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Page 1: 476 Relationships between sediment contamination and ... Web viewUSING RASCH MEASUREMENT TO DEVELOP A PHYSICAL ABILITY ... The model showed that the self-concept had a high stability

SYMPOSIUM: “PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SELF-CONCEPT AND MOTOR COMPETENCE”

Erin Gerlach 1Maike Tietjens 2Lisa Barnett 3

1. University of Potsdam, Germany/University of Basel, Switzerland2. University of Münster, Germany3. Deakin University, Australia

The interplay between physical activity, the self-concept of one’s physical abilities and motor competence can be quite complex. First, physical activity can foster motor competence, which leads to an enhanced self-concept of motor abilities. Second, the self-concept of one’s physical abilities can influence performance and motor competence as well as physical activity behavior. Third, enhanced motor competence also affects physical activity behavior as it relates to self-concept. It is feasible that additional relations between these variables exist, however empirical evidence on this topic is still scant.

The two-part symposium containing six contributions brings together findings from several research groups in Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands and Australia and from diverse disciplines (educational sciences in sport & exercise, sport psychology and health sciences in sport & exercise). This symposium will unravel essential questions pertaining to educating healthy citizens (i.e. diagnosis, causal determination, PA intervention effects, PE schooling effects and culture-specific needs), which are suitable for discussion under AIESEP’s umbrella of interdisciplinary research.

Erin Gerlach – [email protected] Words: 160

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Contribution 1:USING RASCH MEASUREMENT TO DEVELOP A PHYSICAL ABILITY SCALE FOR GERMAN PRIMARY SCHOOL-AGED STUDENTS

Till UTESCH 1 Bernd STRAUSS 1Maike TIETJENS 1Dennis DREISKAEMPER 1Roland NAUL 2, 1

1. University of Muenster2. Willibald Gebhardt Institute

The main purpose of this study was to develop a Rasch Measurement Physical Ability Scale based on the most commonly used motor subtests for German primary school-aged students. Seven items were found as the intersection in different German motor test batteries to cover condition and coordination and, therefore, the general physical abilities (Bös, 1987). These items are: 6min run, push-ups, sit-ups, standing broad jump, 20m sprint, jumping sideways and balancing backwards. In the context of the project ‘healthy children in sound communities’ (Naul et al., 2012) the seven subtests were tested in three different age-cohorts (N6years = 790, N7years = 1371, N8years = 1331, N9years = 925; 48.2 % female). The data was transformed – included sex and age as covariates – into five normally distributed and five evenly distributed categories to investigate which transformation matched best. Detailed analyses based on mixed-Rasch-modeling (Rost, 1990) separately for each age group show the best fit indices with ordered threshold parameters for normally distributed categories within the one class solution for seven items for six- to eight-year-old children (.12 ≤ Q ≤ .16) and acceptable bootstrapping scores. For nine-year-old children analyses show the one class solution (.09 ≤ Q ≤ .14), in case balancing backwards is excluded due to unordered threshold parameters. There was no model-fit for the evenly distributed categories. Regarding statistical and methodological issues, our results based on Rasch measurement provide some empirical evidence that it is feasible to build a general motor ability/ fitness score covering the active system of condition and coordination for primary school-aged children. This study also demonstrates the superior capacity of IRT models in the diagnosis of motor abilities, as well the options to detect non-fitting items.

Bös, K. (1987). Handbuch sportmotorischer Tests [Handbook of sport motor tests]. Göttingen: Hogrefe. Naul, R., Schmelt, D., Dreiskämper, D., Hoffmann & D. & l’Hoir, M. (2012). ‘Healthy children in sound communities’ (HCSC/gkgk) - a Dutch–German community-based network project to counteract obesity and physical inactivity. Family Practice, 29, i110-i116. Rost, J. (2004). Testtheorie und Testkonstruktion [test theory and test construction]. Göttingen: Verlag Hans Huber.

Till Utesch – [email protected]

Words: 279

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Contribution 2:IN YOUNG CHILDREN BEING ‘BALL SKILL COMPETENT’ RELATES TO PERCEIVED COMPETENCE BUT NEITHER RELATE TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Lisa BARNETT 1Nicola Ridgers 1Jo Salmon 1

1. Deakin University

Purpose: The relationship between actual and perceived object control (OC) skill competence (commonly ball skills) and the contribution of actual and perceived OC competence to young children’s physical activity is not known. This study investigated these associations and given that girls typically have lower OC competence and physical activity levels than boys, sex differences were also examined. Methods: The Test Gross Motor Development-2 assessed actual OC competence and a modified version of the physical subscale of The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children assessed perceived OC competence in the same six ball skills (kick, catch, strike, stationary dribble, throw, underhand roll). Physical activity was measured via accelerometry. Three mixed regression models were run: i) OC competence as the predictor and the outcome perceived OC, ii) perceived OC competence as the predictor and the outcome MVPA and ii) actual OC as the predictor and the outcome MVPA. Models adjusted for clustering at the school level, and sex and age. Results: A total 102 children (55.9% boys, 44.1% girls) aged 4-8 years (M 6.3, SD 0.92) completed all assessments. Girls were poorer in perceived and actual OC competence and less active. Actual OC competence was associated with perceived OC competence (p = 0.036). Both actual (p = 0.229) and perceived OC competence (p = 0.951) were not associated with MVPA. Relevance: Results show that even at this young age children’s ball skill ability is related to their perceptions, suggesting the importance of physical education fostering adequate ball skill competence in the early years of school. However children’s ball skill competence and perceptions do not appear to translate to physical activity (even though in older children these relationships have been demonstrated (1)), suggesting intervention to build ball skill competence is timely in young children.

1. Barnett L, van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health 2009;44(3):252–259.

Lisa BARNETT - [email protected]

Word count 296

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Contribution 3:THE EXERCISE AND SELF-ESTEEM MODEL: NEITHER TOP-DOWN, NOR BOTTOM UP, BUT INSIDE OUT

Christian HERRMANN 1Richard GOELLNER 2Ulrich TRAUTWEIN 2Erin GERLACH 1,3

1. University of Basel2. University of Tuebingen3. University of Potsdam

IntroductionMeta-analyses indicate that physical activity has an impact on self-esteem (see Ekeland et al., 2009). Existing theoretical EXSEM-model (Exercise and Self-esteem model, Sonstroem, 1997) describe this phenomenon thoroughly: Physical activity leads to a higher sport-specific personal self-concept, which in turn has a positive effect on self-esteem (Bottom-Up-Effect). On the other hand, the self-esteem has an effect on physical activity, as mediated through the sport-specific self-concept (Top-Down-Effect). However, few studies exist, which posit these effects empirically. The main question remains, whether the postulated mechanisms can be modelled employing longitudinal data.MethodsThe data belongs to the longitudinal SET-study (Sport involvement and Evolution of Talents), which began in 2002 with 1,400 children and ended during their young adulthood after a 10 year period (Gerlach & Brettschneider, 2012).To evaluate the development and interrelationship between self-esteem, sport-specific self-concept and physical activity (hours per week in sports), the first four measurements over a period of six years were analysed. Accordingly, structural equation models (SEM) with reciprocal effects were calculated in Mplus.ResultsAfter developing the stepwise SEM algorithm, the model with freely estimated cross paths achieved a good model fit (Chi2=1659; df=682; CFI=.95; TLI=.94; RMSEA=.030; SRMR=.048). The model showed that the self-concept had a high stability and that the stability of physical activity over the measurement time increased. The direction of the effects in the model can be called neither "bottom-up" nor "top-down". However, the sport-specific self-concept has a powerful influence „up“ towards self-esteem and „down“ from physical activity.

Sonstroem, R.J. (1997). The physical self-system. A mediator of exercise and self-esteem. In K.R. Fox (Hrsg.), The physical self. From motivation to well-being (S. 3–26). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Ekeland, E., Heian, F., Hagen, K.B., Abbott, J.M. & Nordheim, L. (2009). Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people (Review): The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by JohnWiley & Sons.Gerlach, E. & Brettschneider, W.-D. (2012). Aufwachsen mit Sport. Befunde einer 10-jährigen Längsschnittstudie zwischen Kindheit und Adoleszenz [Growing up with Sports. Results of a 10-year longitudinal study between childhood and adolescence]. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer.

Christian Herrmann – [email protected] Gerlach – [email protected]

Words 246

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Contribution 4:‚HEALTHY CHILDREN IN SOUND COMMUNITIES’ – MOTOR DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION PROGRAM IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Dennis DREISKAEMPER 1Roland NAUL 1

1. University of Muenster, Germany

Recently published reviews (van der Horst et al., 2012; Niederer et al., 2012) on reduction of overweight and physical inactivity of younger children show the importance of integral approaches including schools, communities, sport clubs, and parents. The intervention project healthy children in sound communities (hcsc; Naul et al., 2012) has the aim, that by an integrated model of communities, schools, sport-clubs and scientific support motor ability and life quality of primary school children can be sustainably improved. Intervention time is four years, in which motor ability and BMI as well as psychological and social factors are analyzed. In four cohorts 1212 German and 733 Dutch children participate in the project. Children take part annually in a motor test including measuring BMI and do surveys about life-quality, media consume, physical activity, physical self-concept and class-climate. Parents fill out a questionnaire about nutrition and physical activity twice. Presented results concentrate on children of German cohort 1 and 2 (C1, n=216, female 45.2%, C2, n=184, female 42.5%) and Dutch cohort 1 (n=215, female 47.9%), who finished all four motor tests.Instead of a control group, data is compared with German national reference data. Hereby children of each cohort show a significant higher level of performance at five motor items (sit ups, pushups, 20m-run, jumping sideward, balancing backwards, p ≤ .001, .15 ≤ η² ≤ .40). BMI percentiles mean was reduced significantly for German cohort 2 (p ≤ .001, ƞ² = .10). Media consume was significantly reduced (p ≤ .001, .09 ≤ η² ≤ .59). Physical activity increased significant in German C1 (p = .039, η² = .03). Analysis also showed significant correlations of social and psychological parameters with motor abilities and BMI.The results underline the impact of structured community-based intervention programs to support an active and healthy lifestyle of young children.

Naul, R., Schmelt, D., Dreiskämper, D., Hoffmann, D. & L`Hoir, M. (2012). Healthy children in sound com-munities (HCSC/ gkgk) – a Dutch-German community-based network project to counteract obesity and physical inactivity. Family Practice, 29 (1), 110-116.Niederer, I., Kriemler, S., Zahner, L., Bürgi, F., Vincent, E., Marques-Vidal, P., & Puder, J. J. (2012). BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 83(1), 12-19.Van Der Horst, K., Chin A. Paw, M. J., Twisk, J. W. R., & Van Mechelen, W. (2007). A Brief Review on Cor-relates of Physical Activity and Sedentariness in Youth. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(8), 1241-1250.

Dennis Dreiskaemper – [email protected]

Words: 299

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Contribution 5:DO SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTIONS FOCUSING ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND/OR FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILL COMPETENCY PRODUCE A SUSTAINED IMPACT? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF FOLLOW-UP STUDIES

Sam K LAI 1Sarah A Costigan 2Philip J Morgan 2David R Lubans 2David F Stodden 3Jo Salmon 1Lisa Barnett 1

1. 1 Deakin University2. 2 University of Newcastle3. 3 Texas Tech University

Introduction: It is suggested the ultimate goal of any intervention aiming to change behavior and improve outcomes ought to be maintenance. Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether typically developing children and adolescents who have participated in a school-based intervention aiming to increase physical activity (PA) and/or fundamental movement skill (FMS) competence have sustained outcomes in PA and/or FMS. Methods: A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL® Plus with Full Text, Ovid MEDLINE®, SPORTDiscus™, Scopus, PsycINFO® and ERIC) was conducted from 1995 to the 26th of July 2012. Included studies were school-based studies (including randomized controlled trials, longitudinal cohort, quasi-experimental, and experimental) that had a follow-up PA or FMS assessment at least six months after the post-intervention assessment. Risk of bias assessment was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. Results: The search identified 13 articles; all which assessed PA; and two which assessed FMS and PA. No study in this review met four key methodological criteria which have been shown to influence results i.e. clarity on the randomization process, assessor blinding, analysing participants in their original groups and retaining sufficient participants through the entire study. Three quarters (10 of 13) of the studies reported PA behaviour change maintenance. The length of follow-up ranged from six months to 20 years, and the degree of PA difference reported was between three to 14 minutes per day. Both studies which assessed FMS reported maintenance of effects. Relevance: It is highly likely that PA is a sustainable outcome in children and adolescents and it appears that intervention duration longer than one year is effective. It would seem probable that FMS are a sustainable outcome however this finding should be viewed with caution given the lack of studies.

Sam LAI - [email protected]

Word count 295

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Contribution 6:IMplementation in Physical Education and the Quality of Teaching. Findings from the Basel IMPEQT-Study on Determinants of Students’ Outcomes.

Erin Gerlach 1,2Sara Leyener 2Christian Herrmann 2Uwe Pühse 2

1. University of Potsdam, Germany2. University of Basel, Switzerland

Introduction:During the last decade, increased attention was placed on the outcomes of PE, which should help convey the importance of lifelong physical skills. Basic motor qualifications (MOBAQs) are the prerequisites for an active participation in the sport culture. The MOBAQ approach (Kurz & Fritz, 2007) is a valid instrument to measure students’ basic motor competencies. Educational research within sport science has to provide evidence-based findings of whether or not the current requirements for school PE can be fulfilled. However, empirical evidence supporting the effects of PE is scant.

Method:Based on an offer-utilization-model of student outcomes, the IMPEQT-study aimed to identify the determinants of motor and psychosocial aspects (i.e. self-concept) on the basis of a longitudinal design with a quantitative survey and a motor tasks evaluation (N = 948, age: M = 13.2, 49  % female). Process criteria of PE (e.g. classroom management, learning climate) were analyzed as determinants of student outcomes using ANOVA and regression analyses, respectively.

Results:About 20% of students revealed deficiencies in one movement area and 25 % required improvement in two or three movement areas. First, cross-sectional results revealed, that on an individual level „Being in Fear of the PE Teacher“ and „Motivation through PE Teacher“ play an important role, whereas on the class level „Classroom Management“ and „Discipline & Using of Time“ have an effect on student motor competencies. The preliminary findings have to be confirmed by multilevel analyses.

Kurz, D., & Fritz, T. (2007). Motorische Basisqualifikationen von Kindern [Basic Motor Qualifications of Children]. Bielefeld: University.

Erin Gerlach – [email protected]

Words: 236