elite in the Hausa culture that live a more Western lifestyle, the majority of Hausas still live very much as they have for most of the last millennium. As we have already touched upon in an earlier lesson, the majority of Hausa people live in either a kago or a shigifa of some sort, and a few live in a soro. These are all generally characterized by mud brick construction and the use of straw and sticks for roofing. In modern times, many people have begun to integrate cement and plastic sheeting into these methods, but the general techniques remain the same. Furnishings are generally quite sparse. The most ubiquitous pieces of furniture are the grass or plastic woven mat for sitting on the ground, the bed, and perhaps a chair or two. In a more urban setting, there would also be a latrine, a few more chairs, perhaps a sofa, curtains, and maybe even an actual bathroom. Generally, the term gida includes the yard, and the yard is considered part of the living space rather than separate from the house. When someone refers to your house, they usually mean everything inside the fence rather than any particular building or set of buildings. In a normal village household, the equivalent of the living room and dining room would be the area in the yard where there is a good shade tree to hang out under. The equivalent of the bathroom would be either the pit latrine or just the open bush outside of the village. Concepts like office and garage just wouldn’t have any meaning. The word “floor” in Hausa is still the same as the word for ground, and so it can be awkward to speak of the floor as an object rather than as a place. The terminology for multistory buildings is also awkward at times because this is also a new concept for the language. Many devices such as a microwave or a toaster must be described. For instance rather than saying “toaster” one would say “na’ura da take gasa burodi” (the device that grills bread). In short, describing modern living situations can seem somewhat unnatural in Hausa. In the village, however, there is no such problem.

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1. Listen to the vocabulary below and repeat after the speaker. Bathroom Makewayi/ bayan gida/ bayan ɗaki/mawankaBedroom Ɗaki (pl., ɗakuna)Door (the opening/ the place) Ƙofa (pl., ƙofofi)Door (the actual object) Kyaure/ tufaniyaFloor Balbali Window Taga (pl., tagogi)Wall Bango (pl., bangwaye)Roof Rufi Antenna EriyaOffice Ofis (niger: buro) (pl., ofisoshi)Basement Gidan ƙasa (pl., gidajen …)Yard Filin gida (pl., filayen …)Kitchen (traditional) Madafa/ murhuKitchen (modern) Nigeria: kicin

Niger: kizinLiving room FaloOne-story Daddali (wanda ba ya da gidan sama)Two-story Soro mai hayi biyu/ ɗori biyuFirst floor Hayin fariSecond floor Hayi na biyu

2. Match the Hausa words in the left column with their English equivalents in the right column. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. Makewayi A. Basement

2. Ɗaki B. Yard

3. Ƙofa D. Living room

4. Ƙasa E. Bathroom

5. Taga F. Kitchen

6. Falo G. Bedroom

7. Ofis H. Door

8. Gidan Ƙasa J. Floor

9. Filin Gida K. Office

10. Kicin L. Window

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Akwai ko Babu (Are there any, or not?) Two of the most important words in the Hausa language are akwai (there is/are...) and babu (there is/are no...). They are simple words to use, and make many expressions much more concise than they might otherwise be. Remember that these are not to be treated as verbs, just partials that imply a verb-like concept. Below are some examples of important phrases that show how these terms are used. Note that babu is often shortened to ba and that da akwai is used rather than just akwai in some situations. These words are invariable and do not change according to gender or number. Akwai ruwa? Is there water?

I, akwai. Yes, there is.

Akwai rana. It’s hot. (lit., “There is sun.”)

Babu laifi. / Ba laifi. No problem.

Kana da akwai? Do you have one? / Do you have any?

Ina da akwai. I have one. / I have some.

Ba ruwana. It’s not my concern. (lit., “It’s not my water.”) 3. Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks from the list of words written in the box below. Check your work with the Answer Key. ɗaki eriya filin gida kicin falo da makewayi 1. Akwai _______________a kan gida. 2. Akwai __________________ tsakanin ofis da makewayi. 3. Akwai _________________ a gaban gida. 4. Akwai kicin tsakanin __________________________. 4. Draw a plan of your house and tell your partner, in Hausa, the types of rooms you have and where they are located. Work in pairs or in small groups. 5. Match the following questions with the correct answers. Check your work with the Answer Key. A Ina makewayi? 1. Ɗaki yana dab da falo. B. Ina kicin? 2. I, akwai babban gidan ƙasa. C. Ina ɗaki? 3. Muna da ɗaki ukku. D. Ɗakin kwana nawa gareku? 4. Kicin yana dab da palo. E. Akwai gidan ƙasa? 5. Makewayi yana dab da ɗaki.

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<<How Many?>> We have already introduced the interrogative nawa, which can mean “how much” or “how many.” As with akwai and babu, this word is invariable. It does not change according to gender or number. Below is a list of some common uses of this word. Words in parentheses are often left out. Ɗaki nawa (gareku)? How many rooms do you have?

(Akwai) ɗaki nawa? How many rooms are there?

Nawa ne (kuɗin)? How much does it cost?

Su nawa (ne)? How many are there?

Akwai su nawa? How many are there?

Nawa nawa ne? How much each?

Akwai mota nawa a garinku. How many cars are there in your town? 6. Pretend that you want to buy a house, and your classmate is a real estate agent. Make up a dialogue using the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups. Model: A. I want to buy a two-story house. A. Ina so in sayi gida mai hayi biyu. B. There is a nice small house next to the market. B. Akwai wani ƙaramin gida mai kyau kusa da kasuwa. A. How many bedrooms does the house have? A. Wannan gida, yana da ɗaki nawa? B. It has one bedroom. B. Yana da ɗaki ɗaya. A. How many bathrooms are there in the house? A. Makewayi nawa cikin gida? B. There is a big wonderful bathroom in the house. B. Akwai wani babban makewayi na kirki cikin gida. A. Is there a kitchen in the house? A. Akwai kicin cikin wannan gida? B. Yes, there is. B. I, akwai.

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7. Familiarize yourself with these terms for furniture and furnishings. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

Bathtub Bed Bookcase Chair

baho/ wurin wanki

gado kanta kujera

Table Refrigerator Lamp Microwave oven tebur firji fitila na’urar zazafa

abinci

Radio Carpet Kitchen sink Sofa rediyo kafet/ darduma wurin wankin

kwanukababbar Kujera

Telephone Television Toilet Mat

tarho talabijin salanga tabarma

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Curtain Bench Stove (traditional) Cell Phone labule banci murhu salula

Closet Stove (modern)

ɗan kabad kuka (Niger: resho/

murhun zamani)

8. Below is a chart with rooms you would find in a typical home. Under each room, list in Hausa the furniture and furnishings (from the list above) that you would expect to find there. Some items will be used more than once.

Kicin Falo Ɗaki Makewayi

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9. Using the chart above, ask each other questions, in Hausa, about the furniture in your rooms. Model: 1. What do you have in the kitchen? I have a stove, a…. in the kitchen. 1. Da mi da mi kuke da su cikin kicin? Ina da kuka da obin ... cikin kicin. 2. What do you have in the living room? I have a table, a….in the dining room. 2. Da mi da mi kuke da su cikin falo? Akwai tebur da tabarma da kuma fitila cikin falo.

10. Listen and read along as a speaker talks about his home and then answer the questions about the passage. Check your work with the Answer Key. Sunana Suleman. Ina zaune a Kano tare da matata guda da yaranmu biyu. Muna da wani ɗan ƙaramin gida mai hayi biyu. Ubana shi ma yana zama a gidanmu. Gidan yana da ɗaki biyu cikin hayin sama, akwai na ubana da kuma na yara. Ni da matata muna kwana cikin ɗakin da yake kusa da kicin. Muna da makewayi biyu. Muna da kicin babba inda akwai kuka da wurin wankin kwanuka da firji. Cikin kicin akwai babban tebur inda muke cin abinci. Ba mu da ɗakin cin abinci. Cikin falo akwai babbar kujera da tebur da ƙananan kujeru biyu da kuma ƙaramin talabijin. Da marece bayan an ci abinci ni da iyalina mukan kallon talabijin. A. Where does the family live? B. How many people live in the house? C. Is the house one story or two stories? D. How many bedrooms are there? E. How many bedrooms are on the first floor? Who sleeps there? F. How many bathrooms are there in the house? G. Where do they eat their meals? H. What does the family do in the evening after dinner?

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the speaker and circle the terms that you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. bedroom bathroom living room 2. lamp oven stove 3. toilet bathtub kitchen sink 4. sofa chair bed 5. carpet floor window 6. chair dresser radio 7. garage basement roof

2. You have a guest in your home. Give him or her answers, in Hausa, to the following questions.

Where is the bathroom? Ina makewayi yake? Where is the kitchen? Ina kicin yake? How many bedrooms do you have? Ɗaki nawa gare ku? Where is the telephone? Ina tarho yake? Can I watch television? Don Allah in kallo talabijin? When do you eat dinner? Yaushe kuke cin abincin dare? When do you get up in the morning? Yaushe kake tashi da safe? What time do you go to work? A ƙarfe nawa kake tafiya wurin aiki?

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Vocabulary List Basement gidan ƙasa (pl., gidajen …) Bathroom makewayi (also: bayan ɗaki, ban ɗaki, or bayan gida) Bathtub wurin wanki/ baho Bed gado (pl., gadaje) Bedroom ɗaki (pl., ɗakuna) Bookcase kanta (ta littattafai) (pl., kantuna …) Chair kujera (pl., kujeru) Closet ɗan kabad (Niger: almuwar or kwaba) Table tebur (pl., teburori) Door (location / opening) ƙofa Door (object) kyaure Floor kasa/ balbali Kitchen wurin girki/ ɗakin girki/ madafa Kitchen (modern) kicin (Niger: kizin) Lamp fitila (pl., fitiloli) Living room falo Microwave oven na’urar zazzafa abinci/ mazazafin abinci/ mazazafi. One-story gidan da ba ya da gidan sama Oven (modern) obin (Niger: huru) Oven (traditional mud) tanda Radio rediyo (pl., rediyoyi) Carpet kafet/ darduma (Niger: tapi)/ gyauda Second floor gidan sama/ hawa ta biyu Sink mawankar kwanuka Sofa babbar kujera (pl., Manyan kujeru) Stove (modern) kuka (Niger: resho) Stove (traditional) murhu (pl., murahu) Television talabijin Toaster na’urar gasa burodi (pl., na’urorin ...) Toilet salanga Two-story bene/ mai gidan sama/ mai hawa biyu Small chairs ƙananan kujeru Window taga (pl., tagogi) Where (not in questions) inda May I please ... don allah in ...

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On top of ... a kan ... The one that ... (m) wanda ... The one that ... (f) wadda ... The one belonging to ... (m) na ... The one belonging to ... (f) ta ...

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ANSWER KEY Activity 2 1. E Bathroom Makewayi 2. G Bedroom Ɗaki 3. H Door Ƙofa 4. J Floor Ƙasa 5. L Window Taga 6. D Living room Falo 7. K Office Ofis 8. A Basement Gidan Ƙasa 9. B Yard Filin Gida 10. F Kitchen Kicin Activity 3 1. Akwai eriya a kan gida. 2. Akwai ɗaki tsakanin ofis da makewayi. 3. Akwai filin gida a gaban gida. 4. Akwai kicin tsakanin falo da makewayi. Activity 5 A Ina makewayi? 5. Makewayi yana dab da ɗaki. B. Ina kicin? 4. Kicin yana dab da palo. C. Ina ɗaki? 1. Ɗaki yana dab da falo. D. Ɗakin kwana nawa gareku? 3. Muna da ɗaki ukku. E. Akwai gidan ƙasa? 2. I, akwai babban gidan ƙasa.

Activity 10 My name is Suleman. I live with my wife and two children in Kano. We have a small two-story house. My father lives with us. The house has two bedrooms on the second floor; one for our two sons and one for my father. My wife and I sleep in the bedroom near the kitchen. We have two bathrooms. We have a large kitchen with a stove, oven, sink and refrigerator. In the kitchen there is a large table where we eat. We do not have a dining room. Our living room has a sofa, a table, two chairs, and a small television. In the evening after dinner, my family and I watch television.

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Sunana Suleman. Ina zaune a Kano tare da matata guda da yaranmu biyu. Muna da wani ɗan ƙaramin gida mai hayi biyu. Ubana shi ma yana zama a gidanmu. Gidan yana da ɗaki biyu cikin hayin sama, akwai na ubana da kuma na yara. Ni da matata muna kwana cikin ɗakin da yake kusa da kicin. Muna da makewayi biyu. Muna da kicin babba inda akwai kuka da wurin wankin kwanuka da firji. Cikin kicin akwai babban tebur inda muke cin abinci. Ba mu da ɗakin cin abinci. Cikin falo akwai babbar kujera da tebur da ƙananan kujeru biyu da kuma ƙaramin talabijin. Da marece bayan an ci abinci ni da iyalina mukan kallon talabijin. a. kano Where does the family live?

b. biyar How many people live in the house?

c. mai hayi biyu Is the house one story or two stories?

d. ukku How many bedrooms are there?

e. ɗaya, miji da mata How many bedrooms are on the first floor? Who sleeps there?

f. biyu How many bathrooms are there in the house?

g. cikin kicin Where do they eat their meals?

h. kallon talabijin What does the family do in the evening after dinner? End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 1. makewayi 1. bathroom

2. fitila 2. lamp

3. wurin wankin kwanuka 3. kitchen sink

4. gado 4. bed

5. taga 5. window

6. rediyo 6. radio

7. gidan ƙasa 7. basement

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Lesson 11 Weather and Seasons

Yanayi da Lokutan Shekara This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to weather, seasons, and climate - How to ask for and give temperatures - How to understand weather reports - How to discuss the weather and climate in Hausa.

1. Listen to the weather terms as they are read aloud. Repeat the weather terms after the speaker.

Rain Sun Wind

Ruwan sama Rana Iska

Snow Fog Clouds Ƙurwa Hazo Gizagizai

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2. Match the pictures with the correct weather term. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

Iska

Rana

Ruwan sama

Ƙurwa

3. What do you hear? Circle the terms you hear spoken by the native speaker. Check your answers with the Answer Key. PLAY AUDIO snow wind rain cloud fog sun

4. Familiarize yourself with the following terms related to the weather. Pause the recording as many times as you need. Repeat after the speaker. Temperature Yanayi, yawan zafi/sanyiFahrenheit FahrenheitCelsius CelsiusWeather YanayiWeather forecast Hasashen YanayiWeather report Rahoton yanayiRainy Season DaminaDry Season RaniHot Season BazaraHarvest Season KakaIt is clear Gari ya yi garauIt is cloudy (light clouds) Akwai gizagizaiIt is cloudy (storm clouds) Akwai hadariIt is overcast Gari ya lumsheWindy IskaCold Ɗari, SanyiIt is freezing Akwai sanyi har ruwa ya daskara

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Warm Ɗumi, zafi-zafiHigh temperature ZafiIt is hot Akwai zafiIt is dry (lit., there is no moisture)

Babu Lema

It is sunny Akwai ranaIt is rainy Akwai ruwan sama/ ana yin ruwa

Talking About the Weather Given what we know about the Hausa emphasis on greetings, it should be no surprise to learn that talking about the weather is a central part of Hausa dialogues. Many of the greetings in Hausa involve a question about the weather, and even though the weather in Hausaland is notable only for its unchanging predictability, the topic is of genuine interest to most people. The general themes are fairly predictable, even if the language has a wide range of ways to express the ideas. See some common greetings listed below that refer to the weather. Question How is the heat? Ina zafi? Answer It is the time for heat Zafi, lokacinshi ne. OR Thanks be to God. Zafi, alhamdulilah Question How is the moisture? (after a

rain) Ina lema?

Answer The water has fixed things (for the crops).

Lema ta yi gyara.

Question How is the sunshine? Ina rana? Answer There is really some sun

today! Akwai rana yau!

OR It really is beating down today!

Rana tana bugawa!

The climate in Hausaland has also naturally dictated what kind of terminology is common. For instance, the thermometer is not really an everyday devise in Nigeria or Niger, and thus, terms like “degrees” are uncommon. The terms Fahrenheit and Celsius are likewise rarely used in Hausa, and if so, they are used as borrowed words. “Hot” and “Cold” are spoken of in a general sense, and rarely quantified by reference to a thermometer. Also, “snow” and “freezing” are somewhat foreign to the language. The word for snow is sometimes the same as the word for ice, and often requires some explanation. However, when it comes to talking about rain and sun and how people and crops are affected by rain and sun, synonyms abound. Note that, as is common in Hausa, nouns are used in phrases which would require adjectives in English. The word akwai (there is) is used in combination with the noun to express the adjectival concept in a nominal manner. See the examples of this form:

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It is raining Akwai ruwa (ana

ruwa) It is sunny Akwai rana It is hot Akwai zafi It is muggy/ hot and humid Akwai gumi It is windy Akwai iska It is cloudy (light white clouds) Akwai gizagizai It is stormy Akwai hadari It is cold Akwai sanyi There are other forms and phrases, however, which do not follow this pattern. See below for a few examples. It is overcast Gari ya lumshe It is raining Ana (yin) ruwa It is clear Gari ya yi garau

5. Listen to typical questions and responses about the weather. Repeat them after the speaker. - How is the weather in December? Yaya yanayi yake a watan Disamba?- It’s cold, and there is no rain. Akwai sanyi, kuma babu ruwan sama. - How is the weather in April? Yaya yanayi yake a watan Afrilu?- It’s hot and humid. Akwai zafi da gumi. - How is the weather in July? Yaya yanayi yake a watan Yuli?- It’s very rainy. Akwai ruwan sama dayawa. - How is the weather in October? Yaya yanayi yake a watan Oktoba?- It’s cool. Akwai sanyi-sanyi.

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6. Read the following short dialogues on weather and match each one to a picture below. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Yaya yanayi yake yau? Gari ya lumshe, kuma ana ruwa. 2. Yaya yawan zafi yau? Akwai rana da zafi sosai. Zafi ya kai awu 44 a ma’aunin zafi na Celsius! 3. Yaya yanayi yake a can? Akwai ƙurwa da sanyi sosai. 4. Akwai rana? A’a, akwai hazo da sanyi.

A #____________ B #_______________

C #_____________ D #_____________

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7. Work with a partner. Complete the dialogues according to the models in Exercise 5 and Exercise 6. Use the vocabulary given below. Akwai rana

Akwai ruwan sama Akwai zafi Akwai sanyi-sanyi

Akwai iska

Akwai hazo

Akwai gumi Akwai gizagizai Akwai sanyi Akwai hadari

Yaya yanayi yake a watan Janairu? Akwai …… da ……… . Yaya yanayi yake a watan Mayu? Akwai …… da …….. . Yaya yanayi yake a watan Agusta? Akwai ……… da ………. Yaya yanayi yake a watan Nuwamba? Akwai ……….. da ……………

8. Work with a partner. Put the given words in a correct order so that you can ask a question and give an answer about the weather in different places. Check your work with the Answer Key. Model: a / Moscow / ana yin ruwa / watan Disamba / a’a / yin ƙurwa / ana / a Student 1: Ana yin ruwa a Moscow a watan Disamba? Student 2: A’a, ana yin ƙurwa a Moscow a watan Disamba. 1) Kano / zafi / a / akwai / I / watan Yuni / a / da / rana 2) Agadas / a / sanyi / watan Nuwamba / akwai / a’a / akwai / da / zafi-zafi / a / iska 3) Watan Maris / ruwa / ana / a / I / a / Paris

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9. Listen to the speaker. Mark the statement that you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. A. The weather in September is clear and sunny. B. The weather in September is rainy and warm. C. The weather in September is foggy and cold.

2. A. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Celsius.

B. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Fahrenheit. C. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees.

3. A. Is it cold in the hot season? No, it’s sunny and hot. B. Is it raining in hot season? No, it’s cold and sunny.

C. Is it windy in hot season? No, it’s warm and cloudy.

4. A. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Overcast and cold. B. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Cloudy and cold. C. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Sunny and cold.

5. A. The cold season is cool and rainy. The hot season is hot and sunny. B. The hot season is hot and rainy. The cold season is cool and sunny.

C. The hot season is hot and sunny. The cold season is cool and rainy.

10. Familiarize yourself with the following terms related to weather and natural disasters. Pause the recording as many times as you need. Repeat after the speaker.

Lightning Thunderstorm Tornado Walƙiya Hadari Jansami/ Babbar Guguwa

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Hurricane Flood Guguwar iska mai ƙarfi Ambaliyar ruwa

11. What do you hear? Circle the three terms you hear spoken by the native speaker. Check your answers with the Answer Key. PLAY AUDIO hurricane flood tornado thunderstorm lightning

12. Answer the questions. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. Hadari ne? B. Ambaliya ce? C. Guguwar iska mai ƙarfi ce? A’a, ……….. ce. A’a ……………… ce. A’a …………… ne.

D. Babbar guguwa ce? E. Walƙiya ce? A’a ……………… ce. A’a ……………… ce.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following weather report for four different cities in Nigeria and Niger. In English, fill in the chart below with the weather and temperature for each city. Pause or replay the audio if needed. Check your work with the Answer Key. Play Audio

City Weather Temperature 1. 2. 3. 4.

2. Listen to the following weather report and answer the questions below. Check your work with the Answer Key. Play Audio 1. What city is the weather report for? 2. What is the date? 3. What day of the week is this? 4. What is the forecast for today?

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5. What will be the high and low temperatures for today? 6. What is the forecast for tomorrow? 7. What will be the high and low temperatures for tomorrow? 8. What time of the day tomorrow is the high temperature expected? 9. Are the temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, or was it not mentioned? 3. Working in pairs or small groups, describe the pictures. Use the vocabulary you’ve learned in this lesson to compose a story to match the pictures. (Include the season of the year, the name of the month, the type of weather it seems to be, etc).

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Vocabulary List Weather Yanayi Weather forecast Hasashen yanayi Weather report Rahoton Yanayi Rain Ruwan sama Sun Rana Wind Iska Snow Ƙurwa Fog Hazo Lightning Walkiya Thunderstorm Hadari Tornado Babbar Guguwa Hurricane Guguwar iska mai ƙarfi It is rainy Akwai ruwan sama/ ana ruwa It is sunny Akwai rana It is cloudy Gari ya lumshe It is freezing Akwai sanyi har ruwa ya daskara It is clear Gari ya yi garau Temperature Awon zafi Fahrenheit Fahrenheit Celsius Celsius It is hot Akwai zafi It is cold Akwai sanyi It is warm Akwai zafi-zafi/ akwai ɗumi Dry Babu laima It is overcast Gari ya lumshe It is windy Akwai iska Rainy Season (June – Sept) Damina Harvest Season (Sept – Nov) Kaka Dry Season (Sept – March) Rani Hot Season (March – June) Bazara It is muggy/ hot and humid Akwai gumi High Tsanani Low Ƙaranci Here is … Ga … Maybe Watakila In regards to … Wajen …

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To turn out to be Kasance So much so that … Har da …

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Answer Key Activity 2 Wind Iska Sun Rana Rain Ruwan sama Snow Ƙurwa Activity 3 A. Sun Rana B. Wind Iska C. Clouds Gizagizai Activity 6 A 4 It’s foggy and cold. -- A’a, akwai hazo da sanyi. B 1 It is overcast and raining. -- Gari ya lumshe, kuma ana ruwa. C 2 It is 44 degrees Celsius! It is very hot and sunny. -- Akwai rana da zafi sosai. Zafi ya kai awu 44 a ma’aunin zafi na Celsius! D 3 It’s snowing and cold. -- Akwai ƙurwa da sanyi sosai. Activity 8 1) Is it hot and sunny in Kano in June? Yes, it is hot and sunny in Kano in June. 2) Is it warm in Agadas in November? No. it is cold and windy. 3) Is it rainy in Paris in March? Yes, it is rainy in Paris in March. Activity 9 1. B The weather in September is rainy and warm. -- A watan Satumba akwai ruwan sama da ɗumi. 2. B What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Fahrenheit. -- Yaya awon zafi yake yau? Yau ya kai awu 35 a ma’aunin zafi na Fahrenheit. 3. A Is it cold in hot season? No, it’s hot and sunny. -- Akwai sanyi a lokacin �azaar? A’a, akwai zafi da rana. 4. C What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Sunny and cold. -- Yaya �as ashen yanayi na gobe yake? Rana da sanyi.

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5. C The hot season is hot and sunny. The cold season is cool and rainy. -- A lokacin bazara akwai zafi da rana. A lokacin damina akwai sanyi-sanyi da ruwan sama. Activity 11 thunderstorm Hadari lightning Walƙiya flood Ambaliyar ruwa Activity 12 A. Is it a thunderstorm? No, it is lightning. B. Is it a flood? No, it is a tornado. C. Is it a hurricane? No, it is a thunderstorm. D. Is it a tornado? No, it is a flood. E. Is it lightning? No it is a hurricane. End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 Ga hasashen yanayi. A birnin Kano akwai hadari, kuma ana samun ruwan sama. Zafi ya kai awu 44 a ma’aunin zafi na Celsius. A birnin Agadas gari ya lumshe kuma ana samun ruwan sama da sanyi-sanyi. A tsakar rana zafi yan kai awu 19. A Zinder kuma akwai zafi, kuma gari ya yi garau. Zafin ya kai awu 40. A Zaria ma akwai rana da zafi, kuma akwai iska sosai. Zafin ya kai awu 41.

City Weather Temperature 1. Kano Thunderstorms, rain 44 degrees C 2. Agadez Overcast, cool, rain 19 degrees 3. Zinder Hot, clear 40 degrees 4. Zaria Sunny, hot, windy 41 degrees

Here is the weather forecast. In the city of Kano, there are thunderstorms and it is raining. The temperature is 44 Celsius. In the city of Agadez, it is overcast and cool and raining. At noon, the temperature reached 19 degrees. In Zinder, it is hot and clear. The temperature there is 40 degrees. In Zaria, it is also sunny and hot, and also windy. The temperature is 41 degrees.

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Activity 2 1. What city is the weather report for? Paris. 2. What is the date? April 21. 3. What day of the week is this? Friday. 4. What is the forecast for today? Rainy with a chance of a thunderstorm this evening. 5. What will be the high and low temperatures for today? High of 18 and low of 8. 6. What is the forecast for tomorrow? Cloudy in the morning but sunny in the afternoon. 7. What will be the high and low temperatures for tomorrow? High of 22 and low of 12. 8. What time of the day tomorrow is the high temperature expected? 3:00 pm. 9. Are the temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, or was it not mentioned? Celsius. Ga rahoton yanayi na Paris a yau Juma’a, ranar 21 ga watan Afrilu. Yau za a yi ruwa, kuma watakila za a ga hadari da marece. Gobe gari zai lumshe da safe, amma da marece zai yi garau. Kuma za a yi iska. Wajen awon zafi, karanci zai kai awu 8 kuma tsananci zai kai awu 18 ta ma’aunin Celsius. Ran Subdu tsanani zai kai 22 a karfe 3:00 da rana kuma karanci zai kasance 12. This is the weather report for Paris for Friday the 21st of April. Today’s weather will be rainy with a chance of a thunderstorm this evening. Tomorrow’s weather will be cloudy in the morning but sunny in the afternoon. It will also be windy. The low temperature for today will be 8 degrees Celsius with a high temperature of 18. Saturday’s high temperature will be 22 at 3:00 in the afternoon and the low temperature will be 12 degrees.

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Lesson 12 Personal Appearance and Clothing

Surar Mutane da Kayan Jiki

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - One’s physical features (hair color, weight, height, etc.) - Articles of clothing - Colors - Description of a person’s physical appearance, including the clothing - Appropriate ways to ask about someone’s appearance.

1. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the descriptions of people’s appearances.

Tall Short Heavy Thin Young Old

Dogo (m) Doguwa (f)

Gajere (m) Gajera (f)

Jibgege (m) Jibgegiya (f)

Siriri (m) Siririya (f)

Matashi (m) Matashiya (f)

Tsofo (m) Tsofuwa (f)

Short Long Blond Red Gray

Gajere (m) Gajera (f)

Dogo (m) Doguwa (f)

Fari (m) Fara (f)

Ja Furfura

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2. Look at the pictures below and listen to the descriptions of people’s appearances.

This is a young woman. This man is young. Wannan budurwa ce. Wannan saurayi ne.She is tall and thin. He has an average height and medium frame. Ita doguwa ce siririya. Yana da matsakaicin tsawo da jiki. Describing People The Hausa people tend to be quite comfortable talking about how people appear and their differences. Of course, focusing excessively on someone’s disability or deformity would be rude, but people do tend to discuss openly their appearance and characteristics. Race, skin color, hairstyles, clothing, and culture are all up for discussion. Additionally, being heavy is generally seen in a positive light, and it is not at all taboo to mention someone’s weight. Another peculiarity of Hausa is that there are only a few words that specifically refer to a color. The rest of the colors are referred to by a reference to some other thing that shows the intended color. These constructs will require different grammatical treatment than the proper color words. In some cases, the word ruwan is used before this reference to express the concept of “water mixed with ...” See the list of color words below. Proper Colors Red Ja Blue Shuɗi (Bula) Green Tsanwa Black Baƙi White Fari Derived Colors Yellow Rawaya/ Ruwan masara (Lit., corn water) Brown Ƙasa-ƙasa (Lit., dirt-like)

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Pink Ruwan hoda (Lit., powder water) Gray Toka-toka (Lit., ash-like) Orange Ruwan Goro (Lit., Kola nut juice) Reduplicating the proper color words can result in what would translate in English to the suffix

ish. Accordingly, Baƙi-Baƙi is a blackish color that is not pure black, and fari-fari is whitish or off-white. You will see further examples in this chapter and upcoming chapters. Here are some examples of terms referring to age. He is middle-aged. Yana tsakar ƙarfinsa. She is a young woman/ girl. (not yet married) Ita budurwa ce. She is a young woman. Ita matashiya ce. He is a young man. Shi saurayi ne. / Shi matashi ne. They are adults. / They are important people. Su manya ne. They are young people. Su matasa ne. They are children. Su yara ne. They are elderly people. Su tsofi ne. He is an old man. Shi tsofo ne. He is old. Ya tsufa. Old woman Tsofuwa

3. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and repeat as you follow along in the workbook. Blond hair Farin gashiBrown hair Gashi ƙasa-ƙasaRed hair Jan gashiGray hair FurfuraCurly hair Nannaɗaɗɗen gashiStraight hair Miƙaƙƙen gashi

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This woman has short brown hair. This young man has short dark hair. Wannan mace tana da gajeren gashi ƙasa-ƙasa.

Wannan saurayi yana da gajeren gashi baƙi-baƙi.

The young girl has long blond hair. The old man has gray hair. Yarinya tana da farin gashi dogo. Tsofo, gashinsa ya yi furfura. 4. Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and describe each of the people. See if your partner can correctly identify the body type and their color and style of hair from your description.

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5. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and repeat as you follow along in the workbook.

Ear Nose Eye Mouth Glasses Beard

Kunne/ kunya

Hanci Ido Baki Tabarau Gemu

Light Skin Medium Skin Dark Skin Farin fata Fata mai wankan tarwaɗa Baƙar fata

6. From the lists above, choose the characteristics and adjectives that are used to describe each feature. Fill in the chart below in Hausa. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

Hair Skin Height Frame Facial Features

7. In each line of text below, cross out the term that does not logically belong. Check your work with the Answer Key.

Shuɗi Tsanwa Siriri Ƙasa-ƙasa Gajere Tabarau Dogo Matsakaici Hanci Gemu Babba Idanu Fari Furfura Tsawo Baƙi-baƙi

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8. Listen to the descriptions of different people’s appearances while you read the following dialogues. Answer the questions. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. – Wane launi ne gashin Amira ? - Launin gashinta ƙasa-ƙasa ne. - Gashin Amira dogo ne ko gajere ? - Gajere ne. - Gashin Amira nannaɗaɗɗe ne ko miƙaƙƙe? - Mikakke ne. 2. – Shaibu yana san tabarau? - A’a, ba ya san tabarau. - Wane launi ne idanun Sha’ibu. - Idanunsa shuɗi ne. 3. – Ali dogo ne? - Yana da matsakaicin tsawo. - Shi babba ne, mai ƙiba ? - A’a, shi siriri ne.

Questions: 1. How many people were described? 2. What were their names? 3. What kind of hair does Amira have? 4. Does Shaibu wear glasses? 5. Does Shaibu have brown eyes? 6. Is Ali short and heavy?

9. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary on clothing and colors. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Black BaƙiGray Toka-toka Green TsanwaRed JaBlue Shuɗi (Bula) Yellow RawayaWhite Fari Reddish Orange Jawa

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Red Coat Gray Suit Brown Pants Blue Jeans Jar kwat Riga da wando,

toka-tokaWando ƙasa-ƙasa Jin shuɗi

Headscarf Brown Sweater Orange Shirt Blue T-Shirt

Kallabi Rigar sanyi ƙasa-ƙasa

Riga jawa Riga mai gajeren hannu, bula

Green Skirt Woman’s Gown Men’s Robe Yellow Shorts

Tsanwan buje Rigar mata Riga zaleka

Gajeren wando rawaya

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Brown Boots Blue Shoes Black Hat Gray Uniform KuƂuttai ƙasa-ƙasa Kwandran shuɗi Baƙin hula

Baƙar tagiyaKayan aiki toka-toka

Black Socks White Socks

Baƙin suseti, Baƙar safa Farin suseti, Farar safa 11. Match each description with the corresponding picture. Fill in the blank with the correct letter. Note that there could be more than one match. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A B C D E 1. ………. tsofuwa ce. 2. ………. Tana da farin gashi. 3. ………. Tana da dogon gashi ƙasa-ƙasa.

4. ……….. yana sanye da riga da wando, toka-toka 5. …….. Yana sanye da wando bula. 6. …….. uwa ce ƙarama.

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7. …… …doguwa ce siririya. 8. …… ...tana sanye da rigar mata ruwan masara.

9. ……… tana sanye da wani riga mai gajeren hannu, bula. 10. ………yana da ƙiba.

12. Translate the following descriptions into English. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Amina doguwa ce siririya. Tana da shekara 30. Tana da farin gashi nannaɗaɗɗe, tsanwan idanu, da farar fata. 2. Ali dogo ne babba. Yana da shekara 45. Gashinsa gajere ne kuma ya yi furfura. Yana da idanu bula kuma farin fata. 3. Soji yana da gajeren gashi baƙi-baƙi. Shi gajere ne siriri. 4. Akwai yarinya mai shekara 10. Doguwa ce siririya. Tana da dogon gashi ƙasa-ƙasa, kuma idanunta ma ƙasa-ƙasa ne. Tana da fata mai wankan tarwaɗa.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Describe the people you see in the pictures. For each person, include the approximate age, skin tone, color and length of hair, and what he or she is wearing. Use the model:

1 2 3

4 5 6

2. Come up with a simple description for each of the people listed below. (You may substitute any individual you wish for those listed.) Be sure to include hair color and length, approximate height and age, eye color, and skin tone.

Example: My mother is 63 years old. She is tall and has a medium frame. She has short gray hair and brown eyes. She has light skin. She wears glasses. A. Mother B. Father C. Co-worker

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D. President of the United States E. Your next door neighbor 2. Work in pairs. Pretend that you and your partner are roommates. When you went to the store, someone came to visit you. Now you are back. Ask your roommate questions about that person’s appearance. Your partner will describe the visitor. In Hausa, say how he or she looks (Is he or she tall or short? Heavy or thin? What kind of hair does he or she have? What was he wearing? What colors were the clothes?).

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Vocabulary List Average Matsakaici (m.) Matsakaiciya (f.) Beard Gemu, Gemuna (pl.) Black Baƙi (m.), Baƙa (f.), Baƙaƙe (pl.) Blond Fari Blue Shuɗi (m.), Shuɗiya (f.), Shuɗɗa (pl.) Blue jeans Jin Boots Kuɓuttai/ shuhuddai Brown Ƙasa-ƙasa Color Launi, Launuka (pl.) Curly Nannaɗaɗɗe (m.); -iya (f.); -I (pl.) Dark Mai duhu, baƙi-baƙi Woman’s gown Rigar mata, Rigunan mata (pl.) Ears Kunne, Kunnuwa (pl.) Eyes Ido, Idanu (pl.) Face Fuska, Fuskoki (pl.) Frame Jiki, Jikuna (pl.) Glasses Tabarau, Gilashi, Luleti Gray Furfura (hair), toka-toka (general) Green Tsanwa Hair Gashi Hat Hula, Huluna (pl.) Jacket Kwat, Babbar riga Large Babba, Manya (pl.) Light Maras nauyi Heavy, Fat (person) Mai ƙiba, Masu ƙiɓa (pl.) Man Namiji, maza (pl.) Medium Madaidaici Mouth Baki, Bakuna (pl.) Nose Hanci, Hantuna (pl.) Old Tsofo (m.), tsofuwa (f.) Pants Wando, Wanduna (pl.) Red Ja, Jajaye (pl.) Shirt Riga, Riguna (pl.) Shoes Takalmi, Takalma (pl.)

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Short Gajere (m.), Gajera (f.), Gajeru (pl.) Skin Fata Skirt Siket Small Ƙarami (m.), Ƙarama (f.) Straight Miƙaƙƙe (m.), Miƙaƙƙiya (f.), Miƙaƙƙu (pl.) Suit Riga da wando Headscarf Kallabi, Kalluba (pl.) Sweater Suweta, Rigar Sanyi To go gray (hair) Yi furfura Tall Dogo (m.), Doguwa (f.), Dogaye (pl.) Thin Siriri (m.), Siririya (f.), Sirara (pl.), To wear Sa Wearing … Sanye da … T-shirt Riga mai gajeren hannu White Fari (m.), Fara (f.), Farare (pl.) Woman Mace, Mata (pl.) Yellow Ruwan masara Young Ƙarami (m.), Ƙarama (f.), Ƙanana (pl.) Orange Ruwan goro Reddish orange Jawa Pink Ruwan hoda Medium skin color Mai wanken tarwaɗa Big, old, important Babba (m/f), Manya (pl.) He is middle aged. Yana tsakar ƙarfinsa. Appearance (of a person) Sura/ Kama Clothing Kayan jiki

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ANSWER KEY Activity 6 Hair Skin Height Frame Facial Features

Gajere Fari Dogo Babba Kunne Dogo Mai

wankan tarwaɗa

Gajere Siriri, Siririya

Hanci

Fari Baƙi Ido Ja Baki Furfura Tabarau Gemu Activity 7 1. thin Siriri 2. glasses Tabarau 3. heavy Jibgege/ mai nauyi 4. height Tsawo Activity 8 1. How many people were described? Three. 2. What were their names? Amira, Shaibu, and Ali. 3. What kind of hair does Amira have? Short, straight, brown. 4. Does Shaibu wear glasses? No. 5. Does Shaibu have brown eyes? No, he has blue eyes. 6. Is Ali short and heavy? No, average height and thin. Activity 11 1. D is an old woman. 2. E has blond hair. 3. B has long brown hair. 4. A is wearing a gray suit 5. E is wearing blue pants. 6. C is a young mother. 7. C is tall and thin. 8. C is wearing a yellow dress. 9. B is wearing a blue t-shirt. 10. A is heavy.

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Activity 12 1. Amina is tall and thin. She is 30 years old. She has blond curly hair, green eyes, and fair skin. 2. Ali is tall and heavy. He is 45 years old. He has short gray hair, blue eyes, and light skin. 3. The soldier has dark short hair. He is short and thin. 4. There is a young girl who is 10 years old. She is tall and thin. She has long brown hair, brown eyes, and dark skin. 1. Amina doguwa ce siririya. Tana da shekara 30. Tana da farin gashi nannaɗaɗɗe, tsanwan idanu, da farar fata. 2. Ali dogo ne babba. Yana da shekara 45. Gashinsa gajere ne kuma ya yi furfura. Yana da idanu bula kuma farin fata. 3. Soji yana da gajeren gashi baƙi-baƙi. Shi gajere ne siriri. 4. Akwai yarinya mai shekara 10. Doguwa ce siririya. Tana da dogon gashi ƙasa-ƙasa, kuma idanunta ma ƙasa-ƙasa ne. Tana da fata mai wankan tarwaɗa.

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Lesson 13 Transportation

Sufuri

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Verbs of motion - Ways of asking questions regarding the different modes of transportation - Different types of transportation available in Niger and Nigeria. On the Road in West Africa The first word that comes up when discussing travel in West Africa is “bush taxi.” These ubiquitous jalopies of all sorts dominate the roads in this part of the world and provide the most common and readily available mode of transportation. The bush taxis are (officially) government regulated and operate out of stations in every town, but they also make stops wherever there is a passenger waiting by the road. They are notoriously slow and unsafe, but they can get you where you want to go for a reasonable price. Buses are also very common; however, they are generally more expensive and thus not used by the working class very much. These are much more scheduled and organized—not to mention safer—and tend to be the preferred mode of transport for foreign travelers. There are no trains in Niger, but there are some train lines in Nigeria. This is a much less common mode of transportation. There are a few ferry boats in the Hausa speaking world, as well as river boats. Only a small percentage of the populations of Nigeria and Niger own private cars. A more common possession would be a bicycle or an ox-cart. In the cities, small motor scooters are often used as taxis. There is room for only one passenger on each, but there are usually swarms of these taxis available. Air travel is, of course, very uncommon among the Hausa, except for among the very elite class. The only exception to this is that many Hausa men and women do manage to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at some point in their life, and this requires a flight to Saudi Arabia. The transportation system in this part of the world is organized around the tasha, the station where one can catch a car, truck, or bus. The driver or a “sales person” who works a section of the station will accept the money and give you a place. After that, you must wait (a few minutes or half a day) until the car is full to depart. The vehicles are generally very overcrowded and in disrepair, but inexpensive. In every village there is a small tasha which is often no more than a log to sit on or a shade hangar by the side of the road. At most of these stations there will be a ɗan kamasho (station manager) who will take money and talk to the driver. (Note that if you are unsure of the status of the person taking the money, you can always insist upon paying the driver personally). You will also find these “tashas” at unpopulated points along the road where trails from bush villages come to the road. It is also possible to flag a bush taxi anywhere along the road provided that there is room in the taxi. The loading and juggling of baggage is the job of the karen mota (dog of the car). This is usually a young man or teenager who rides in the least comfortable spot in the car and arranges the luggage of the people who come and go at each of the all-to-frequent stops that the car makes.

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1. Listen and repeat the following words as you read along.

Airplane Bicycle Ship Bus Jirgin sama Keke Jirgin ruwa Bas

Car Ferry Boat Helicopter Mota Jirgin fito Jirgin sama mai saukar

angulu

Motorcycle Taxi Train Truck Moto, Babur Tasi Jirgin ƙasa Babbar Mota

Ox cart. Horse Camel Donkey Amalanke Doki Raƙumi Jaki

Traveling Verbs: By far, the most important verb to know when it comes to traveling is tafiya (to go/ travel). This word is used to express “to travel,” “to walk,” and “to go.” The word tuƙa is used to express “to drive” with vehicles that you can get inside of. The word hau (to get on) is used to express “to ride” on a bicycle or motorcycle, as well as on an animal or as a passenger on an ox-cart.

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The verb tura (to push) is used to express “to drive” in the case of an ox-cart. With modes of travel, a is generally used to express “by,” and it is sometimes interchangeable with the word cikin (in). See the examples below: I am going by foot to the library. Ina tafiya a ƙasa zuwa gidan littattafai. I am going by car. Ina tafiya a mota. I am going to the concert in a car. Ina tafiya zuwa wasa cikin mota. The driver is driving the car to the gas station. Direba yana tuƙin mota zuwa gidan mai. The child is riding a motorcycle. Yaro yana hawan moto. I will drive the truck. Zan tuƙa babbar mota. Lawali is driving the ox-cart. Lawali yana turin amalanke. Amiru rides a horse. Amiru yana hawan doki.

2. Listen to the questions and answers about using different forms of transportation. Repeat after the speaker as you read along.

How do you go to work? Yaya kake tafiya zuwa wurin aiki?

by car a mota car motaby bus cikin bas bus basby train cikin jirgin ƙasa train jirgin ƙasaby bicycle a keke bicycle kekeby boat cikin jirgin ruwa boat jirgin ruwaby motorcycle a moto motorcycle moto

I go Ina tafiya

by truck cikin lori

I take the Ina ɗaukan

truck lori

I walk Ina tafiya a ƙasa

Model: who + the verb of motion + mode of transportation + destination Example: I ride a bus to school. Model: wa + fi’ili + abin da ake hawa ko shiga + wurin da ake tafiya Example: Ina hawan keke zuwa makaranta. Note that in Hausa, there are many different ways to express this sentence, and it varies as to which is more correct. The simplified model above will serve as a starting point, but be prepared to see many alternate word orders.

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3. Read each statement below and match it with the correct picture. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1 2 3

4 5 6 A. Ina tafiya makaranta cikin bas kowacce safiya. B. Sojoji suna hawan babbar mota ta soji. C. In an yi ruwa, mukan shiga tasi. D. Ina tuƙin motata zuwa wurin aiki. E. Abokina yana hawan kekensa zuwa aiki. F. Ƙanena yana hawan moto. 4. Practice creating complete sentences out of the words below. Use the following model.

Model: who + the verb of motion + mode of transportation + destination

Example: Ina hawan keke zuwa makaranta. Ina moto wana hawan zuwa makaranta keke uwayenmu mota filin jirgin sama

abokina wasa gidan littattafai

tuƙa jirgin ƙasa tasi bas tafiya ƙasa

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Asking Directions: In the Hausa speaking world, you will rarely encounter any problem in trying to find someone to give you directions. In fact, people are generally so eager to help that they will give directions even if they are really not sure; thus, it is usually good to ask people a few times along the way to confirm your directions. See the exchange below to get an idea of how one asks directions in Hausa. Pay special attention to how one approaches people in Hausa. This is very important. Speaker approaches a group of men sitting by the side of the street drinking tea and chatting. Speaker: Salama alekum. Men: Amin, alekum asalam. Speaker: Ina wuninku? Men: Lafiya lau! Kana lafiya? Speaker: Lafiya lau wallai! Men: To madalla. Speaker: Ya yi kyau … To, don Allah, ina gidan waya yake daga nan? Man: To, gidan waya yana da nisa. Sai ka shiga tasi ka tafi. Speaker: To, ina zan samu tasi? Man: Ga taksi nan. Bari in kira direba ku je. Speaker: To na gode sosai. Man: Ba laifi. The greeting salama alekum is used whenever entering a house or approaching a group of people, anywhere. The response amin, alekum asalam is the standard response. Although this is technically a Muslim greeting, it has been adopted as a standard part of Hausa propriety. This formula is considered good manners, and is taught to children from a young age. Foreigners are accorded a lot of leeway for not knowing to use this greeting, but it makes a very good impression if you remember. Likewise, it is generally best to exchange a few greetings before asking for help.

5. Listen to while reading along the following exchanges. Repeat after the speaker. Gafara dai. Ina so in tafi gidan litattafai. Yaya ake tafiya can daga nan? A shiga bas mai lamba 14. To, na gode. Ba komi.

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Yaya ake tafiya zuwa asibiti daga nan? A shiga tasi. To, na gode sosai. Babu laifi. Don Allah yaya za ni tafi masauki daga nan? A shiga jirgin ƙasa. Wace lamba? Jirgi mai lamba 22. 6. Working with a partner, make up similar exchanges. Use the words from Exercise 5 and the pictures below to choose the destination.

7. Now listen to the dialogues and mark the statements that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. A. Do you take a taxi to the concert? No, I take my car. B. Do you take a bus to the concert? No, I take my car. C. Do you take a train to the concert? No, I take my car. 2. A. What bus should I take to the post office? Bus number 18. B. What street should I take to the post office? 18th Street. C. What exit should I take to the post office? Exit 18. 3. A. My parents drive their cars to work, but we ride our bicycles. B. My parents drive their cars to work, but we walk. C. My parents drive their cars to work, but we take the train.

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At a Service Station

8. Familiarize yourself with the following vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow along in your book. Gas Mai, feturGas station Gidan maiDiesel Gas, gazwal (Niger), baƙin maiOil Mai, man fetur, luwul (Niger)Tires Taya, tayoyi (pl.)Air IskaWater RuwaFlat tire Faci To wash a car Wanke mota

Note that the word mai can be used to indicate either gas or oil in a general sense. Remember not to use the logical baƙin mai (black oil) to distinguish oil from gas, as this term generally refers to thick engine grease for lubricating moving parts.

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Measurement: Niger and Nigeria use the metric system for all measurements. However, it is still useful to at least be able to recognize the English measurement terms as well. See below a list of some of the most common terms. Kilometer Kilomita Mile Mil Meter Mita Foot Ƙafa Yard Yadi Gallon Galan Liter Lita Kilogram Kilo Gram Giram Pound Laba Ounce Oza In the Hausa marketplace, however, you will also need to know some other—and generally more abstract—terms of measurement. Review Chapter 7 for some of these terms. 1 gallon = 3.785 liters 1 quart = .946 liters 1 liter = 2.1 pints 10 liters = 2.63 gallons

9. Listen to the people at a service station and find out what each needs. Circle the English equivalents of the terms you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. A. Air Gas Diesel Tires Oil Car Wash B. Air Gas Diesel Tires Oil Car Wash C. Air Gas Diesel Tires Oil Car Wash D. Air Gas Diesel Tires Oil Car Wash

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10. Familiarize yourself with these terms identifying infrastructure. Road HanyaHighway Babbar HanyaCity street (on grid) LayiSmall city street TitiRailroad Reluwe, hanyar jirgin ƙasa

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Explain how you would get to the following places using various modes of transportation. Try to make your story interesting and include as many details as you can.

2. Listen and write down the responses to the questions below. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. – Ba ni da mai. Ina gidan mai yake? --_________________________________.B. – Ina da matsala wajen tayar motata. Mi ya kamata in yi? -______________________________. C. – Nawa ne kuɗin litar na mai ? - _______________________________. D. – Lita nawa kake so? - _______________________________.

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Vocabulary List Air Iska Airplane Jirgin sama, jiragen sama (pl.) Bicycle Keke, kekuna (pl.) Boat Jirgin ruwa, jiragen ruwa (pl.) Bus Bas Car Mota, motoci (pl.) Concert Wasa, kiɗa da waƙe-waƙe Diesel Gas, gazwal Ferry boat Jirgin fito, jiragen fito (pl.) Gallon Galan Gas Mai, fetur (mai is the more general term used, while fetur is more

specific) Helicopter Jirgin sama mai saukar angulu, jiragen … (pl.), helikafta Highway Babbar hanya, manyan hanyoyi (pl.) Library Gidan Littattafai, Gidajen littattafai (pl.) Liter Lita Small city street Titi, tituna (pl.)/ rariya Motorcycle Babur, Baburori (pl.)/ Moto (niger) Oil Mai, man fetur Railroad Reluwe, Hanyar jirgin ƙasa Service station Gidan mai, Gidajen mai (pl.) School Makaranta, Makarantu (pl.) Ship Jirgin ruwa, Jiragen ruwa (pl.) Taxi Tasi, Taksi Station worker / manager Ɗan kamasho Assistant (in bush taxi) Karen mota Take (taxi, bus, etc...) Shiga Take / get on (motorcycle, bike, car, etc…)

Hau, Hawa

Morning Safe, safiya Drive Tuƙa, Tuƙi Very well! Lafiya lau wallahi ! Call Kira Driver Direba, Direbobi (pl.)/ matuƙi Very much Sosai

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Tire/tires Taya, tayoyi (pl.) Train Jirgin ƙasa, jiragen ƙasa (pl.) Truck Babbar mota, Manyan motoci (pl.), Lori, Kamiyo (niger) Water Ruwa, Ruwaye (pl.) Work Aiki Ox Cart Amalanke, Amalankai (pl.) Horse Doki (m.), Goɗiya (f.), Duwaki (pl.) Camel Raƙumi (m.), Raƙuma (f.), Raƙumai (pl.) Donkey Jaki (m.), Jaka (f.), Jakai (pl.) Workplace Wurin aiki, Wuraren aiki (pl.) Taxi Driver Ɗan tasi, Ƴan tasi (pl.) To push (or drive an ox-cart) Tura, Turin

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ANSWER KEY Activity 3 1. F. My brother rides a motorcycle. - Ƙanena yana hawan moto. 2. D. I drive my car to go to work. - Ina tuƙin motata zuwa wurin aiki. 3. E. My friend rides his bike to work. - Abokina yana hawan kekensa zuwa aiki. 4. B. Soldiers ride in an army truck. - Sojoji suna hawan babbar mota ta soji. 5. C. When it’s raining, we take a taxi. - In an yi ruwa, mukan shiga tasi. 6. A. I take the bus to school every morning. - Ina tafiya makaranta cikin bas kowacce safiya. Activity 7 1. A. Do you take a taxi to the concert? No, I take my car. -- Kuna shiga tasi in za ku tafi wasa? A’a ina tafiya cikin motata. 2. B. What street should I take to the post office? 18th Street. -- Wace hanya ya kamata in bi in tafi gidan waya? Hanya ta 18. 3. C. My parents drive their cars to work, but we take the train. -- Uwayena suna tafiya wurin aiki cikin motocinsu, amma muna shigan jirgin ƙasa. Activity 9 A. Air B. Gas Oil C. Gas Car Wash D. Diesel Oil End of Lesson Tasks Activity 2 A. - I have no gas. Where is the gas station? - Two kilometers down the freeway. B. – I have a problem with my tire. What should I do? - I’ll put some air in the tires. C. - How much is the gas per liter? - CFA 1200 a liter. D. – How much gas do you want?

- 12 liters.

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A. – Ba ni da mai. Ina gidan mai yake? - Kilomita biyu nan gaba a kan wannan babbar hanya.B. – Ina da matsala wajen tayar motata. Mi ya kamata in yi? - Zan ƙara wa tayoyi iska.C. – Nawa ne kuɗin lita na mai ? - 1200 CFA / jika da arba’in.D. – Lita nawa kake so? - A ba ni lita 12.

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Lesson 14 Travel Tafiya

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to travel - How to buy a train, bus, or airplane ticket - How to understand schedules - Border crossing and roadblock procedures.

Buying Tickets: Buying tickets for trains and buses in Niger and Nigeria is usually a simple matter of going to the ticket window and buying a ticket. However, this only applies to the more formal train and bus lines. Bush taxis can be a little more complicated. In some cases there is a ticket window where you are supposed to purchase tickets, but in other cases you must figure out whether you need to pay the driver or another person who is taking money for the driver. Bush taxis do not really have a first and second class, but the front seat can carry a premium. Note that when buying something in Hausa, it is normal to be quite direct. Rather than to say, “I would like…” or “Could I please have …” as we do in English, it is normal in Hausa to simply say, “Give me …” You will see many examples of this in these lessons. Below are a few of the most common ways to ask for something that you want to buy.

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Give me one. Ba ni guda. I need millet. Ina bukatar hatsi. Pour some for me. (with something that is measured out)

Ka zubo mini shi.

I need to buy a shirt. Ina bukata in sayi riga. Cut me off 150 CFA of meat. A yanko mini nama na talatin. How many do you want? Nawa kake so? I want three. Ukku nike so. Give me one ticket. Ba ni tikiti guda. Get in the front seat. Ka shiga gaba.

1. Listen to the following dialogue about buying a ticket at a train station while reading along in the workbook. Soldier: Excuse me, ma’am. Soji Gafara dai, malama.Ticket Seller: Can I help you? Mai saida tikitoci Mi zan ba ka?Soldier: I need to buy a ticket to Zaria. Soji Ina bukata in yanki tikiti zuwa ZariaTicket Seller: Departing on what day? Mai saida tikitoci Wace rana za ka tashi?Soldier: Today. Soji Yau.Ticket Seller: One-way or roundtrip? Mai saida tikitoci Tikitin zuwa, ko zuwa da dawowa?Soldier: Roundtrip. Soji Zuwa da dawowa.Ticket Seller: First class or second class? Mai saida tikitoci Tikitin faskila ko gama-gariSoldier: Second class, please. Soji Gama-gariTicket Seller: Returning on what day? Mai saida tikitoci Yaushe za ka dawo.Soldier: Friday. Soji Ran Juma’aTicket Seller: Morning, afternoon, or evening? Mai saida tikitoci Da safe, da rana, ko da marece?Soldier: Afternoon.

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Soji Da rana.Ticket Seller: Twenty-two dollars, please. The next train leaves in one hour from

platform number 5. Mai saida tikitoci To, kuɗinsa jika tara. Jirgi mafi kusa zai tashi bayan awa ɗaya

daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 5.Soldier: Thank you. What is the train number? Soji To, an gode. Mine ne lambar jirgi?Ticket Seller: 76 Mai saida tikitoci Saba’in da shidda.Soldier: Is this an express train? Soji Jirgin ujila ne.Ticket Seller: Yes, it is an express train. Mai saida tikitoci I, jirgin ujila ne. Verbs for the Road: The verbs in Hausa for boarding, departing, arriving, and so on are fairly simple to learn, but they do have some nuances that can be a little confusing. Note that the verb hau is fixed in the past and future tenses, but in the present tense, hawa is used. Also, this verb applies especially to things that one rides on, while shiga is used for something that you get into. That said, however, it should be noted that hau is often used in places where shiga would be the proper verb, such as a car or bus. The verb iso/isowa is the verb that most accurately translates to “to arrive,” but it is also common for people to simply use zo/zuwa (to come) instead. The verb tashi (to get up/set out) is generally used for departure, but tafiya is also often used in this capacity. Get on! (for a bike, motorcycle, truck bed, or animal or ox-cart)

Hau!

Get in the car. Ka shiga mota. I ride a bike. Ina hawan keke. I am going by train. Zan shiga jirgin ƙasa in tafi. The train has arrived. Jirgi ya iso. The plane is arriving now. Jirgin sama yana isowa yanzu. When is the car departing? Yaushe mota za ta tashi? When will the car come? Yaushe mota za ta zo? How much is the fare? (for a car or truck) Nawa ne kuɗin mota? Pay the fare? Ka biya kuɗin mota. 2. Read the dialogue with a partner. Take turns being the ticket seller and the soldier.

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3. Role-play the dialogue. You can substitute the name of a city where you need to buy a ticket to, the time and day of arriving and departing, and the price of the ticket. The Simple Future Tense: We have already seen many examples of the future tense in this lesson. Now we will provide a complete explanation of this tense and its conjugation. See below the conjugation of the future tense pronoun. I will … Za ni …/ Zan You will … (masc.) Za ka … You will … (fem.) Za ki … He will … Za ya …/ Za shi …/ Zai … She will … Za ta … One will … Za a … We will … Za mu … You will … (pl.) Za ku … They will … Za su … Now see the following examples of the future tense in use. It is relatively straightforward. I will come home. Zan dawo gida. They will eat. Za su ci abinci. Note also that future pronouns can be used without a verb to imply the verb “to go.” See the following examples of the use of this alternate form. Where are you going? Ina kake tafiya? Ina za ka? I am going to the market. Ina tafiya kasuwa. Kasuwa za ni. The Indefinite Future Tense: Any Hausa learner needs to know how to recognize the indefinite future tense. This is an alternate future tense that indicates that something will happen at some unspecified time in the future. It is somewhat complicated to explain the exact differences between the two different future tenses, and it is even more difficult to teach the pronunciation. At this point, however, we will only provide a brief introduction to this form so that the student will be able to recognize the form when hearing it. The student at the elementary level does not need to use this form. In any place where this form could be used, the simple future tense would also be perfectly acceptable. See below the conjugation chart. Bear in mind that while this form has a strong resemblance to the past tense, it is differentiated by a distinctive extended falling tone.

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I will … Na … You will … (masc.) Ka … You will … (fem.) Kin/ kya … He will … Ya … She will … Ta … One will … A … We will … Mun/ ma … You will … (pl.) Kun/ kwa … They will … Sun/ sa …

4. Listen to the following statements while reading along in the workbook. Attention, travelers! The next express train to Zaria will depart from platform 10 in 15 minutes. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin ujila mafi kusa zuwa Zaria zai tashi wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 10 bayan minti 15. Attention, travelers! The next local train will arrive at platform 10 in 5 minutes. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin daddawa mafi kusa zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 10 bayan minti 5. Attention, travelers! Flight number 92 from Kano will be one hour late. Please check the screen for updates. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgi mai lamba 92 daga Kano zai makara da awa guda. A duba allo na bidiyo don samun ƙarin bayyani. Attention, travelers! The bus from Abuja will arrive at platform 3 in 10 minutes. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Bas daga Abuja zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan minti 10.

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5. Match each picture with the correct Hausa term by writing the term below the correct picture. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A__________ B__________ C__________

D__________ E__________ F__________

G__________ H__________

Fasinjoji Kaya Wurin shiga jirgi Takardar tsari Tikiti Wurin saida tikitoci Wurin jira Ƙofa

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Necessity: There are several ways of expressing “must,” “have to,” “should,” and similar concepts in Hausa.

I need to go. Ina bukata in tafi. I should go. Ya kamata in tafi. I must go. Dole ne in tafi. I must go. Tilas ne in tafi. Should I go? In tafi? You should rest. Sai ka huta.

In this category of words, special attention should be paid to ya kamata. This is a fixed construct that precedes a sentence, and it is especially common. Thus, the literal translation of ya kamata in tafi would run something like “It should be that I go.” Also note that the word sai, in addition to its other uses, can imply “should.” The subjunctive in Hausa: The above examples provide us with an ideal segue to a discussion of the Hausa subjunctive. While the subjunctive in used relatively little in modern English, it is very important in Hausa. The subjunctive is used in all of the above examples, and it is also used to form the imperative and several other types of phrases. Without getting into an exhaustive grammar lesson, we will go over a few important functions of the subjunctive in Hausa. First of all, look over the following conjugation chart for the subjunctive pronoun in Hausa. I In You (masc.) Ka You (fem.) Ki You (pl.) Ku He Ya She Ta They Su We Mu Note that with the exception of the first person singular, these are spelled like other conjugations that we have already seen in this book. Note also, however, that there is a tonal/tone length difference that distinguishes them as subjective. You will become accustomed to this difference as you go along. For now, it will suffice to say that the subjunctive pronouns have a short low tone. We have already seen how the subjunctive is used with certain terms in the preceding section. Now, we will look at how the subjunctive is used to form the imperative. The imperative is formed by simply placing the subjunctive pronoun before the verb. The pronoun can also be omitted, but the implication remains. See the following examples.

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Go! (to a man) Ka tafi! Be careful! (to a woman) Ki yi hankali! Another rather unique feature of the Hausa language is that when the imperative construct is stated as a question, the meaning becomes much like a question beginning with “should” in English. Remember that in this case, the pronoun cannot be omitted. See the following examples: Should I go? In tafi? Should we stop? Mu tsaya? The subjunctive is also used to express what in English would be expressed using the word “to”; an example would be a sentence that uses the English infinitive, such as “Do you want to go?” In Hausa, this sentence would be expressed as “Kana so ka tafi?” (You want you go?). In this sentence, the verb conjugated in the subjunctive is used to express what would be expressed by the infinitive (to go) in English. In grammatical terms, this is somewhat confusing, but it should be fairly clear in the below examples. English Hausa Literal translation Do you want (yourself) to go? Kana so ka tafi? You want you go? Do you want (us) to go? Kana so mu tafi? You want we go? I want to buy this. Ina so in sayi wannan. I want I buy this.

6. Listen to the following statements while reading along in the workbook. You must have a ticket to board the train. Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga jirgin ƙasa.You must have a ticket to board the airplane. Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga jirgin sama.Passengers for flight number 25 must go to gate 14. Fasinjoji na jirgin sama mai lamba 25 ya kamata su tafi ƙofa 14.You must pay for your ticket. Dole ne ka biya kuɗin tikiti.Passengers have to wait in the waiting area. Dole ne fasinjoji su jira a wurin jira.You have to wait for your luggage at the baggage claim area. Dole ne ka jira kayanka a wurin amsar kaya.

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7. Fill in the blanks with the correct term from the list below. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

Listen! A saurara! Baggage claim area Wurin amsar kaya Express Ujila First class Faskila Platform Wurin shiga jirgi Schedule Takardar tsari Second class Gama-gari Ticket window Wurin saida tikitoci Gate Ƙofa

A. Tafi ______________ ka yanki tikitoci. B. Za ka iya amsar kayanka a _____________________. C. _________________! Dole ne kowanne fasinja yana da tikiti in zai shiga bas. D. Duba ____________________ domin ka ga yaushe jirginka zai tashi. E. Jirgin ______________ ya fi sauƙi saboda ba ya tsayawa. F. Kowanne jirgi yana isowa _______________ daban. G. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin sama mai lamba 725 zai tashi daga _____________ A17.

8. For each question below, there is a corresponding answer. Match them by writing the letter of each question on the blank line in front of the appropriate answer. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

A. Ina za ni iya yankan tikitin jirgin daddawa?

1. ________ I, sannu.

B. Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano, yaushe zai tashi?

2. ______ Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano zai tashi bayan minti 20.

C Nawa ne kuɗin tikitin faskila zuwa Kaduna?

3. _____ A wurin saida tikitoci da yake dab da wurin shiga jirgi.

D. Kana son wurin zama dab da taga? 4. _____ Wancan jirgi zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba

16 bayan minti 10.

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E. Jirgin ijila daga Kano, wane wurin shiga jirga zai iso?

5. _____ Kuɗinsa CFA 30,000.

9. Role-play the short dialogues from Exercise 8. Change the cities and numbers.

10. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and determine which statement is spoken. Check your work with the Answer Ky.

1. A You must have a ticket to board the bus. B You must have a ticket to board the ferry. 2. A I need a first-class roundtrip ticket to Niamey. B I need a first-class one-way ticket to Niamey. 3. A. The next express train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes. B The next local train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.

At Border Crossings and Roadblocks

11. Listen to these new words and phrases.

Border Iyaka Customs Kwastan, Duwan (Niger)Checkpoint Wurin duba motociRoadblock Wurin tsai da motociPassport FasfoDriver’s license Lasin tuƙiDocuments Takardu

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Papers TakarduID card Katin shaidaShow me … Nuna mini …Give me Ba niSearch CajeInspect Duba Inspection DubaTrunk (of a car) But, Kyas (Niger)Proceed Ci gaba Rental (car) Motar hayaCitizen Ɗan ƙasa

12. At roadblocks and border crossings, officials usually ask questions about driver identification and vehicle documents. Try to match the Hausa border crossing requests and questions with their English equivalents. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Nuna mini takardun motarka. A Give me your driver’s license. 2. Ba ni fasfonka. B Do you have an ID card? 3. Daga ina kake. C Why do you need to go there? 4. Saboda mi kake bukata ka tafi can? D Show me your car papers. 5. Ba ni lasin tuƙinka. E Give me your passport. 6. Kana da katin shaida? F Where are you from?

13. Listen to and read the following dialogue at a border crossing, and then answer the questions below. Try to guess the meaning of unknown words from the context. Check your work with the Answer Key.

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Ma’aikacin kwastan Ba ni fasfonka da lasin tuƙi.Direba To.Ma’aikaci Kai mutumin Amirka ne?Direba I.Ma’aikaci Kana da takardun mota.Direba I. Motar haya ce. Ma’aikaci Ina za ka?Direba Ƴamai za ni.Ma’aikaci Kwana nawa za ka yi a can?Direba Kwana goma.Ma’aikaci Mi za ka yi can?Direba Zan ziyarci dangi.Ma’aikaci Ka buɗe but. Muna bukata mu caje mota.Direba To.Ma’aikaci To, an gode. Ka ci gaba.

Did you understand the words “trunk” and “search”?

A. Where is the driver from? B. Does the driver own the vehicle he is driving? C. Where is the driver going? D. Why is he going there? E. How long will he be there? F. What does the guard ask the driver to do at the end? G. Why? 14. Work with a partner. Take turns role-playing the Customs Official and the Car Driver.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. Ina bukata in yanki tikitin tafiya da dawowa zuwa Kaduna. Zan tashi a rana 12 ga watan Nuwamba kuma zan dawo a rana 3 ga watan Disamba. Ina so wurin zama da yake dab da taga. B. Wannan jirgin ujila ne? C. Daga wace tasha bas mai zuwa Kaduna yake tashi. D. Jirgi mai lamba 34 zai tashi daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan minti 5. 2. Work with a partner or in a small group. Look at the pictures and come up with a story. Do you think these people are arriving or departing? Do you think they are on time? Is their flight late? Mention their name, age, profession, what they are wearing, and where and why they need to fly or where they are arriving from. Also, tell how they got to the airport (by car, by bus, by train).

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Vocabulary List Arriving/Arrivals Masu isowa/ Masu zowa Attention! (listen) A saurara! Travelers Masu tafiya Baggage Kaya Border Iyaka, Iyakoki (pl.) Bus station Tashar Bas, Tashoshin bas (pl.) Checkpoint Wurin duba motoci, Wuraren … (pl.) Citizen Ɗan ƙasa (m.), Ƴar ƙasa (f.), Ƴan ƙasa (pl.)Customs Kwastan, Duwan Delay/ed Makara, jinkiri Departing/Departures Masu tashi Documents Takardu Driver’s license Lasin tuƙi Express Ijila First class Fasakila Flight Jirgi, Jirage (pl.) Fly Tafi cikin jirgin sama, tashi sama Give me … Ba ni … ID card Katin shaida, Katunan … (pl.) Inspect Duba, caje Inspection Caje Inspector Mai duban motoci, Masu … (pl.) To be late Makara One-way Zuwa On-time A lokaci Papers Takardu Passenger Fasinja, Fasinjoji (pl.) Passport Fasfo Platform Wurin shiga jirgi, Wuraren … (pl.) Proceed Ci gaba, Rental car Motar haya, Motocin … (pl.) Roadblock Wurin tsai da motoci, Wuraren … (pl.) Roundtrip Tafiya da dawowa/ Zuwa da dawowa Schedule Takardar tsari, Takardun … (pl.) Large video screen Allo na bidiyo, Alluna … (pl.)

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Second class Gama-gari Show me …. Nuna mini Driver’s assistant Karen mota (Literally: “Dog of the car”) Local train Jirgin daddawa, Jiragen … (pl.) Ticket Tikiti, Tikitoci (pl.), Tike (Niger) The next … ... mafi kusa Ticket window Wurin saida tikitoci, Wuraren … (pl.) To buy a ticket Yanki tikiti/ Sayi tikiti To board, get in Shiga To board, get on Hau, Hawa To leave, set out, depart Tashi To return/come back Dawo, Dawowa To pay Biya To accept / receive Amsa / Karɓa Baggage Claim Wurin amsar kaya, Wuraren … (pl.) To visit Ziyarta/ Ziyarci/ Ziyarce Taxi fare Kuɗin mota Fare for train / plane / bus Kuɗin shiga To arrive (somewhere else) Isa, Isawa To arrive (where you are) Iso, Isowa To rest Huta, Hutawa Why? Saboda mi? / Mi ya sa? / Dommi? Train station Tashar jirgi, Tashoshin … (pl.) Trunk (of a car) But, Kyas Waiting area Wurin jira, Wuraren … (pl.) Window seat Wurin zama dab da taga

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ANSWER KEY Activity 5 A Schedule Takardar tsari B Ticket Window Wurin saida tikitoci C Platform Wurin shiga jirgi D Ticket Tikiti E Passengers Fasinjoji F Baggage Kaya G Gate Ƙofa H Waiting area Wurin jira Activity 7 A. Wurin saida tikitoci Go to the ticket window to buy the tickets.

B. Wurin amsar kaya You can get your baggage at the baggage claim area.

C. A saurara! Attention! All passengers must have a ticket to board the bus.

D. Takardar tsari Check the schedule to find out when your flight departs.

E. Ujila The express train is faster because it does not make local stops.

F. Wurin shiga jirgi Each train arrives at a different platform.

G. Ƙofa Attention, passengers! Flight #725 is departing from gate A17.

A. Tafi ______________ ka yanki tikitoci. B. Za ka iya amsar kayanka a _____________________. C. _________________! Dole ne kowanne fasinja yana da tikiti in zai shiga bas. D. Duba ____________________ domin ka ga yaushe jirginka zai tashi. E. Jirgin ______________ ya fi sauƙi saboda ba ya tsayawa. F. Kowanne jirgi yana isowa _______________ daban. G. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin sama mai lamba 725 zai tashi daga _____________ A17.

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Activity 8 1. D. Do you want a window seat? Yes, please 2. B. When is the next bus to Kano? The next bus to Kano departs in 20 minutes. 3. A. Where can I buy a local train ticket? At the ticket window next to platform one. 4. E. At which platform is the express train from Kano arriving? That train will arrive at platform 16 in ten minutes. 5. C. How much is a first class ticket to Kaduna. It is 64 dollars.

D. Kana son wurin zama dab da taga? 1. ________ I, sannu. B. Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano, yaushe zai tashi?

2. ______ Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano zai tashi bayan minti 20.

A. Ina za ni iya yankan tikitin jirgin daddawa?

3. _____ A wurin saida tikitoci da yake dab da wurin shiga jirgi.

E. Jirgin ijila daga Kano, wane wurin shiga jirga zai iso?

4. _____ Wancan jirgi zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 16 bayan minti 10.

C. Nawa ne kuɗin tikitin faskila zuwa Kaduna?

5. _____ Kuɗinsa CFA 30,000.

Activity 10

1. A You must have a ticket to board the bus. A. Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga bas. 2. B I need a first-class one-way ticket to Niamey. B. Ina bukata tikiti zuwa Niamey. 3. A. The next express train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes. A. Jirgin ƙasa ujila mafi kusa zai tashi daga 15 nan da minti 10.

Activity 12

1. Nuna mini takardun motarka. D Show me your car papers. 2. Ba ni fasfonka. E Give me your passport. 3. Daga ina kake. F Where are you from? 4. Saboda mi kake bukata ka tafi can? C Why do you need to go there?

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5. Ba ni lasin tuƙinka. A Give me your driver’s license 6. Kana da katin shaida? B Do you have an ID card?

Activity 13 A. Where is the driver from? U.S. B. Does the driver own the vehicle he is driving? No, it is a rental car. C. Where is the driver going? Niamey D. Why is he going there? To visit family E. How long will he be there? Ten days F. What does the guard ask the driver to do at the end? Open the trunk G. Why? To do an inspection

Ma’aikacin kwastan Ba ni fasfonka da lasin tuƙi.Direba To.Ma’aikaci Kai mutumin Amirka ne?Direba I.Ma’aikaci Kana da takardun mota.Direba I. Motar haya ce. Ma’aikaci Ina za ka?Direba Ƴamai za ni.Ma’aikaci Kwana nawa za ka yi a can?Direba Kwana goma.Ma’aikaci Mi za ka yi can?Direba Zan ziyarci dangi.Ma’aikaci Ka buɗe but. Muna bukata mu caje mota.Direba To.Ma’aikaci To, an gode. Ka ci gaba.

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 A. I need to buy a roundtrip ticket to Kaduna, please. I leave on November 12 and return on December 3. I want a window seat. B. Is this an express train? C. What platform does the bus to Kaduna leave from? D. Train 34 is departing from platform three in five minutes.

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A. Ina bukata in yanki tikitin tafiya da dawowa zuwa Kaduna. Zan tashi a rana 12 ga watan Nuwamba kuma zan dawo a rana 3 ga watan Disamba. Ina so wurin zama da yake dab da taga. B. Wannan jirgin ujila ne? C. Daga wace tasha bas mai zuwa Kaduna yake tashi. D. Jirgi mai lamba 34 zai tashi daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan minti 5.

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Lesson 15 At School

A Makaranta

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to classroom activities - Vocabulary related to being a student - The education system in Nigeria and Niger.

Education The educational systems in Niger and Nigeria reflect two different colonial pasts. While education in Nigeria is based upon the English system of education that was inherited from England during colonial rule, education in Niger is based upon the French system. The border between Niger and Nigeria was once the border between French West Africa and English West Africa. In Niger, all education continues to be conducted in French, while in Nigeria it is in English. All of the terminology is different, as are the texts used and the methods employed. In Nigeria, the school year runs January through December. There are three quarters, with a one month break between each. English is the language of instruction, although some local languages are taught. Uniforms are required. For those who go on to university, there are a number of

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universities in Nigeria. Nigeria is attempting to create a situation in which a basic education is a universal obligation, but currently only about 65 percent of school age children are enrolled in school, and the adult literacy rate is about the same. In Niger, the schools run on a schedule that much more closely mirrors the American schedule. School starts in September or October, unless the teachers are on strike (a common situation) in which case the start of school may be delayed for months. Education is conducted in French, although there is some experimentation with using local languages and even Arabic. Primary level education is officially compulsory, but in reality the enrollment rate in primary school stands at about 25 percent of the school age children. The adult literacy rate is under 20 percent. Throughout the Hausa speaking world, the Western educational system is still in some ways a newcomer to the area. The Islamic education system, centered on the traditional madrasas, predates the Western system by several centuries and is seen by Hausas as the native form of education. This education system is one in which children (especially young men) are sent to a makaranta where a malam teaches them to recite the Qur’an and provides some explanation of the meaning of the verses—although not always full translations. This is an accepted form of education, which is encouraged but is not officially accepted as a replacement for state education. Because of this traditional use of the word makaranta, the Western style school is often distinguished from the traditional one by use of the term boko (secular).

1. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and read the following text under each of the pictures.

A student writes on the blackboard with chalk.

A student raises her hand to ask a question.

A teacher teaches students math.

Ɗaliba tana rubuta wani abu a kan allo da alli.

Ɗaliba ta ɗaga hannunta domin ta yi tambaya.

Malami yana koya wa ɗalibai lissafi.

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Students study chemistry in

middle school. First grade students read a

textbook. Students will study art in

this class. Ɗalibai suna koyon kimiyyar harhaɗa

magunguna a makaranta.

Ɗaliban aji na ɗaya suna karanta littafi.

Ɗalibai za su koyi fasahar zane-zane cikin wannan

aji.

There is a book, a

notebook, and a calculator. There is a desk and a chair

in the classroom. Students write with pens

and pencils. Akwai littafi, littafin

rubutu, da na’urar lissafi.Akwai teburin rubutu da

kujera cikin wannan ɗakin aji.

Ɗalibai suna rubutawa da biruna da fensirori.

2. Work with a partner. Look around the classroom. Name the items you see.

Class Aji Desk Teburin rubutu Chair Kujera Blackboard Babban allo Chalk Alli Pen Biro Pencil Fesur Notebook Littafin rubutu Computer Na’ura mai ƙwaƙwalwa Printer Mai buga takardu

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Keyboard Tafintar kwanfyuta Monitor Allon Kwanfyuta Teacher Malami (m.), Malama (f.) Student Ɗalibi (m.), Ɗaliba (f.)

3. Working with a partner, name the items you bring with you to class and the items found in your classroom.

Na’ura mai ƙwaƙwalwa Babban Allo Gulob

LIttafi Na’urar lissafi Kasat

4. Listen to the dialogue while you read along in the workbook. Underline the new vocabulary. What is your name? My name is Salisu. Yaya sunanka? Sunana Salisu. How old are you? I am 16 years old. Shekara nawa gareka? Ina da shekara 16. What grade are you in? I am in 10th grade. Wane aji ne kake ciki? Ina cikin aji na 10.

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What subjects do you study? Math, biology, music, literature, and history. Waɗanne fannoni kake karatu? Lissafi, ilimin halittu, kiɗi da waƙa, adabi,

da tarihi. What is your favorite subject? My favorite subject is biology. Wane fanni ka fi so? Ilimin halittu ne wanda na fi so. Are you a good student? Yes, I‘m a good student. Kai kyakyawan ɗalibi ne? I, ni kyakyawan ɗalibi ne. What will you do after school? I will go to the college; I want to be a doctor. Mi za ka yi bayan makaranta? Zan tafi jami’a; ina so in zama likita. What do you like to do after school? After school I like to listen to music. Mi kake son yi bayan ka sauka daga makaranta?

Bayan makaranta ina son sauraron waƙa da kiɗi.

5. Read along while listening to some of the new words you might have underlined in Exercise 4. Grade Aji Subject FanniMy favorite Wanda na fi soMath LissafiBiology Ilimin halittuMusic Waƙa da kiɗiLiterature AdabiHistory TarihiCollege Jami’aLike SoListen to Saurara The Verb fi (Comparatives and Superlatives) In this chapter, we have introduced some new vocabulary for expressing likes and dislikes in Hausa. When discussing likes and dislikes, it is important to be able to express that you like one thing more that another. To do this in Hausa, requires use of the verb fi. This word can be somewhat awkward at first for an English speaker, but once learned it is simple to use. Essentially the verb fi translates as “to exceed,” and it modifies a word that usually follows it. In this way, it expresses what would be expressed in English using a comparative or superlative. See below some examples of the various uses of this word.

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English Hausa Literal Translation Math is harder than Literature. Lissafi ya fi Adabi wuya. Math exceeds literature in

difficulty. I prefer this one. Na fi son wannan. I exceed in liking this one. This one is the best. Wannan shi ne wanda ya fi. This one is the one that

exceeds. Studying is harder than farming. Karatu ya fi noma wuya. Studying exceeds farming in

difficulty. I am taller than you. Na fi ka tsawo. I exceed you in height. Note that generally speaking, the past tense is used in these sentences, even when it is placed in the present. You should also be able to recognize the word mafi (the most …), which is a conjunction of the prefix ma- (the owner of…, that which…) and fi. Note that if what is being described is feminine, mafi becomes mafiya. Here are a few examples. English Hausa The kindest person Mutum mafi kirki The longest road Hanya mafiya tsawo The most expensive Mafi tsada Likes and Dislikes The most common word for expressing that you like something is so. This word expresses both “to like” and “to love.” There are also a few other terms that are used to express similar concepts. See the below examples. English Hausa Literal Translation I like this music. Ina jin daɗin wannan kiɗi. I feel the goodness of this

music. She made a big impression on me!

Ta burge ni sosai! She impressed me a lot!

I like her. / I love her. Ina son ta. 6. Work with a partner. Make up a dialogue similar to the one in Exercise 4. List your favorite subjects, say how good you think you are at each of them, tell what profession you are going to choose, and say what you like to do after school.

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7. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker as you go over the dialogue. A. Listen to the recording and take notes. A. A saurara magana kuma a rubuta abubuwan lura da ke ciki. B. Put your pencils down. B. Ajiye fensirorinku. C. Write your answer on the blackboard. C. A rubuta amsarka a allo.D. Open your textbooks. D. Buɗe littattafanku.E. Raise your hand if you have a question. E. In kana da tambaya, sai ka ɗaga hannunka.F. Write down the homework. F. A rubuta aikin gida. 8. Role-play s a teacher. Have the students follow your directions. Use the expressions from Exercise 7.

9. Listen to the following questions and mark the answers that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. Mi kake yi a makaranta? A. I read the textbooks at school. B. I write letters and numbers in Hausa. C. I study many subjects. 2. Wane aji ne kake ciki? A. I am in 5th grade. B. I am in 6th grade. C. I am in 8th grade. 3. Waɗanne fannoni kake karatu? A. Math, Hausa, science, geography, and English. B. Math, history, science, geography, and English. C. Math, chemistry, science, geography, and English. 4. Wane fanni ka fi so? A. English B. Geography C. Science

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5. Kai kyakyawan ɗalibi ne? A. I’m very good at English, but I’m bad at math. B. I’m very good at geography, but I’m bad at math. C. I’m very good at chemistry, but I’m bad at math. 10. Work with a partner and make up similar dialogues using expressions from Exercise 9. 11. Work in small groups and describe the following pictures. Come up with ages for the students and the teacher, their names, the subjects they study/teach, what they’re doing right now, what they are wearing, if they seem to like their class and their teacher, etc.

12. Listen to and read the following text about the student’s schedule, and then answer the questions below. The new word “busy” is introduced in the text. Try to guess this and other new words from the context. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Sunana Aminatu Ayuba. Ni ɗaliba ce a Jami’ar Kaduna. Ina karatun Inglishi. Ina so in zama tafinta. Kullum ina da ayyuka dayawa. Ranaikun Litinin da Laraba da Juma’a nikan tashi zuwa makaranta a ƙarfe takwas da safe. In na sauka daga makaranta, a ƙarfe huɗu da marece, ina tafiya aiki. Ina aiki kamar sabis a wani gidan abinci. Bayan na sauka daga aiki a ƙarfe goma da dare, sai na koma gida. Ranaikun Talata da Alhamis ina tafiya makaranta a ƙarfe 10 da safe. Bayan makaranta, a ƙarfe 12 ina tafiya gidan littattafai. Ina yin karatu a gidan littattafai awa ukku da rana. Ina yin aikin gida da safe kuma a ƙarshen mako, watau Asabar da Lahadi.

A. What is the student’s name? B. Where does she go to school? C. What does she study? D. What is her school schedule on Monday, Wednesday and Friday? E. What is her schedule on Tuesday and Thursday?

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F. What job does she have and when does she work? G. When does the student do homework? H. What does the student want to do after finishing school?

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End-of-Leson Tasks 1. Go over the text from Exercise 12 again. Tell the class about your schedule. Use the questions after the text as an outline for your story. 2. Look at the pictures and tell a story about what you see. Include the grade the students are in, the subjects they are studying, what the teacher is doing, what the students and teachers are wearing, and so on.

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3. Read and compare the following texts and find the errors in the English translations. Make corrections so that the translation is accurate. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. A. Sunana Ali Isaka. Daga Kano nike, amma yanzu ina zama a Kaduna. Ina cikin aji na 6 a makaranta. Ina da abokai dayawa. Ina son harshen Inglishi da karatu da kuma wasan ƙwallon kwando. B. My name is Ali Isaka. I’m from Kano, but now I live in Kaduna. I’m in fifth grade. I have many friends. I like music, reading, and basketball. 2. A. Sunana Ya’u Muhammadu. Daga Matamai nike, amma ina zama a Ƴamai. Ina son koyon lissafi da kimiyya. B. My name is Ya’u Muhammadu. I’m from Magaria, but I live in Niamey. I like math and geography. 3. A. Sunana Hadiza. An haifeni a ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu a shekara 1989. Ina cikin aji na 8 a makaranta. Ina son aji na kiɗi da waƙa, da na fasahar zane-zane, da na ɗaukar hotuta. Ina so in zama mai zane, ko likita, ko mai ɗaukar hotuna. B. My name is Hadiza. I was born on August 4, 1989. I’m in the ninth grade. I like music class and photography. I want to be a doctor or a photographer.

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Vocabulary List Art Fasahar zane-zane Artist (painting / drawing) Mai zane Basketball Wasan ƙwallon kwando Biology Ilimin halittu Blackboard Babban allo, Manyan alluna (pl.) I am busy Ina harkoki, ina cikin aiki Affair, Business Harka, Harkoki (pl.) Chair Kujera, Kujeru (pl.) Chalk Alli, Farin Kasa Chemistry Kimiyyar harhaɗa magunguna Class Aji, Azuzuwa (pl.), Kilas College/University Jami’a, Jami’o’i (pl.) Computer Na’ura mai ƙwaƙwalwa, Na’urori masu

ƙwaƙwalwa (pl.), Kwamfyuta Desk Teburin rubutu, Teburorin rubutu (pl.) Globe Gulob, Gwalaf (Niger) Elementary School Firamare, Firimar (Niger) English Inglishi Grade Aji, Azuzuwa (pl.) High School Sakandare, Lise (Niger) Secular / Western education

Boko

History Tarihi Homework Aikin gida Literature Adabi Math Lissafi Middle School Midil, se’eje (niger) Music Kiɗi da waƙa Photo Hoto, Hotuna (pl.) Notebook Littafin rubutu, Littattafan rubutu (pl.) Kaye

(niger) Pen Biro, Birori (pl.), Bik (Niger) Pencil Fensir, Fensirori (pl.) Photography Ɗaukar hotuta

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Reading Karatu Student Ɗalibi (m.), Ɗaliba (f.), Ɗalibai (pl.) Subject(s) Fanni, Fannoni (pl.) Tape recorder Rakoda, Rakododi (pl.) Teacher Malami (m.), Malama (f.), Malamai (pl.) To like So, Son To read Karanta Reading Karatu To study Karanta, Yin karatu To write Rubuta Letter (of alphabet) Baƙi, Baƙaƙe (pl.) Number Lamba, Lambobi (pl.) To exceed Fi I like … Ina jin daɗin … To impress / To make a good impression

Burge

To prefer Fi so Good Kyakaywa I can / I am good at … Na iya … When (not in questions) In To become Zama As (I worked as a reporter) Kamar Which (questions) Wane (m.), Wace (f.), Waɗanne (pl.) Listen to the recording and take notes.

Sauraren naɗi (sautin da ake ji daga rakoda) kuma rubuta dukan abubuwan lura da ke ciki.

Put your pencils down. Ajiye fensirorinku Write your answer on the blackboard.

Rubuta amsoshinka a allo.

Open your textbooks. Buɗe littattafanku. Raise your hand! Ɗaga hannunka! Write down your homework, please

Rubuta aikinka na gida.

That is to say … Wato, Watau

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Answer Key Activity 9 1. Mi kake yi a makaranta? C. Ina karatun fannoni daban daban. 1. What do you do at school? C. I study many subjects. 2. Wane aji ne kake ciki? B. Ina cikin aji na 6. 2. What grade are you in? B. I am in 6th grade. 3. Waɗanne fannoni kake karatu? A. Lissafi, Hausa, kimiyya, labarin ƙasa, da Inglishi. 3. What subjects are you studying? A. Math, Hausa, science, geography, and English. 4. Wane fanni ka fi so? B. Labarin ƙasa. 4. What is your favorite subject? B. Geography 5. Kai kyakyawan ɗalibi ne? C. Na iya kimiyyar harhaɗa magunguna sosai, amma ban iya lissafi sosai ba. 5. Are you a good student? C. I’m very good at chemistry, but I’m bad at math.

Activity 12 A. What is the student’s name? Her name is Aminatu Ayuba. B. Where does she go to school? She goes to Kaduna University. C. What does she study? She studies English. D. What is her school schedule on Monday, Wednesday and Friday? She goes to school from 8:00am until 4:00pm. E. What is her schedule on Tuesday and Thursday? She goes to class at 10am then at 12:00 she goes to the library to study for three hours. F. What job does she have and when does she work? She works as a waitress in a restaurant from 4:00 to 10:00pm on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. G. When does the student do homework? She does homework on weekends and in the mornings. H. What does the student want to do after finishing school? She wants to be an interpreter. My name is Aminatu Ayuba. I am a student at Kaduna University. I study English. I want to be an interpreter. I have a busy schedule. On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, I go to school at 8:00. After school, at 4:00pm, I go to work. I work at a restaurant as a waitress. After work, at 10 pm, I go home. On Tuesday and Thursday, I go to class at 10am. After school, at 12:00, I go to the library. I study at the library for three hours in the afternoon. I do my homework in the mornings and on the weekends, that is, Saturdays and Sundays.

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Sunana Aminatu Ayuba. Ni ɗaliba ce a Jami’ar Kaduna. Ina karatun Inglishi. Ina so in zama tafinta. Kullum ina da ayyuka dayawa. Ranaikun Litinin da Laraba da Juma’a nikan tashi zuwa makaranta a ƙarfe takwas da safe. In na sauka daga makaranta, a ƙarfe huɗu da marece, ina tafiya aiki. Ina aiki kamar sabis a wani gidan abinci. Bayan na sauka daga aiki a ƙarfe goma da dare, sai na koma gida. Ranaikun Talata da Alhamis ina tafiya makaranta a ƙarfe 10 da safe. Bayan makaranta, a ƙarfe 12 ina tafiya gidan littattafai. Ina yin karatu a gidan littattafai awa ukku da rana. Ina yin aikin gida da safe kuma a ƙarshen mako, watau Asabar da Lahadi. End of Lesson Tasks Activity 3 Your English translation should be as follows. The terms in bold are the corrected errors. 1. My name is Ali Isaka. I’m from Kano, but now I live in Kaduna. I’m in sixth grade. I have many friends. I like English language, reading, and basketball. 2. My name is Ya’u Muhammadu. I’m from Matamai, but I live in Niamey. I like math and science. 3. A. My name is Hadiza. I was born on April 8, 1989. I’m in 8th grade. I like music class, art, and photography. I want to be an artist, doctor or a photographer.

1. A. Sunana Ali Isaka. Daga Kano nike, amma yanzu ina zama a Kaduna. Ina cikin aji na 6 a makaranta. Ina da abokai dayawa. Ina son harshen Inglishi da karatu da kuma wasan ƙwallon kwando.

2. 2. A. Sunana Ya’u Muhammadu. Daga Matamai nike, amma ina zama a Ƴamai. Ina son koyon lissafi da kimiyya.

3. 3. A. Sunana Hadiza. An haifeni a ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu a shekara 1989. Ina cikin aji na 8 a makaranta. Ina son aji na kiɗi da waƙa, da na fasahar zane-zane, da na ɗaukar hotuta. Ina so in zama mai zane, ko likita, ko mai ɗaukar hotuna.

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Lesson 16 Recreation and Leisure Wasa da Shaƙatawa

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to recreational and leisure activities - Ways to discuss hobbies in Hausa. 1. Read the sentences with the new vocabulary and try to guess the meaning of any unknown words.

Namiji da mace suna rawa. Rawa, ita ce abin da suke yi domin su

shaƙata.

Tana kiɗan biyano kamar sana’a. Makaɗiyar biyano tana

yin kiɗi a wasan kiɗe-kiɗe.

Wannan namiji yana ɗaukar hotuna. Shi

mai ɗaukar hoto ne.

Sunansa Andrew. Wasan ƙwallon ƙafa ne abin da yakan yi domin

ya shaƙata.

Waɗannan maza biyu suna yin dambe a dandali. Dambe ne abin da sukan yi domin su

shaƙata.

Abokiyata Sandy takan yi gudu

kowacce rana bayan ta sauka daga

karatu.

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Ƙanena yana son kokowa.

Kokowa ce abin da yake yi domin ya shaƙata.

In da akwai zafi, yara suna yin iyo kowacce rana a lokacin

bazara.

Wannan saurayi yana yin wasan

tanis a filin tanis.

Ƙanwata tana son yin zane-zane. Sojoji suna yin karta cikin

tanti. Suna jin daɗin yin karta. Kullum da marece wannan namiji da matarsa suna yin

yawo.

Sojoji biyu suna dara (yin wasan shaɗaranji). Ita ce abin da sukan yi domin su shaƙata.

Wannan namiji yana kiɗa garaya tare da yin waƙa.

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2. Now listen to the speaker. Check to see if your guesses were correct. Repeat the new w

Play Yi wasa

un ƙurwa/ gudun ƙanƙara

e

anisourt

oɗiya (f.)

otos tuna

haɗaranji

g pool wanka

tle (traditional) owallon ƙafa

e “garaya”

rum gu

ords as many times as you need to feel comfortable with the pronunciation.

Cards KartaTo ski Yi gudHobby Abin da ake yi domin a shaƙataTo danc Yi rawaTennis Wasan tTennis C Filin tanisPlay piano Kiɗa biyanMusician Makaɗi (m.), MakaTo take ph Ɗauki hotuna / Ɗaukar hoPhotographer Mai ɗaukar hotoTo play guitar Kiɗa garayaTo sing Yi waƙaSongs WaƙoƙiChess Dara / STo walk Yi yawoTo swim Yi iyoSwimmin Wurin To run GuduTo wres Yi kokSoccer Wasan ƙwaTo paint Yi zane-zaneTo play th Kiɗa garayaTo box (traditional) Yi dambeTo play the talking d Kiɗa kalanTo play “dara” Yi wasan dara

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3. Listen to the dialogues as you read them.

akaranta? A. Za su yi iyo bayan makaranta..

. Wane wasa ne yake yi? . Yana yin ƙwallon ƙafa da ƙwallon

B. in ƙwallon ƙafa da ƙwallon raga

. Mi take yi yau? . Tana yin waƙa.ane.

. Ka iya shaɗaranji? . I, na iya shaɗaranji.ano.

. Mi kake yi domin ka shaƙata. . Ina son yin gudu da ɗaukar hotuna.

ƙwallon

. Work with a partner. Take turns reading the dialogues in Exercise 3.

. Work with a partner or in a small group. Make up exchanges using the models and

6. Reconstruct the questions in Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key.

- …………………….?

?

…? r hotuna domin in shaƙata.

1. Mi za su yi bayan m B. Za su yi rawa bayan makaranta C. Za su yi waƙa bayan makaranta. 2 A

kwando.Yana y

C. Yana yin ƙwallon ƙafa da tanis.

3 A B. Tana yin zane-z C. Tana ɗaukar hotuna. 4 AKa iya garaya? B. A’a, amma na iya biyKa iya biyano? C. I na iya biyano. 5 A B. Ina son yin karatu da iyo. C. Ina son yin yawo da wasan

ƙafa.

4 5

phrases from Exercise 3.

A. - I, na iya shaɗaranji. B. - …………………….- I, na iya garaya. C. -…………………- Ina yin gudu da ɗauka

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D. - ……………………? - Yana yin ƙwallon ƙafa da kokowa.

omin in shaƙata.

ɗan garaya.

. Read and translate the following text, noting the new vocabulary. Do you understand

ra

xt, take special note of the following words and how they are used: kuma,

e

rom one o’clock to three o’clock. Daga ƙarfe ɗaya zuwa ƙarfe ukku.

a iya Faransanci.

unana Amadu Yahayya. Daga Magarya nike a Nijar. Ina yin karatu a Jami’ar Amadu n

son

E. - ……………………? - Ina yin karatu da iyo dF. - …………………….? - Tana son yin yawo da ki 7

all the words in bold? Check the grammar note for some explanations. Check the Answer Key for an English translation.

mmar Notes GIn the following tezuwa, ma. Kuma generally translates as “also” or sometimes “and.” There are some cases in which the difference between kuma and da is subtle, as you will see in the examples below. Kuma also has many other uses that change its meaning. Ma translates as “too.” Here are somexamples: FMe too. Ni ma. I also speak French. OR - And I speak French. Na kumAlso, I speak French. OR - And, I speak French.

Kuma na iya Faransanci.

SBello a Kano, Nijeriya. Kullum ina da harkoki dayawa, ga karatu ga wasanni. Ina koyoilimin kwamfiyuta kuma ina cikin tim ɗin ƙwallon ƙafa na Jami’a. Ina da azuzuwa daga ƙarfe 8:30 da safe zuwa ƙarfe 3:00 da rana. Bayan haka muna yin faratis ɗin ƙwallon ƙafa kowacce rana daga ƙarfe 4:00 zuwa 6:00 da marece. Ina jin daɗin yin wasan ƙwallon ƙafa. A ƙarshen mako ma ni da Abokaina mukan yi ƙwallon ƙafa. Ina kumayin iyo da kaɗin garayar bature, wato gitar. Ban iya gitar sosai ba. Wannan ƙarshen sati abokaina da ni za mu tafi wani wasa da ake yi a filin wasan Zinder, cikin Nijar. Mawaƙi duk da muka fi so shi zai yi waƙa. Bayan wasa za mu tafi gidan abinci mu ci abincin dare.

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8. Now read the text as many times as you want and mark the following statements as

A. _____Amadu Yahaya is from Magaria, Niger.

. _____He is a high school student at Amadu Bello University in Kano, Nigeria.

. _____ Amadu studies chemistry.

. _____ Amadu plays on the university soccer team.

. _____ He has class every day from 8:30 to 3:00.

. _____ Amadu likes to swim and play the piano.

. _____ After the concert Amadu will go home to do his homework.

. Work with a partner or in a small group and make up a description of a busy schedule.

either True or False. Check your work with the Answer Key.

B C D E F H

9Use the statements from Exercise 8 as an outline for your story. The pictures given below can help you choose the activities to describe.

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Games, Sports, and Pastimes

on in America are widely known or played in Nigeria and Niger.

s one

ly

usic is also very different. The traditional instruments that still dominate the scene in Hausa

st

y are

here are many popular children’s games that are played with nothing but sticks and rocks on the

Few of the games that are commIn fact, soccer is the only game that is really popular in both places. Hausas, however, have their own sports and games that few Americans have ever heard of but which are very popular in the Hausa speaking world. The most popular sport in Hausaland is kokowa, or traditional wrestling.This sport is the main sport of rural villages, where it is performed in the village center, or dandali. Champions from rural matches go to the city for the championship rounds, and it iof the few undertakings where the rural villagers are able to be truly competitive against the city people. Traditional boxing, or dambe, is practiced in a similar manner in the villages and cities alike. Soccer, or wasan ƙwallon ƙafa, is popular as well. However, in the rural villages, it is more of a pastime for children and young men, and the rules are only loosely followed. It is onpracticed in a serious manner in the larger towns and cities. Mmusic are completely unlike those that are common in America. In the urban areas, certain Western instruments have long since become popular—especially the guitar—but for the vamajority of Hausas, the traditional instruments remain the ones that are used and seen on a regular basis. Drums, or ganguna, remain the core of Hausa music, and at many events, thethe only instrument. The most popular drum is the talking drum, or kalangu. This instrument is a ubiquitous part of nearly all Hausa events. The most popular instrument other than drums is the garaya, a two stringed guitar made with a gourd. This instrument is often played while singing or to accompany a singer. Tground. A common adult (young men) game to play is dara. This is a game that has similarities to chess and checkers, but has many variants. Cards, karta, are also popular, but generally among the more educated or urbanized men.

10. Listen to the vocabulary as you look at the pictures. Try to match the Hausa words with the pictures. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

1 2 3

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4 5 6

Wurin waha

otsa jiki

11. Read the statements below and think about their meanings. Cross out the words or

Gymnasium

jiki

pool

Stadium a

A. Ɗalibai suna yin wasan ƙwallon raga cikin gida.

dali. n hanya.

a.

Filin wasaFilin tanisDandaliƊakin mHanya

phrases that do not make sense and replace them with an appropriate word from the list below. Check your work with the Answer Key.

Ɗakin motsaVillage square Dandali swimmingWurin waha

Filin wastennis courtsFilin tanis playing fieldFilin wasa

B. Yara suna yin iyo a filin wasa. C. Ƴan mata suna yin gudu a danD. Abokaina suna yin wasan tanis a kaE. Yara suna yin wasan ƙwallon ƙafa a wurin wah

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12. Listen to the statements and mark the ones that you hear. Check your answers with

1. A. She will swim after school.

. A. He likes to play soccer and basketball.

. A. She doesn’t sing, but she plays piano. s photographs.

. A. Do you play dara? No, I play checkers.

. A. What are your hobbies? like to run and sing. .

rds.

13. Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and make up dialogues about someone’s

the Answer Key.

B. She will dance after school. C. She will sing after school. 2 B. He likes to play soccer and volleyball. C. He likes to play soccer and tennis. 3 B. She doesn’t paint pictures, but she take C. She doesn’t dance, but she sings. 4 B. Do you play garaya? No, I play piano. C. Do you play piano? Yes, I play piano. 5 I B. What are your hobbies? I like to read and dance C. What are your hobbies? I like to walk and play ca

hobbies. Use the models and phrases from Exercise 12.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks. 1. Answer the following questions in Hausa.

A. What is your favorite sport or recreational activity? B. How often do you participate in your activity?

C. What is your favorite hobby?

D. What did you do last weekend? E. What will you do next weekend?

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. In Hausa, describe the pictures below, using the vocabulary you have learned in this lesson.

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Vocabulary List Cards Karta, Kwaf (Niger) Chess Shaɗaranji Computer science Ilimin na’ura mai ƙwaƙwalwa, ilimin kwamfiyuta Gymnasium Ɗakin motsa jiki, ɗakunan … (pl.) Hobby Mashaƙata / Abin da ake yi domin shaƙatawa Paint pictures Yin zane-zane Playing field Filin wasa, filayen … (pl.) To dance Yi rawa To play chess Yi shaɗaranji To play “dara” Yi dara To play cards Yi karta To play soccer Yi wasan ƙwallon ƙafa To play guitar (traditional) Kiɗa garaya Guitar (western) Garayar bature, Gitar Drum Ganga, Ganguna (pl.) To play piano Kiɗa biyano To wrestle (traditional) Yi kokowa To box (traditional) Yi dambe To run Yi gudu To sing Yi waƙa To ski Yi gudun ƙanƙara To swim Yi iyo To take pictures Ɗauki hotuna Soccer field Filin wasa, Filayen wasa (pl.) Song Waƙa, Waƙoƙi (pl.) Stadium Filin wasa, filayen … (pl.) Swimming pool Wurin waha Tennis Tanis Tennis court Filin tanis, filayen … (pl.) Town square Dandali Talking Drum Kalangu, Kalanguna (pl.) While (at the same time) … Tare da … Our favorite singer Mawaƙi duk da muka fi so

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Team Tim (English loanword), Ƙungiya (pure Hausa), ƙungiyoyi (pl.)

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ANSWER KEY Activity 6 A. - Kana yin shaɗaranji? - I, na iya shaɗaranji. B. – Ka iya biyano? - I, na iya garaya. C. – Mi kake yi domin ka shaƙata? - Ina yin gudu da ɗaukar hotuna domin in shaƙata. D. - Wane wasa ne yake yi? - Yana yin ƙwallon ƙafa da kokowa. E. - Mi kake yi domin ka shaƙata? - Ina yin karatu da iyo domin in shaƙata. F. - Mi take son yi? - Tana son yin yawo da kiɗan garaya. Activity 7 My name is Amadu Yahaya. I am from Magaria. I go to college at Amadu Bello University in Kano, Nigeria. I am very busy with my classes and my hobbies. I study computer science, and I play on the university soccer team. I have class every day from 8:30 to 3:00 in the afternoon. After school I have soccer practice every day from 4:00 to 6:00. I like to play soccer. My friends and I play on the weekends too. I also like to swim and to play the guitar. I’m not very good at the guitar. This weekend my friends and I will go to a concert at the stadium in Zinder, Niger. Our favorite singer will sing. After the concert we will go to a restaurant and have dinner. Sunana Amadu Yahayya. Daga Magarya nike a Nijar. Ina yin karatu a Jami’ar Amadu Bello a Kano, Nijeriya. Kullum ina da harkoki dayawa, ga karatu ga wasanni. Ina koyon ilimin kwamfiyuta kuma ina cikin tim ɗin ƙwallon ƙafa na Jami’a. Ina da azuzuwa daga ƙarfe 8:30 da safe zuwa ƙarfe 3:00 da rana. Bayan haka muna yin faratis ɗin ƙwallon ƙafa kowacce rana daga ƙarfe 4:00 zuwa 6:00 da marece. Ina jin daɗin yin wasan ƙwallon ƙafa. A ƙarshen mako ma ni da Abokaina mukan yi ƙwallon ƙafa. Ina kuma son yin iyo da kaɗin garayar bature, wato gitar. Ban iya gitar sosai ba. Wannan ƙarshen sati abokaina da ni za mu tafi wani wasa da ake yi a filin wasan Zinder, cikin Nijar. Mawaƙi duk da muka fi so shi zai yi waƙa. Bayan wasa za mu tafi gidan abinci mu ci abincin dare.

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Activity 8 A. T Amadu Yahaya is from Magaria, Niger. B. F He is a high school student at Amadu Bello University in Kano, Nigeria. C. F Amadu studies chemistry. D. T Amadu plays on the university soccer team. E. T He had class every day from 8:30 to 3:00. F. F Amadu likes to swim and play the piano. H. F After the concert, Amadu will go home to do his homework. Activity 10 1. Village Square Dandali 2. Gymnasium Ɗakin motsa jiki 3. Soccer field Filin wasa 4. Road Hanya 5. Swimming pool Wurin Waha 6. Tennis court Filin tanis Activity 11 A. Ɗalibai suna yin wasan ƙwallon raga a ɗakin motsa jiki. A. The students play volleyball in the gymnasium. B. Yara suna yin iyo a wurin waha. B. The children swim in the swimming pool. C. Ƴan mata suna yin gudu a kan hanya. C. The girls go running on the road. D. Abokana suna yin wasan tanis a filin tanis. D. My friends play tennis at the tennis court. E. Yara suna yin wasan ƙwallon ƙafa a filin wasa. E. The kids are playing soccer in the playing field. Activity 12 1. C. She will sing after school. Za ta yi waƙa bayan makaranta. 2. A. He likes to play soccer and basketball. Yana son wasan ƙwallon ƙafa da ƙwallon kwando. 3. B. She doesn’t paint pictures, but she takes photographs. Ba ta yi zane-zane, amma tana ɗaukar hotuna.) 4. B. Do you play garaya? No, I play piano. Ka iya kiɗin garaya? A’a, amma na iya biyano.

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5. B. What are your hobbies? I like to read and dance. Mi kake yi kamar abin shaƙatawa? Ina jin daɗin yin karatu da rawa.

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Lesson 17

Health and the Human Body

Lafiya da Jikin Mutum

This lesson will introduce you to the following:

• Vocabulary related to the human body • Asking questions about a person’s state of health • Answering questions about health conditions • Typical exchanges at the doctor’s office •

1. Listen as the speaker recites the vocabulary. Then study the diagram and match the Hausa terms for each body part with the diagram.

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Abdomen Ciki, Tumbi Arm Hannu Back Baya Chest Ƙirji Chin Haɓa Ear Kunne Elbow Gwiwar hannu Eye Ido Face Fuska Fingers Yatsu Foot/Feet Ƙafa / Ƙafafuwa Genitals Al’aura Groin Kwankwaso Hair Gashi Hand Hannu Head Kai Heart Zuciya Hip Ɗuwawu Knee Gwiwa Leg Ƙafa Mouth Baki

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Neck Wuya Nose Hanci Pelvis Kwatangwalo Shoulder Kafaɗa Stomach Ciki Toes Yatsun ƙafa Tooth/Teeth Haƙori / Haƙora Waist Ƙugu, Gindi

2. In Hausa, name the body parts that come in pairs. Check your work with the Answer

Key. 3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate body part in Hausa. Check your answers with

the Answer Key.

Idanu Kunnuwa Ƙafafuwa Zuciya Kai Hannuwa Wuya Baki

A. I use my ____________ to read a book. B. I listen to music with my _____________. C. Walking is good for my ____________. D. I wear shoes and socks on my _____________. E. In the winter, I wear a hat on my __________, gloves on my ___________ , and a scarf

around my __________. F. I eat and drink with my __________________.

Talking About Health In Hausa culture, there is a lot of talk about health. Many of the standard greetings involve asking the person how his or her health is. For instance, the greeting “kana lafiya” literally means “You are in health?” and many other greetings carry this same meaning. It is also an unfortunate fact of life in the Hausa speaking world that poor health is a very common occurrence, and so it is important to be able to talk about health. Health is often spoken of very openly in Hausa culture. It is important, however, to understand a few of the nuances of these discussions. For instance, when a person inquires about your health in the form of a greeting, it is normal to answer that you are well even if you are on death’s door. Only after the greeting phase of the conversation has passed will a person reiterate the question in hope of a real answer. Also,

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it is very important in Hausa culture to go and greet anybody you know who is sick. The Western habit of leaving the sick person alone does not apply in Hausa culture. If you are sick, you can expect all of your acquaintances and neighbors to come and inquire about your health. In fact, it would be rude if they didn’t. The same will be expected of you. See below some common phrases about health with explanatory notes. How are you? Ina lafiya? / Yaya lafiya? This is generally just a

greeting to which you just answer “lafiya lau.”

How is the body? Ina jiki? This is usually asked of a person who is known to be sick. The person will then answer jiki da sauƙi (the body is getting better) or jiki ya yi sauƙi as a courtesy. Only after further inquiry will you talk about what is really wrong.

How is the sick one? Ina mai jiki? This is similar to the above question, but it is asked of someone who is known to have a loved one who is ill.

… is somewhat better. … da sauƙi-sauƙi. Are you feeling ill? Kana jin jikinka? Note how jin jiki is an

idiomatic phrase meaning “to feel ill.”

I am not felling well. Ba ni jin daɗi. Note that this phrase can mean either “I am not feeling well” or “I am not happy,” depending on context.

To take medicine Sha magani Literally to “drink” medicine. Here is a short dialogue that portrays a typical house visit to someone who is not feeling well. Ali: Salama alekum.

Salama alekum

Usman (mai jiki): Wa alekum assalam

Wa alekum assalam

Ali: Ina wuni?

How are you?

Usman: Lafiya lau.

Good.

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Ali: Ina jiki?

How is the body?

Usman: Jiki ya yi sauƙi.

It is getting better.

Ali: Allah ya ƙara sauƙi.

May God add to that.

Usman : Amin, amin.

Amen, Amen.

Ali : Allah ya ƙara sauƙi.

May God add to that.

Usman : Amin, amin, amin.

Amen, amen, amen.

Ali : Mi ya sameka ne ? What do you have?

Usman : Zazzaɓi ne. Yes, it’s a fever.

Ali : Kai ! Babu daɗi!

Oh ! That’s no fun !

Usman: Wallai!

Seriously !

Ali: Ka sha magani?

Did you take any medicine?

Usman: A’a ban sha ba. No, I didn’t take any.

Ali: To, mi ya sa ba ka sha magani ba?

Well, why didn’t you take any medicine?

Usman: Wallai, ba ni da kuɗinsa. Da ina da kuɗi, da sai in sayi magani, amma babu.

Seriously, I don’t have the money. If I had the money, I would buy medicine, but I don’t have any.

Ali: Ai, to, bari in je in sayo maka magani.

Oh, well, hold on. I’ll go buy you some.

Usman: To na gode.

Ok, thank you.

Ali: A’a, ba komi.

Oh no, not a problem.

Usman: Na gode sosai.

Thank you very much.

Ali: Ba komi, sai na dawo.

No problem. See you when I get back.

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Usman: To sai ka dawo.

Ok, see you then.

Here are some additional question and responses. How do you feel? I feel sick. Yaya jiki? Ba ni da lafiya. I feel weak right now. Ba ni da ƙarfi yanzu. I feel bad. Ba ni jin daɗi. What symptoms do you have? I have a sore throat. Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarka? Ina da ciwon wuya. I have a fever. Ina da zazzaɓi. I have a headache. Ina da ciwon kai. Where does it hurt? My left ankle hurts. Ina yake maka ciwo. Ƙafata ta hagu tana yi mini ciwo. My back hurts. Ina da ciwon baya. My stomach hurts. Ina da ciwon ciki.

4. Listen to the following questions and answers, and read along in the workbook. A. How do you feel? I feel sick. A. Ina jiki? Ba ni da lafiya. B. What is the matter with her? Her leg hurts. B. Mi yake mata ciwo? Tana da ciwon ƙafa. C. How do you feel? My head hurts. C. Ina jiki? Ina da ciwon kai. D. Are you in pain? Yes, my arm is broken. D. Kana jin ciwo? I, hannuna ya karya.

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E. Where does it hurt? My stomach hurts. E. Ina kake jin ciwo? Ina jin ciwon a ciki. F. Are you sick? No, I’m pregnant. F. Ba ka da lafiya ne? A’a, ina da ciki ne. G. Are you OK? I don’t feel good. I feel nauseous and have a

stomachache. G. Lafiya? Ba ni jin daɗi. Ina jin tashin zuciya da

ciwon ciki. H. Are you taking any medication? Yes, over-the-counter ones. H. Kana shan magani? I, waɗanda ake saya a kasuwa. 5. Work with a partner and role-play the dialogues from Exercise 4. 6. Match each picture with the corresponding statement. Check your work with the

Answer Key.

A B C

1. Mace ba ta da rishin lafiya. Ta ɗauki ciki ne. 2. Yarinya tana da zazzaɓi, ciwon wuya, da tsamin jiki, kuma tana yin attishawa da tari. Sanyi-jiri ne ya kama ta. 3. Yaro yana da tashin zuciya da ciwon ciki.

7. Work with a partner. Role-play the doctor and patient. Use the questions from Exercise

5 as a model. Use the phrases from Exercise 6 to describe your symptoms.

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8. Listen to and read the list of the typical symptoms for each ailment.

Flu Sanyi-jiriFever ZazzaɓiCongestion (mucus)

Majina

Sore throat Ciwon wuyaBody aches Tsamin jikiSneezing AttishawaCoughing Tari Head cold MuraCongestion MajinaSore Throat Ciwon wuyaSneezing Attishawa Coughing TariSevere Pain Tsananin ciwo Broken Bone Karyayyan ƙashiSwelling KumburiBruise ƘurmaBleeding Zubar jini Sprain Targaɗe, gurɗeSwelling KumburiPain Ciwo 9. Look at the chart of symptoms in Exercise 8. Work with a partner or in a small group

and develop questions the doctor might ask about one’s symptoms in order to diagnose the problem. Use the following model to create a dialogue.

Model:

Do you have fever? No, I don’t. Do you have a cough and body aches? No, doctor. That’s very good. You don’t have the flu. It’s a cold. Thank you, doctor. You are welcome.

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Conversion of Measurements 1 foot = 30 centimeters ƙafa 1 = santimeta 30 1 inch = 2.5 centimeters inci 1 = santimeta 2.5 100 centimeters = 1 meter santimeta 100 = meta 1 1 pound = 0.454 kilograms laba 1 = kilo 0.454 - How tall is he, and how much does he weigh? - Mine ne tsawonsa, kuma mine ne nauyinsa. - He is 175 centimeters tall and weighs 90 kilograms. - Tsawonsa santimeta 175 kuma nauyinsa kilo 90. - How tall are you? How much do you weigh? - Mine ne tsawonka? Mine ne nauyinka? - I am 160 centimeters tall and weigh 60 kilograms. - Tsawona santimeta 160, kuma nauyina kilo 60.

10. Work with a partner. Take turns asking each other about your height and weight. Do

not forget to use the units of measure appropriate for Niger and Nigeria.

11. Listen to the speaker while you read the statements below. Translate each exchange. You can check the English translation in the Answer Key.

A. – Yaya kake jin jikinka? - Ba ni jin daɗi. Akwai tashin zuciya. B. – Yaya kike jin jikinki? - Lafiya lau, amma da tashin zuciya kaɗan. C. – Yaya kake jin jikinka? - Ba ni lafiya, amma babu tashin zuciya. D. Ina tsammani na karya ƙafata. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti! E. Ina tsammani ya karya ƙafarsa. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti! F. Ya karya ƙafarsa ne ? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

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12. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. A. Where does it hurt? My stomach hurts. B. Where does it hurt? My back hurts. C. Where does it hurt? My neck hurts. 2. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a headache. B. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a stomachache. C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and my body aches. 3. A. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I’m nauseous. B. How do you feel? I feel fine, but I’m a little nauseous. C. How do you feel? I don’t feel well, but I’m not nauseous. 4. A. I think I broke my leg. Please call an ambulance! B. I think he broke his leg. Please call an ambulance! C. Did he break his leg? I think so, please call an ambulance!

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Ask and answer the following questions in Hausa. Check the Answer Key for a

translation of the questions. A. When you have the flu, what are your symptoms? B. Are you taking any medications? C. Have you ever broken a bone? If yes, which one(s)? D. What is your height and weight? E. How often do you see a doctor? Every month? Every year? Every 3 years?

2. Tell the class what you do in order to keep a healthy weight? Do you exercise? What

types of exercise do you do? How often and for how long do you exercise? Do you have a special diet? What kind? What do you eat and not eat? Give an example of your menu. What do you order when you eat out? How does it affect your diet the next day?

3. Work with a partner or in a small group. Describe the picture below.

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Vocabulary List Allergy Saminya (Rishin lafiyar a ci wani abu ko a taɓa shi). Ambulance Motar asibiti, Motocin asibiti (pl.), Ambulan Arm Hannu, Hannuwa (pl.) Forearm Damtse, Damatsa (pl.) Chest Ƙirji Chin Haɓa, Haɓoɓi Are you in pain? Kana jin ciwo? Are you taking any medication?

Kana shan wani magani?

Body aches Tsamin jiki Broken bone Karyayyan ƙashi Bruise Ƙurma, Je-ka-huda Call an ambulance! A kira motar asibiti! Congestion Mura Coughing Tari Ear Kunne, Kunnuwa (pl.) Elbow Gwiwar hannu, Gwiwowin hannu (pl.) Eye Ido, Idanu (pl.) Finger Yatsa, Yatsu (pl.) Foot Ƙafa, Ƙafufuwa (pl.) Feel Ji Fever Zazzaɓi Flu/Influenza Sanyi-jiri Hand Hannu, Hannuwa (pl.) Head Kai, Kawuna (pl.) Hip Ɗuwawu, Ɗuwaiwai (pl.) Knee Gwiwa, Gwiwowi (pl.) Help! A taimakeni! How do you feel? Yaya kake jin jikinka? Hurt, Pain Ciwo, Ciwace-ciwace (pl.) Leg Ƙafa, Ƙafafuwa Thigh Cinya, Cinyoyi Calf Sha-raɓa Mouth Baki, Bakuna Nose Hanci, Hantuna

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Neck Wuya, Wuyoyi Medicine Magani, Magunguna Nausea Tashin zuciya Pain Ciwo Pregnant Mai ciki, da ciki To get pregnant Ɗauki ciki Shoulder Kafaɗa, Kafaɗu Toe Yatsar ƙafa, Yatsun ƙafa (pl.) Waist Gindi, Ƙugu (esp. with clothes) Sick Rishin lafiya, marar lafiya Sneezing Attishawa Sore throat Ciwon wuya Stomach Ciki, Cikkuna (pl.) Stomach cramps Murɗar ciki Cramps (pregnancy) Ciwon mara Strain Gurɗe Swelling (noun) Kumburi To swell Kumbura Symptoms Alama, Alamu (pl.), Bayyanar cuta Illness (general) Rishin lafiya What is the matter? Mi ya sameka? Where does it hurt? Ina yake maka ciwo? Centimeter Santimeta To buy and bring back Sayo “Betterness” (noun) Sauƙi To add Ƙara To take medicine Sha magani Medicine Magani Time (one time …) Sau Coughing Tari To return Dawo See you when I get back. Sai na dawo. How are you feeling? Yaya kake jin jikinka? I caught a cold. Mura ta kama ni.

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ANSWER KEY Activity 2 Kunnuwa Gwiwowin hannu Idanuwa Ƙafafuwa Hannuwa Gwiwowi Kafaɗu Hannuwa Ƙafafuwa Ɗuwaiwai Activity 3 A. eyes A. Idanu B. ears B. Kunnuwa C. heart C. Zuciya D. feet D. Ƙafafuwa E. head, hands, neck E. Kai, hannuwa, wuya F. mouth F. Baki

Activity 6 A. 2 The little girl has a fever, a sore throat, body aches, and she is sneezing and coughing. She

has the flu. (Yarinya tana da zazzaɓi, ciwon wuya, da tsamin jiki, kuma tana yin attishawa da tari. Sanyi-jiri ne ya kama ta.)

B. 1 The young woman is not sick. She is pregnant. (Mace ba ta da rishin lafiya. Ta ɗauki ciki ne.)

C. 3 The little boy is nauseous and has a stomachache. (Yaro yana da tashin zuciya da ciwon ciki.)

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Activity 11

A. – How do you feel? - I don’t feel well. I’m nauseous. B. - How do you feel? - I feel fine, but I’m a little nauseous. C. – How do you feel? - I don’t feel well, but I’m not nauseous. D. I think I broke my leg. Please call an ambulance! E. I think he broke his leg. Please call an ambulance! F. Did he break his leg? I think so. Please call an ambulance!

A. – Yaya kake jin jikinka? - Ba ni jin daɗi. Akwai tashin zuciya. B. – Yaya kike jin jikinki? - Lafiya lau, amma da tashin zuciya kaɗan. C. – Yaya kake jin jikinka? - Ba ni lafiya, amma babu tashin zuciya. D. Ina tsammani na karya ƙafata. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti! E. Ina tsammani ya karya ƙafarsa. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti! F. Ya karya ƙafarsa ne ? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

Activity 12 1. B. Where does it hurt? My back hurts. Ina yake miki ciwo? Ina jin ciwo a baya. 2. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a headache.

Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarki? Akwai zazzaɓi da ciwon kai. 3. A. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I’m nauseous. Yaya kake jin jikinka? Ba ni jin daɗi. Akwai tashin zuciya. 4. C. Did he break his leg? I think so, please call an ambulance! Ya karya ƙafarsa ne? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

End-of-Lesson Tasks Activity 1 A. In kana da sanyi-jiri, mine ne alamunsa? B. Kana shan magani? C. Ka taɓa karya ƙashi? In ka taɓa yin haka, wane ƙashi ne ka karya? D. Mine ne tsawonka da nauyinka? E. Sau nawa kakan tafiya likita? Kowanne wata? Kowacce shekara? Kowaɗanne shekaru

ukku?

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A. When you have the flu, what are your symptoms? B. Are you taking any medications? C. Have you ever broken a bone? If yes, which one(s)? D. What is your height and weight? E. How often do you see a doctor? Every month? Every year? Every 3 years?

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Lesson 18 Politics and International Affairs

Siyasa da Harkokin Waje

This lesson will introduce you to following: - Vocabulary associated with politics and international issues - How they are reported in Hausa news - How to read and understand political events written in Hausa language newspapers.

Politics: Both Nigeria and Niger are, at least nominally, democratic countries. Democratic institutions are in place and voting takes place at regular intervals. Both of these democracies, however, have their own share of problems. Nigeria is so rife with corruption as to sometimes be referred to as a “kleptocracy” (rule by theft). Niger has had numerous coups d’état since independence was declared, and more recently an extended rebellion in the northern part of the country. In both countries, there is a constant tension between traditionalist Islam and modernist tendencies, and this tug-of-war has manifested in every election that has taken place. Hausa culture tends to be very traditional, and thus the leaders that have been chosen are usually fairly conservative in their values. Northern Nigeria is known for its more extremist leanings, and often chooses leaders that even their fellows Hausas in Niger find to be frighteningly radical in their ultra-traditional Islamic form of governing. Human rights issues continue to be one of the major issues in the Hausa speaking world, at least according to outside observers. Niger is one of the last places in the world still suspected of having traditional hereditary slavery taking place. And, the Tuareg rebels in the north continue to show discontent (often in the form of highway banditry) at the treatment of the northern people of Niger by the government. The Muslim majority in northern Nigeria, meanwhile, is constantly at odds with the wealthier Christian majority in the South, and these tensions frequently flare up in the form of interfaith violence.

1. Familiarize yourself with the political terms. Government GwamnatiPrime minister Firayim MinistaPresident ShugabaLeader Shugaba / magabaciDictator Mai mulkin kama-karyaParliament Majalisar dokokiMinistry Ma’aikata Election ZaɓeOfficials Ma’aikata

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Political Party Jam’iyyaVote Yin zaɓe, Jefa ƙuri’aRepublic JamhuriyaState (country) ƘasaDemocracy DimokaraɗiyaDemocratic Na dimokaraɗiyaTerm of office Ajalin ikoPolicy Siyasa / ManufaHuman Rights Hakkin ɗan AdamReligious AddiniRacial Na launin fataRadical Mai tsaurin ra’ayiWorld DuniyaConflict Rikici, RigimaWar YaƙiInvade Kai wa hariNuclear weapons Makamashin nukiliya

2. Listen to and read the following terms and statements. While reading, note the use of new vocabulary. The Iraqi leader Shugaban Iraƙi The Russian officials Jami’an Rasha The South African government Gwamnatin Afirka ta Kudu Religious differences Bambance-bambancen addini Middle East conflict Rikici a gabas ta tsakiya The war in Iraq Yaƙi cikin Iraƙi The radical political party Jam’iyyar siyasa mai tsaurin ra’ayi Islamic fundamentalism Musulumci na masu ra’ayin riƙau

The President of the United States is George Bush. George Bush, shi ne shugaban Amirka.Japan and Great Britain have prime ministers. Japan da Ingila suna da firayim ministoci.This was the first political election in that country. Wannan shi ne zaɓe na farko a wannan ƙasa.Human rights are a very important issue in the world today. Hakkokin ɗan Adam lamiri ne mai muhimmancin gaske a duniya yau.

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The News: The news in Nigeria is generally reported and written in English, while in Niger it is in French. There are a few Hausa language newspapers in Nigeria, as well as some Hausa language radio stations in Nigeria and Niger. One of the main sources of news for the Hausa speaking public, however, is shortwave radio. In any Hausa village, you can expect to hear the familiar theme songs of BBC, Deutsche Welle, and Voice of America, as people tune in to the Hausa language reports several times a day. The British, German, American, Chinese, and Iranian national radio stations all broadcast daily Hausa language programming to Africa via shortwave. Hausa news reporters generally have a very specific tone and cadence to their speech that is easily recognized to a Hausa speaker as radio speech. There are also some words and expressions that are common on these international news broadcasts that are not part of everyday speech for most Hausas. It is sometimes seen as a dialect of its own, referred to playfully as Bibisanci, meaning the language of the BBC (British Broadcasting Network). One very noticeable characteristic of this style of speech is that rather than borrowing a word from English or French, the news stations will seek out a genuine Hausa term even at the expense of using less common terminology. This is done intentionally in order to strengthen the Hausa language as it attempts to adapt to new situations and technology. However, this can sometimes result in a language that is quite unlike what is normally used on the street. That being said, however, you will notice many words relating to politics that are clearly derived from English but have become so integrated in the Hausa language as to be considered proper Hausa.

3. Listen to and read the following transcript of a radio news report from Nigeria. Then answer the questions that follow. Check your answers with the Answer Key. To, masu sauraro, yanzu za mu koma Nijeriya inda Salifu Ayuba ya shirya mana wannan rahoto a kan zanga-zangar da aka yi jiya a birnin Kano. Jiya da safe ɗaliban jami’a masu ɗumbin yawa suka fito tituna su yi zanga-zanga domin su nuna rishin gamsuwarsu da cewa gwamnatin jahar Kano ta kasa biyan kuɗin tallafi ga daliban jami’a tun wata ukku. Fiye da mutune dubu 15 suka haɗa a wurin domin su kai wa gwamnatin koke-kokensu cewa gwamnati ba ta kula da su kamar yadda ya kamata. Mai magana da yawun gwamnati Abdu Sale ya ce a halin yanzu gwamnati kanta ba ta da kuɗi. Ya ce ma’aikitan gwamnati su ma ba su sami cikakken albashinsu ba. Amma kuma ya ce in sha ma Allahu gwamnati zai sami kuɗin ba da daɗewa ba. Domin haka ya ce ya kamata su ɗalibai su bar wannan zanga-zanga su yi haƙuri.Amma su ɗalibai a nasu ɓangare suka ce ba za su bar yin zanga-zanga sai gwamnati ta cika alkawarinta. Salifu Ayuba, daga Kano, Nijeriya.

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Questions:

1. Where is the reporter reporting from? 2. What happened? 3. When did it happen? 4. How many people came out? 5. What did the government spokesperson think the students should do?

4. Work in small groups. Pretend that you are a crew working for a news program. Make up a short description of a political event. Use the questions from Exercise 3 as an outline for your report. 5. Work in a small group or with a partner. Go over the information on the political system in the Nigeria and Niger one more time. Recall the information in the Hausa. Report to your teacher and to the class.

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International Geography

Geography: The Hausa speaking world is located primarily in a hot, flat, and dry sub-desert region known as the Sahel. Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger both lie in this climatic zone, the Sahel, which extends from Senegal to Sudan south of the Sahara Desert. There are no real mountains in the Hausa speaking areas, just a few hills and rock outcrops. There are few major lakes, and many of the rivers and small lakes are seasonal. There are many dry river beds, especially in Niger; a sign of the encroachment of the Sahara Desert into the Sahel. This process of desertification has devastated the farmlands of the Sahel and contributed to the diminishment of the species of animals and plants that live in the region. The diminishing yields of the farms (caused by the

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encroachment of sands and reduction in annual rainfall) represent a major dilemma for the Hausas. They have farmed this land for centuries. Fortunately, in the last couple of decades governments and the global community have undertaken some real efforts to stem the advance of desertification, and there is some evidence that these efforts are having an effect. Some native trees, such as the Gao tree, are now protected, and new methods of clearing the fields are improving the nutrient quality of the soils. It must be noted, however, that this fragile land also faces an imminent threat from the population boom that is taking place in the region and the specter of overpopulation. Kano is often considered the cultural center of Hausaland, but there are several other major population centers in Hausaland, including Katsina, Sokoto, Zaria, Maiduguri, Kaduna, Bauci, Zinder, Maradi, Tahoua, Daura, and several others. The area sometimes called Hausaland, where the Hausa city-states once formed a sort of Hausa kingdom, has now been bisected by the border between Niger and Nigeria, a line which follows no culturally significant boundary. Historically the line divided French West Africa (including what is now Niger) and British West Africa (including what is now Nigeria). The border has gained real cultural significance over the years because of differing governments and, more importantly, different colonial languages. The rainy season, also the season for farming, runs May through September. These are the most important months of the year as the rainfall largely determines the crop output for the year. A drought year is a real life and death crisis for many families, and thus the rains are anticipated anxiously as May rolls around each year. The high temperatures in the hot season—usually March and April—can top 115 degrees in the shade; another reason why the rains are so welcome. 6. Now that you have read the information about Nigeria and Niger, answer the following questions. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. Which Nigerian city is often considered the cultural center of Hausaland? 2. Name three Hausaland cities that lie in Niger. 3. What is the name of the climate zone in which Hausaland lies? 4. What was the colonial era name of the area in which modern day Niger lies?

7. Listen to the speaker while following along in your book. Afghanistan Afganistan Canada KyanadaChina (Ƙasar) Sin/ CainaBurkina BurkinaEgypt Masar/ MisiraEngland Ingila Finland Finland

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France FaransaGermany JamusGreat Britain BritaniyaIndia IndiyaIndonesia IndunisiyaIran Iran/ FarisaIraq Iraƙ/ IraƙiIreland IrelandIsrael Isra’ilaItaly ItaliyaJapan JapanJordan JordanKorea KoriyaSudan SudanSenegal SenegalNetherlands (Ƙasar) HolanNorway NorwaiPakistan PakistanEthiopia (Ƙasar) HabashaRussia RashaSaudi Arabia Saudiya / Ƙasar MakaCameroon Kamaru South Africa Afirka ta KuduSpain SpainSweden SwidinSyria Siriya / ShamGhana GanaVietnam VietnamChad (Ƙasar) CadiNorth America Amirka ta ArewaCentral America Amirka ta TsakiyaSouth America Amirka ta KuduWestern Europe Yammacin TuraiCentral Europe Tsakiyar TuraiEastern Europe Gabashin TuraiMiddle East Gabas ta TsakiyaSouthwest Asia Asiya ta Kudu Maso YammaSoutheast Asia Asiya ta Kudu Maso Gabas

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Africa AfirkaAustralia OstareliyaEastern Asia Asiya ta gabas

Nations and Nationalities: In Hausa, it is fairly simple to form the name of the nationality once you know the name of the nation. See the example below using America. The same basic rules apply to most other countries.

America / Amirka

American American (more an implication of race rather than just nationality)

American Citizen

Masculine Mutumin Amirka

Ba’amrike Ɗan Ƙasar Amirka

Feminine Mutumniyar Amirka

Ba’amrikiya Ƴar Ƙasar Amirka

Plural Mutanen Amirka

Amrikawa Ƴan Ƙasar Amirka

Note that the “ba” form for describing race and/or nationality can be difficult to use and is not commonly used with certain countries or peoples.

8. Listen to and read the dialogues about nationality. Note the ways to determine one’s nationality. Are you from Syria? No, I’m from Egypt. I’m an Egyptian. Daga Siriya kake? A’a, daga Masar nike. Ni mutumin Masar ne. Are you American? No, I’m Canadian. Ke mutumniyar Amirka ce? A’a ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce. What are you? I’m Vietnamese. Kai ɗan ina ne? Ni mutumin Vietnam ne. Where are you from? I’m from India. I’m Indian. Daga ina kake? Daga Indiya nike. Ni mutumin Indiya ne.

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Are you Indonesian? Yes, I’m Indonesian. I live in Jakarta. Kai mutumin Indunisiya ne? I, ni mutumin Indunisiya ne. Ina zaune a

Jakarta. Are you from Afghanistan? I live in Afghanistan, but I am Pakistani. Daga Afganistan kike? Ina zaune a Afganistan, amma ni mutumniyar

Pakistan ce. 9. Create questions in Hausa that are appropriate to the answers provided. Check your work with the Answer key. 1. - …………………………..? I, ni mutumin Vietnam ne. 2. - ……………………………? A’a, ni ba mutumniyar Amirka ce. Ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce. 3. - …………… or ……………..? A Pakistan nike da zama, amma ni mutumin Afganistan ne. 4. - ……………………………..? I, mu mutanen Iraƙi ne.

10. What do you hear? The speaker will read one word from each line of text. Mark the word that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. Afghanistan Pakistan Iran India 2. Ireland Thailand Netherlands England 3. Vietnam Indonesia Japan China 4. Saudi Arabia Syria Israel Jordan 5. Kuwait Iraq Egypt Russia

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Translate the following headlines into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Kofi Annan ya ziyarci birnin Tehran 2. Shugaban Amirka George Bush ya yi jawabi a kan manufofin Gwamnatin Amirka

a game da Iraƙi 3. Shugabannin ƙasashen Afirka ta Yamma sun haɗu a Bamako domin su halarci

wani babban taro a kan tattalin arziki 4. Jawabi A kan yaƙi da jahilci a Nijar 5. Hukumar zaɓe a ƙasar Jamus ta faɗi sakamakon zaɓe

2. Listen to and read the following news report from Nigeria, and then answer the questions that follow. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

An jinkirta faɗin sakamakon zaɓe a Kongo

Hukumar zaɓe ta ƙasar Kongo ta bayar da sanarwar jinkirta faɗin sakamakon zaɓen ƴan majalisar dokoki, har zuwa ranar alhamis ta jibi idan Allah ya kaimu.

Sakamakon zaɓen da aka shirya faɗi a farko farkon makon nan, an ɗage shi ne a cewar hukumar zaɓen bayan gano maguɗi da wasu jami´ai 10 suka yi, don ba wa jam´iyyun adawa nasara.

Ya zuwa yanzu dai sakamakon bayan fage na nuni da cewa jam´iyyar haɗin gwiwa da shugaba Joseph Kabila ke wa jagoranci ce a kan gaba da yawan ƙuri´un da aka kidaya.

Idan dai an iya tunawa, shugaba Joseph Kabila ne a kan gaba a yawan ƙuri´u na zaɓen shugaban ƙasa, to amma ya gaza samun ƙuri´un da ake bukata domin lashe zaɓen.

Hakan yasa a watan gobe zasu sake ƙarawa, a zagaye na biyu da mai rufa masa baya a yawan ƙuri´un , wato Jean Pierre Bemba. (From Deutsche Welle Hausa Section) Questions:

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1. What did the electoral commission announce that it was doing? 2. Who is the leader of the party that is currently in the lead? 3. When will the runoff vote take place? 4. What was the reason for the delay? 5. When will the results be announced? 3. Work with a partner or in a small group. From the list of the countries above, choose one and give a briefing on its location and political system. Pretend that you are giving a press conference. Your classmates will role-play the news reporters by asking you questions.

The following questions may help you in your work:

1. Does this country have a president? Who is the current president? 2. How many political parties are there in this country? 3. Is there a war in this country now? 4. Does this country have a parliament? 5. Is there a democracy in this country? 6. Does this country have a prime minister? 7. Is the leader of this country a dictator? 8. Is this country a republic? 9. What is a specific geographical feature of this country?

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Vocabulary List Conflict Rikici/ Rigima Democracy/democratic Dimokuraɗiyya Dictator Mai mulkin kama karya Dispute Rikici/gardandami Election Zaɓe Government Gwamnati, gwamnatoci (pl.) Human Rights Hakkokin ɗan Adam Invade/invasion Kai wa hari/ Hari Leader Shugaba, shugabanni (pl.) Ministry Ma’aikata, Ma’aikatu (pl.) Nuclear weapons Makamai nukiliya Official Jami’i, jami’ai (pl.)/ Ma’aikaci, ma’aikata (pl.) Parliament Majalisa, majalisu (pl.) Policy Manufa, manufofi (pl.) Political Party Jam’iyyar Siyasa, Jam’iyyun Siyasa President Shugaba, Shugabanni (pl.) Prime minister Firayim Minista Racial Na launin fata Radical Mai tsaurin ra’ayi Religious Na addini Republic Jamhuriya, jamhuriyoyi (pl.) State Ƙasa, ƙasashe (pl.) Term of office Ajalin iko To kill Kashe To vote Yin zaɓe, jefa ƙuri’a To invade Kai wa hari War Yaƙi, yaƙe-yaƙe (pl.) World Duniya, Duniyoyi (pl.) Vocabulary for Radio Transcript

A great number of … … masu ɗumbin yawa To come out into the streets

Fito tituna

Discontentment Rishin gamsuwa Support money Kuɗin tallafi Since Tun

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More than Fiye da To join, connect, meet up

Haɗa

Complaint Kuka, Koke-koke (pl.) To take care of Kula da How (not in questions) Yadda, Yanda Government spokesperson

Mai magana da yawun gwamnati

At the current time A halin yanzu Itself (fem.) Kanta Full, complete Cikakken Pay, salary Albashi To linger, To take a long time

Daɗewa

Because of that Domin haka To leave (someone or something), or to stop doing something

Bari, Bar

Area, Section ɓangare Promise Alkawari Vocabulary for Article from Deutsche Welle

If Idan/ In The day after tomorrow Jibi To delay Jinkirta Electoral commission Hukumar zaɓe To give Ba da/ Bayar da Announcement Sanarwa Results Sakamako One week from Thursday (it is Tuesday)

Ranar Alhamis ta jibi

If God takes us there Idan Allah ya kai mu To prepare Shirya The very beginning of ... Farko farkon... To postpone Ɗage According to… A cewar … Fraud Maguɗi Opposition party Jam’iyyar adawa Success/ Victory Nasara To the present time Ya zuwa yanzu

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Unofficial results Sakamakon bayan fage To show Nuna/ Nuni Coalition party Jam’iyyar haɗin gwiwa Leadership Jagoranci In the lead A kan gaba Votes Ƙuri’u Counting Kidaya Remember Tunawa To fail (followed by verb)

Gaza

To win Lashe Next month Watan gobe To repeat Sake To add Ƙarawa Second round Zagaye na biyu His runner up Mai rufe masa baya Number of votes Yawan ƙuri’u

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ANSWER KEY Exercise 3 Transcript for radio report on the student strike in Kano. Alright, listeners, now we turn to Nigeria where Salifu Ayuba has prepared this report on the protest that took place yesterday in the city of Kano. Yesterday morning a large number of university students took to the streets to show their unhappiness, claiming that the government has failed to pay them their support money for the past three months. More that fifteen thousand people gathered in order to bring the complaint to the government, that it is not taking care of them as it should. The government spokesperson, Abdou Sale, said that at the current time the government itself lacks money, and that even government workers have not received their full pay. But he said that the government is expecting to receive funds in the near future. Because of that, he said the students should put an end to the protest and be patient. But the students, for their part, responded that they will continue to protest until the government fulfills its promise. Salifu Ayouba, Kano, Nigeria. Answers for questions:

1. Kano, Nigeria 2. There was a student strike. 3. Yesterday morning 4. More that 15,000 5. He said that they should quit striking and be patient

To, masu sauraro, yanzu za mu koma Nijeriya inda Salifu Ayuba ya shirya mana wannan rahoto a kan zanga-zangar da aka yi jiya a birnin Kano. Jiya da safe ɗaliban jami’a masu ɗumbin yawa suka fito tituna su yi zanga-zanga domin su nuna rishin gamsuwarsu da cewa gwamnatin jahar Kano ta kasa biyan kuɗin tallafi ga daliban jami’a tun wata ukku. Fiye da mutune dubu 15 suka haɗa a wurin domin su kai wa gwamnatin koke-kokensu cewa gwamnati ba ta kula da su kamar yadda ya kamata. Mai magana da yawun gwamnati Abdu Sale ya ce a halin yanzu gwamnati kanta ba ta da kuɗi. Ya ce ma’aikitan gwamnati su ma ba su sami cikakken albashinsu ba. Amma kuma ya ce in sha ma Allahu gwamnati zai sami kuɗin ba da daɗewa ba. Domin haka ya ce ya kamata su ɗalibai su bar wannan zanga-zanga su yi haƙuri. Amma su ɗalibai a nasu ɓangare suka ce ba za su bar yin zanga-zanga sai gwamnati ta cika alkawarinta. Salifu Ayuba, daga Kano, Nijeriya.

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Exercise 6

1. Kano 2. Zinder, Maradi, Tahoua 3. The Sahel 4. French West Africa

Exercise 9 1. Are you Vietnamese? 1. Kai mutumin Vietnam ne? 2. Are you American? 2. Ke mutumniyar Amirka ce? 3. Are you Pakistani? 3. Kai mutumin Pakistan ne? 4. Are you Iraqis? 4. Ku mutanen Iraƙi ne? 1. - …………………………..? I, ni mutumin Vietnam ne. 2. - ……………………………? A’a, ni ba mutumniyar Amirka ce. Ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce. 3. - …………… or ……………..? A Pakistan nike da zama, amma ni mutumin Afganistan ne. 4. - ……………………………..? I, mu mutanen Iraƙi ne.

Exercise 10 1. India Indiya 2. England Ingila 3. Indonesia Indunisiya 4. Israel Isra’ila 5. Russia Rasha End of Lesson Exercise 1

1. Kofi Annan Visits Tehran. 2. American President George Bush Gives a Speech About American Policy on Iraq. 3. Leaders of West African Countries Gather in Bamako to Attend an Economic Summit. 4. A Report on The Literacy Campaign in Niger. 5. The German Electoral Commission Announces Election Results.

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1. Kofi Annan ya ziyarci birnin Tehran 2. Shugaban Amirka George Bush ya yi jawabi a kan manufofin Gwamnatin Amirka

a game da Iraƙi 3. Shugabannin ƙasashen Afirka ta Yamma sun haɗu a Bamako domin su halarci

wani babban taro a kan tattalin arziki 4. Jawabi A kan yaƙi da jahilci a Nijar 5. Hukumar zaɓe a ƙasar Jamus ta faɗi sakamakon zaɓe

Exercise 2 Announcement of Election Results in Congo Delayed The electoral commission in Congo has announced that the announcement of the results of the parliamentary election will be delayed until Thursday of next week. The announcement of the election results was scheduled for the beginning of this week, but it was delayed, according to the electoral commission, after the discovery of election fraud that was committed by 10 election officials in an attempt to give an advantage to certain parties. At the present time, the unofficial results show the coalition party of Joseph Kabila in the lead with the majority of the votes that have been counted so far. It should be remembered, however, that although President Joseph Kabila is leading, according to the initial ballot count, he does not have the majority required in order to win the presidency. For this reason, there will be a runoff vote next month between Joseph Kabila and the presidential runner up Jean Pierre Bemba.

1. Delaying the announcement of the election results 2. Joseph Kabila 3. Next month 4. Election fraud by 10 election workers 5. Thursday of next week

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Lesson 19 The Military

Soja

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Basic military vocabulary - The rank structure of the U.S. Army and Nigerian and Nigerien military forces - Names of weapons and army vehicles.

1. What do soldiers do? What do soldiers use? What do soldiers wear? The pictures will help you guess the meaning of unknown terms.

Sojojin nan suna sanye da kayan soja. Suna da shuhuddai a ƙafa da huluna na kwano a kai. Hular kwano tana kare kansu daga igwa da harsashi da nakiyoyi. Sojoji suna da makamai a hannu.

Wannan soji yana harba bindigarsa.

Wannan soji yana yin magana da

kwamandansa a rediyo.Wannan soji yana da

maharbin roka.

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2. Now listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker. Soldier SojiUniform Kayan sojaBoots Manyan Takalma / shuhuddaiHelmet Hular kwanoTo protect Kare, Yi tsaroArtillery Igwa Ammunition HarsashiExplosive Nakiya Weapons MakamaiRadio RediyoCommander Kwamanda To fire HarbaRifle BindigaRocket launcher Maharbin roka

Military Terminology You will notice that the Hausa military language contains a lot of English loanwords that have been thoroughly integrated into Hausa speech. The rank titles are a good example of this borrowing. Even so, a Hausa vocabulary has been formed for discussing military issues, and the terminology used in this chapter is of the type that will be heard in the Hausa news broadcasts. For those who will be working alongside Nigerian soldiers, however, it is important to note that there is a style of Hausa that is particular to the military. This style is often referred to as barikanci (barracks speech), and it is full of English words that the majority of Hausas would not know. It is a style of speech that is not looked upon very favorably by the rural Hausas. In addition to being known as an unattractive form of Hausa, it is also associated with soldiers who try to use English to pull status while bullying civilians and with the barroom talk of drunken soldiers. Nevertheless, it is something that is prevalent in military circles, and it may be interesting to learn. The important thing to remember is that what is comprehensible in the barracks may not be understood in the village—or worse yet, it may be misconstrued. This prevalence of English (or French in Niger) in military circles is natural, however, considering that it is the language in which the military is conducted. Soldiers will use Hausa with each other or with people who do not speak English, but all documents and official orders will be in English, or French in Niger.

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3. Read the statements and match each one with the correct picture. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

1. 2. 3. A. Farar hula ne. Ba ya da makamai. Yana da yara. B. Soji ne. Yana da makami. C. Soji yana caje farar hula domin ya gane ko yana da makamai.

Do you understand what caje means?

4. Listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.

1. 2.

Waɗannan motoci ana kiransu “HUMMVEE.”maharbin roka mai tafiya

da kansa.

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3. 4. 5.

Tanki/ Shar da kwamba Igwa mai tafiya da kansa Mota mai garkuwa 5. Now cover the names of the vehicles with a sheet of paper and name them. Repeat Exercise 4 as many times as you need to feel comfortable with the new terms. 1. …………………….. 2. …………………….. 3. …………………….. 4. …………………….. 5. …………………….. 6. ……………………..

6. Listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.

1

2

3

4

5

6

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7 8

8

1 Sword Takobi 5 Mine Nakiya da ke haɗe da waya2 Rifle Bindiga 6 Pistol Ƙaramar bindiga3 Machine gun Bindiga mai ruwa 7 Missile Harsashi4 Grenade Gurnat, Nakiya 8 Weapons cache Ma’ajiyar makamai

7. Look at the pictures in Exercise 6. Cover the Hausa translations and the English words in Exercise 6. Match each term with the correct picture. Replay the sound as many times as you need. Check your work with the Answer key. A. Nakiya da ke haɗe da waya B. Harsashi mai linzami C. Gurnat, Nakiya D. Wurin ajiye makamai E. Ƙaramar bindiga F. Takobi G. Bindiga mai ruwa H. Bindiga 8. In the following lists of items, three belong to the group, but the fourth does not logically belong. Cross it out. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. ⋅ Tanki ⋅ Gurnat ⋅ Babar mota ⋅ Humbee 2. ⋅ Bindiga ⋅ Takobi ⋅ Hular kwano ⋅ Bindiga mai ruwa 3. ⋅ Kayan soja ⋅ Soji ⋅ Mai farar hula ⋅ Kwamanda 4. ⋅ Rediyo ⋅ Taswira ⋅ Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi ⋅ Makami 5. ⋅ Hular kwano ⋅ Igwa ⋅ Kayan soja ⋅ Manyan takalma 6. ⋅ Hafsa ⋅ Soji ⋅ Farar hula ⋅ Kwamanda

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9. Translates the following statements into English. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga harsashi. 2. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga nakiyoyi da igwoyi. 3. Muna caje dukan fararen hula domin mu nemo makamai. 4. Muna caje dukan sojoji na magabcinmu domin mu nemo makamai.

10. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statements that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. A. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from ammunition. B. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives and artillery. 2. A. We are searching all vehicles for weapons. B. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.

11. Listen and repeat the new words after the speaker. Army base Sansanin sojaBe careful! Yi hankali!Curfew Dokar hana fitar dareIn charge of … Mai shugabancin … Minefield Wuri mai dasasshin nakiyoyiRoadblock Wurin tsaida motociCheckpoint Wurin duba motoci Identification Katin shaidaPatrol SintiriBase Sansani Barracks Bariki

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12. Fill in the blanks with the correct word from the vocabulary list above. Check your answers with the Answer Key. A. Wane ne ____________________ ƴan sintiri? Shi kwamandan ƴan sintiri. B. Akwai _____________________? I, daga 8:00 PM zuwa 6:00 AM. C. _______________________! Akwai ____________________ can gabanmu! D. Dole ne kowa ya nuna __________________ a _________________. E. Ina _____________yake? A wancan ɓangaren sansani.

13. Work with a partner and take turns reading and role-playing the dialogues from Exercise 12. 14. Work in a small group and come up with similar dialogues, and then role-play them. 15. Study the list of U.S. Army ranks. Compare them with the Nigerian and Nigerien military equivalents. Enlisted Private Farabiti Farman-kilashi Corporal Kofur Kafaran Sergeant Saja Sarjan Sergeant Major Samanja Sarjan-majar Officer Hafsa hafsa Lieutenant Laftanan Litinan Captain Kyaftin Kaftan Major Manja/ Manjo Majar Lt. Colonel Laftanan-kanar Litinan-kwalanal Colonel Kanar Kwalanal General Janar Janaral

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Work with a partner or in a small group. In Hausa, come up with a caption for each picture below.

1. …………………………………………………… . 2. …………………………………………………… . 3. …………………………………………………… . 2. a) Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. Ina wurin ajiye makamai yake? B. Wane ne mai shugabancin waɗanan ƴan sintiri? C. Dole sai ka nuna katin shaida in za ka wuce wannan wurin duba motoci. D. Dole sai a caje dukan masu fararen hula a nemo makamai. E. Dokar hana fitar dare ta fara aiki daga ƙarfe 9:00 pm. Ƙarfe 9:45 ne yanzu. Ka koma gidanka. F. Sojoji kaɗai suna da izini su shiga sansanin soja.

b) Work with a partner or in a small group. Come up with situations where you can use sentences C, D, E, and F as a reply. Create the first part of the conversation so that you have short dialogues. Role-play them. 3. a) Translate the following into Hausa. Compare your translation against the Answer Key.

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A. Please step out of the car. We must search the vehicle for weapons. B. It is after curfew. You must come with me for questioning. C. The weapons cache is on the other side of Checkpoint Delta. D. Be careful. There is a minefield east of the railroad. E. Every soldier needs to have a radio and a map. F. You must know all the checkpoints and roadblocks in this area.

b) Work with a partner or in a small group. Come up with situations where you can use these sentences as a reply. Create the first part of the conversation so that you have short dialogues. Role-play them.

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Vocabulary Ammunition Harsashi Army base Sansanin soja Artillery Igwa, Igwoyi Barracks Bariki Base Sansani, Sansanoni (pl.) Be careful! Yi hankali! Boots Manyan talakma Checkpoint Wurin duba motoci Civilian Farar hula, Fararen hula (pl.) Commander Kwamanda Curfew Doka hana fitar dare Enemy Abokin gaba, Magabci Explosive Nakiya, Nakiyoyi (pl.) Grenade Gurnat, Nakiya Gun Bindiga, Bindigogi (pl.) Helmet Hular kwano, Huluna na kwano (pl.) In charge (of a patrol, base)

Mai shugabancin …

Machine gun Bindiga mai ruwa, Bindigogi masu ruwa Map Taswira, Taswirori (pl.) Area (region) Lardi Section ɓangare, ɓangarori (pl.) Military Soja Mine Nakiyar da ke haɗe da waya Minefield Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi Missile Harsashi mai linzami Sword Takobi, Officer Hafsa, Hafsoshi (pl.) Planted (mines) Dasasshe Protection Tsaro Radio Rediyo, Rediyoyi (pl.) Rank Ranki, Muƙami Rifle Bindiga Roadblock Wurin tsaida motoci Rocket Roka

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Rocket launcher maharbin roka Search Caje, bincika Soldier Soji, Sojoji (pl.) Tank Tanki, Shar da kwamba To take effect Fara aiki Uniform Kayan soja Weapon Makami, Makamai (pl.) Weapons cache Wurin ajiye makamai You must … Dole sai ka … Enlisted Private Farabiti/ Farman-Kalashi Corporal Kofur/ Kararan Sergeant Saja/ Sarjan Sergeant Major Samanja/ Sarjan-majar Officer Hafsa Lieutenant Laftanan/ Litinan Captain Kyaftan/ Kaftan Major Manja, Manjo/ Majar Lt. Colonel Laftanan-kanar/ Litinan-kwalanal Colonel Kanar/ Kwalanal General Janar/ Janaral

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ANSWER KEY Activity 3 1. C. The soldier searches the civilian for weapons. -- Soji yana caje farar hula domin ya gane ko yana da makamai. 2. B. He is a soldier. He has a weapon. -- Soji ne. Yana da makami. 3. A. He is a civilian. He does not have weapons. He has children. -- Farar hula ne. Ba ya da makamai. Yana da yara. Activity 7 A. 5 mine Nakiyar da ke haɗe da waya B. 7 missile Harsashi mai linzami C. 4 grenade Gurnat, Nakiya D. 8 weapons cache Ma’ajin makamai E. 6 pistol Ƙaramar bindiga F. 1 sword Takobi G. 3 machine gun Bindiga mai ruwa H. 2 rifle Bindiga Activity 8 1. Grenade Gurnat 2. Helmet Hular kwano 3. Uniform Kayan soja 4. Minefield Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi 5. Artillery Igwa 6. Civilian Farar hula Activity 9 1. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from ammunition. 2. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives and artillery. 3. We are searching all vehicles for weapons. 4. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.

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Activity 10 1. A. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives. A. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga nakiya. 2. B. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons. B. Muna caje dukan sojoji na magabcinmu domin mu nemo makamai.

Activity 12 A. Who is in charge of the patrol? The patrol leader is. – (Mai shugabancin) B. Is there a curfew? Yes, from 8:00pm to 6:00am. – (Dokar hana fitar dare) C. Be careful! There is a minefield across the road! – (Yi hankali! Wuri mai dasasshin nakiyoyi) D. Everyone must show their identification at the checkpoint. - (Wuri mai dasasshin nakiyoyi, Wurin duba motoci) E. Where are the barracks? They are on the other side of the base. – (Bariki) A. Wane ne ____________________ ƴan sintiri? Shi kwamandan ƴan sintiri. B. Akwai _____________________? I, daga 8:00 PM zuwa 6:00 AM. C. _______________________! Akwai ____________________ can gabanmu! D. Dole ne kowa ya nuna __________________ a _________________. E. Ina _____________yake? A wancan ɓangaren sansani.

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 2a A. Where is the weapons cache? B. Who is in charge of this patrol? C. You must show your identification when you pass the checkpoint. D. All civilians must be searched for weapons. E. Curfew starts at 9:00pm. It’s 9:45 now. Go back to your home. F. Only soldiers may enter the army base. A. Ina wurin ajiye makamai yake? B. Wane ne mai shugabancin waɗanan ƴan sintiri? C. Dole sai ka nuna katin shaida in za ka wuce wannan wurin duba motoci. D. Dole sai a caje dukan masu fararen hula a nemo makamai.

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E. Dokar hana fitar dare ta fara aiki daga ƙarfe 9:00 pm. Ƙarfe 9:45 ne yanzu. Ka koma gidanka. F. Sojoji kaɗai suna da izini su shiga sansanin soja. Activity 3a A. Please step out of the car. We must search the vehicle for weapons. A. Ku sauko daga mota. Muna bukata mu caje mota domin mu nemo makamai. B. It is after curfew. You must come with me for questioning. B. Dare ya yi. Ka taka dokar hana fitar dare. Sai ka zo mu yi maka wasu tambayoyi. C. The weapons cache is on the other side of Checkpoint Delta. C. Wurin ajiye makamai yana can bayan wurin duba motoci mai suna “Delta.” D. Be careful. There is a minefield east of the railroad. D. Yi hankali. Akwai wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi a gabashin reluwe. E. Every soldier needs to have a radio and a map. E. Kowane soji yana bukatar radio da taswira. F. You must know all the checkpoints and roadblocks in this area. F. Dole sai ka san dukan wuraren duba motoci da wuraren tsaida motoci a wannan yankin.

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Lesson 20 In the Hospital Cikin Asibiti

This lesson will introduce you to the following:

- Vocabulary related to medical emergencies and life-saving measures - Terminology related to internal organs - Ways to ask questions about vital signs.

Health Care: Health care in Nigeria and Niger is, on average, quite dismal. As in most countries there is an elite class that can afford decent health care, but for the majority of the population such services are far out of reach. Clinics are available to the population at large, which offer a few basic services at a minimal charge. However, even that charge can be prohibitive for the poor. Also, these clinics only offer a few basic services. In Niger, it is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that only 50 percent of the population has access to health care at all. Malaria and malnutrition are major killers in Niger, and the infant mortality rate is one of the highest in the world. A large percentage of pre-mature deaths are due to preventable illness. In short, health care in Niger is in a desperate situation. The situation in Nigeria is somewhat better, but there remains a high infant mortality rate and high mortality levels due to malaria, malnutrition, and preventable illness. The health care system in Nigeria is more advanced that that of Niger, but it remains inaccessible and/or insufficient for much of the population. In both countries there is a continuous effort to have universal childhood immunization and to eradicate polio. This is done through rural tourneys for vaccination and low cost maternal checkups as well as training of midwives. For the time being, though, the system remains under-funded and far from universal, and sanitary conditions in health care facilities leave much to be desired.

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Emergencies: The point bears repeating here that a large percentage of Hausas do not speak English or French. When there is an emergency or disaster, one cannot choose with whom to speak or whom to work with. It may not be possible to resort to any other language than Hausa to communicate vital information. Also, there may not be time to seek out a translator when trying to ascertain vital information. Therefore, a working knowledge of Hausa terminology regarding health emergencies can be a valuable skill. Also, remember that auto accidents are tragically common in this area of the world and that these accidents often involve people from all walks of life, many of which will not speak English or French. It is also possible that the military will be called upon to carry out emergency health assistance. In this case, it would be very important to verify that the aid is going to those in need. Grammar Note: na and ke We will add just one final grammar note for now. The regular continuous and the relative continuous pronoun forms are commonly abridged. This is done by simple removing the first syllable, leaving only na or ke. Note that this is only done when the subject is already stated in the sentence. See the examples below, and look for the use of this form throughout this lesson. Abdou is going. Abdu na tafiya. The gun that is in your hand. Bindiga da ke a hannunka. Everyone is feeling good. Kowa na jin daɗi. Where is Nura going? Ina Nura ke tafiya? In Lesson 17, you already learned the names of human body parts, how to ask questions about a person’s state of health, and how to describe health conditions and symptoms of sickness. You also know how to handle a visit to the doctor’s office. In this lesson, you will familiarize yourself with the vocabulary used for life threatening health conditions, such as heart attacks, gunshot wounds, severe bleeding, and head injuries. 1. Go over the text with the pictures. Try to guess the meaning of the words in bold from the context.

1 2 Wannan namiji ya yi rauni a damtse. Wannan mace tana da rauni a

hannunta.

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3 4 Wannan namiji yana da raunananniyar ƙafa.

Wannan mace tana da raunanannen wuya.

Did you understand the words in bold rauni and raunananne/ raunananniya? Rauni means wound or injury Raunananne means wounded or injured (masc. object) Raunananniya means wounded or injured (fem. object) Raunanannu means wounded or injured (pl. object) Note that in everyday usage, the noun rauni (examples 1 and 2) will be used more often than the adjectival form (examples 3 and 4). 2. Look at the pictures in Exercise 1 and match the number of the picture with the correct definition. Check your answers with the Answer Key. A. Raunananniyar ƙafa - picture number _____. B. Raunanannen wuya - picture number _____. C. Raunananen hannu - picture number _____. D. Rauni a hannu - picture number _____. 3. Tell your classmates in Hausa if you ever had an injury or wounds.

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4. Listen to and read the dialogue between the doctor and the nurse in the emergency room of a military hospital. Note the use of new vocabulary. Doctor: How does Sergeant Lawali feel? Likita: Yaya jikin saja Lawali?Nurse: He feels bad, Doctor Amadou. Nas: Ba ya jin daɗi, Malam Amadu.Doctor: What is the matter with him? LIkita: Mi ya same shi?Nurse: His leg hurts. Nas: Yana jin ciwo a ƙafarsa.Doctor: Is it injured? Likita: Akwai rauni?Nurse: Yes. He has a gunshot wound. He is bleeding. Nas: I. An harbe shi da bindiga. Yana zubda jini.Doctor: Does he have fever? Likita: Akwai zazzaɓi.Nurse: Yes, he does. Nas: I, akwai.Doctor: Is he taking any medications? Likita: Yana shan magani?Nurse: Yes, antibiotics and painkillers. Nas: I, maganin rigakafi da magungunan ciwo.

5. Work with a partner. Role-play the dialogue from Exercise 4. 6. Match each of the pictures with the corresponding statement. Try to guess the

meanings of unknown words from the context. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

A B C

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1. An ɗaura wa namiji raunin da ke a hannu. 2. Namijin bai sa hula ba. Ya yi zafi sosai yau. Shi kuma, yana fama da zufa sosai har da ya kai shi ya yi rishin lafiya. 3. Sojin nan yana da rauni a ƙafarsa.

Did you understand the meanings of the words in bold? Fama da zufa means to suffer from heat. Ɗaura rauni means to dress a wound.

7. Listen to the speaker and read along in your textbook. Check the translation in the Answer Key for the meanings of unknown words.

Waɗannan bandeji da filasta ne. Ana bukatar su in za a ɗaura rauni. Amma sai a yi aiki da masu tsabta.

8. Familiarize yourself with some new medical terminology. Listen as the speaker recites the names of internal organs. Repeat after the speaker.

1 2 3 4 5

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1. heart Zuciya2. brain Ƙwaƙwalwa3. lung Huhu 4. kidney Ƙwada / Ƙoda5. liver Hanta

9. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate name of the organ in Hausa. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Zuciya Hanta Huhu Ƙwada Ƙwaƙwalwa

A. The human ____________ is in charge of all body system functions. B. The _________ is a very important organ because it helps our body get rid of fat. C. Exercising is very important for my ____________. D. Smoking can cause ____________cancer. E. Drinking a lot of water is necessary for the ___________ .

10. Listen to and read the dialogue between a doctor and a patient in a military hospital emergency room.

In the Military Hospital Emergency Room

Doctor: Hello, Major Zakari. Likita: Barka da safe, Majar Zakari. Major: Good morning, Doctor Ya’u. Maja: Yawwa barka kadai Malam Ya’u.

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Doctor: What happened to you? Likita: Mi ya same ka? Major: I don’t know. I didn’t feel well. I had chest pain, a headache, and dizziness. Maja: Ban sani ba. Ban ji daɗi ba. Na yi ciwon ƙirji, ciwon kai, da jiri. Doctor: For how long did you have your symptoms? Likita: Tun yaushe ne kake fama da matsalolin nan? Major: For about two days. Maja: Tun wajen kwana biyu. Doctor: Did you take any medications? Likita: Ka kuma sha magani? Major: Yes, I took painkillers. Maja: I, na sha magungunan ciwo. Doctor: For how long? Likita: Tun yaushe? Major: For about two days… What happened to me, doctor? Maja: Wajen kwana biyu… Mi ya same ni Malam likita? Doctor: Well, when you came into the ER, you couldn’t breathe. We had to do CPR. Likita: To, da ka zo nan ɗakin haɗari, ba ka iya lumfashi ba. Sai muka farfaɗo da kai ta hanyar CPR. You had abnormal blood pressure. It was 230 over 180. You had a heart attack. Majar: Ƙarfin bugawar jininka ya fi abinda ya kamata. Ya kai 230 kan 180. Ciwon zuciya ne ka yi. How do you feel now? Likita: Yaya kake ji yanzu? Major: I feel weak. Majar: Ba ni jin ƙarfi.

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Doctor: Are there any medications that you are allergic to? Likita: Akwai magungunan da bai kamata ka sha su ba. Major: Yes, I’m allergic to penicillin. Majar: I, bai kamata ba in sha penicillin ba. Doctor: Do you have any kidney, liver, lung, or brain diseases? Diabetes? Cancer? Likita: Kana da cuta a ƙwada, hanta, huhu, ko ƙwaƙwalwa ? Cutar sukari? Cutar kansa? Major: No, I don’t. Majar: A’a, babu. Doctor: Do you smoke? Likita: Kana shan taba? Major: No, I don’t. Majar: A’a, ba ni sha. Doctor: Have any members of your family had heart disease or had a heart attack? Likita: Kana da ƴan uwa waɗanda suna da cuta ta zuciya, ko waɗanda suka taɓa yi ciwon zuciya? Major: Yes, my father died three years ago from heart disease. Majar: I, ubana ya rasu shekara ukku da suka wuce saboda ciwon zuciya. Doctor: Well, I think you must stay in the hospital and rest for a few days. Likita: To, ina ji ya kamata ka yi ƴan kwanaki kaɗan a nan asibiti domin ka huta. Major: But I need to get back to my unit! Majar: Amma ina bukata in koma rukunina. Doctor: No, you have to stay in the hospital, rest, and take aspirin. Likita: A’a, kana bukata ka tsaya a asibiti, ka huta, kuma ka sha asfirin.

11. Work with a partner. Pretend to be a doctor and a patient and role-play the dialogue from Exercise 10.

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12. Match the questions and answers. When you have finished, check your work with the Answer Key. A. Yaya kake jin jikinka? 1. I, na samu raunin harsashi a hannuna. B. Mi ya sameka? 2. Ina jin rishin ƙarfi da jiri. C. Mi kake ji? 3. Raunina na yin jini. D. Kana jin ciwo? 4. Ina jin ciwo a ciki. E. Ina yake maka ciwo? 5. I, akwai ciwon ƙirji. Ba ni iya lumfashi. F. Ka samu rauni? 6. I, maganin ciwo. G. Kana shan magani? 7. Ba ni jin daɗi ko kaɗan.

13. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my arm. B. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my leg. C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my neck. 2. A. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I have a chest pain. B. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I feel dizziness. C. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I can’t breathe. 3. A. Is there a doctor here? This man just had a heart attack. B. Are you a doctor? This man just had a heart attack. C. I am a doctor. This man just had a heart attack.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Practice answering the following questions in Hausa:

A. What is your normal pulse? B. What is your normal blood pressure? C. Are you allergic to any medications? D. Have you ever had a head injury? E. Have you ever had heat stroke?

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. Look at the picture and tell in Hausa what you think has happened with a patient. You might want to mention the following things: Is the patient a man or a woman? What is his/her age? Is he/she a soldier? Is he/she wounded? Is he/she injured? Is he/she in pain? Does he/she have bleeding? Does he/she have a fever? Will he/she need to stay in the hospital? Does he/she have high blood pressure? Does he/she have chest pain? Is he/she having a heart attack? Can he/she breathe? Will he/she need CPR? Is he/she allergic to the medications? Does he/she take any medications?

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Vocabulary list Abnormal (bad) Ba lafiyayye ba, Ba cikin daidai yadda ya kamata ba Antibiotic Magani rigakafi, Magunguna … (pl.) Aspirin Asfirin Bandage Bandeji, Bandejoji (pl.) Band-aid Filasta Bleeding Yin jini, Zub da jini Brain Ƙwalwa / Ƙwaƙwalwa Breathing Yin lumfashi Cancer Cutar kansa Perform CPR on … Farfaɗo da … ta hanyar CPR Cut Rauni, Yanka Diabetes Cutar sukari To dress a wound Ɗaura rauni ER Ɗakin haɗari / Ɗakin taimako Gunshot wound Raunin harsashi Head injury Rotsi Heart Zuciya, Zukata (pl.) Heart attack Ciwon zuciya Heart disease Cuta ta zuciya To suffer from the heat Fama da zufa High blood pressure Ƙarfin bugawar jini fiye da yadda ya kamata I am allergic to … Ina da rishin lafiyar cin … ko taɓa shi. / Bai kamata in sha … Injured Raunananne (m.), Raunananniya (f.), Raunanannu (pl.) Injury Rauni, raunuka (pl.) Kidney Ƙoda, Ƙodoji (pl.) Liver Hanta, Hantuna (pl.) Lungs Huhu, Huhuna (pl.) Organ (in body) Halitta, Halittu (pl.) Painkiller Maganin ciwo, magungunan ciwo (pl.) Penicillin Penicillin Pulse Bugun zuciya Sterile (clean) Mai tsabta, Masu tsabta (pl.) To die Mutu To stay Zama

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Unit (military) Rukuni, rukunai (pl.) Wound Rauni, raunuka (pl.)

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ANSWER KEY Activity 2 A. 3 Wounded leg (Raunananniyar ƙafa) B. 4 Injured neck (Raunanannen wuya) C. 1 and/or 2 Wounded arm (Raunananen hannu) D. 1 Injured arm (Rauni a hannu) Activity 6 A. 3 This soldier has an injured leg. B. 2 This man didn’t wear his hat. It was very hot today. He suffered from the heat to the point where it made him sick. (i.e. he has heat stroke) C. 1 This man has a dressing on his wounded arm. A. 3. Sojin nan yana da rauni a ƙafarsa. B. 2. Namijin bai sa hula ba. Ya yi zafi sosai yau. Shi kuma, yana fama da zufa sosai har da ya kai shi ya yi rishin lafiya. C. 1. An ɗaura wa namiji raunin da ke a hannu. Activity 7 These are bandages and band-aids. You need them to make a dressing for a cut or wound. But you have to use sterile ones. Waɗannan bandeji da filasta ne. Ana bukatar su in za a ɗaura rauni. Amma sai a yi aiki da masu tsabta. Activity 9 A. brain Ƙwalwa B. liver Hanta C. heart Zuciya D. lung Huhu E. kidneys Ƙwada Activity 12 A. How do you feel? 7. I feel really bad. B. What is the matter with you? 3. My wound is bleeding. C. What do you feel? 2. I feel weak and dizzy. D. Are you in pain? 5. Yes, I have a chest pain. I can’t breathe.

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E. Where does it hurt? 4. My stomach hurts. F. Are you injured? 1. Yes, I have a gunshot injury in my arm. G. Are you taking any medication? 6. Yes, painkillers. A. Yaya kake jin jikinka? 7. Ba ni jin daɗi ko kaɗan. B. Mi ya sameka? 3. Raunina na yin jini. C. Mi kake ji? 2. Ina jin rishin ƙarfi da jiri. D. Kana jin ciwo? 5. I, akwai ciwon ƙirji. Ba ni iya lumfashi. E. Ina yake maka ciwo? 4. Ina jin ciwo a ciki. G. Kana shan magani? 6. I, maganin ciwo.

Activity 13 1. C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my neck. Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarka? Akwai zazzaɓi da kuma ciwo a wuyana. 2. A. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I have a chest pain. Yaya kake jin jikinka? Ba ni jin daɗi. Akwai ciwon ƙirji. 3. B. Are you a doctor? This man just had a heart attack. Kai likita ne? Wannan namijin nan yanzu ya yi ciwon zuciya.

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