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Transcript of Young Professionals Forum ,SA



    FORUM 8 MAY 2012: YPF




    March 2012 well-known South African rapper

    Slikour- Siya Metane released the

    controversial song Blacks are fools. This

    speedily became the most spoken of song in

    2012 thus far. YPF sought to engage with

    Slikour beyond the hysteria of the song title,

    and more on the message he articulates in the


    Reflection points on forum of the 8th May 2012

    by Reggie Mlangeni:

    Black South Africans suffer from an inferiority

    complex. It is best encapsulated by the

    structure of BEE. A company has met its

    empowerment targets if it is 30% black owned.

    Nowhere else in the world does a 30%

    ownership benchmark equate to success.

    Most of what black South Africans are fighting

    for, in an industrial and economic sense, was

    built by former colonial rulers of our country.

    Instead of fighting among ourselves to inherit

    that legacy, we should be debating how to

    develop and build new industries or reshape

    the existing ones in a way that reflects our

    identity and our legacy.

    Calling for a heightened sense of urgency or

    better yet a yearning for a different legacy

    within the black society. What appears to be

    lacking is a sense of pride in being black. This

    could be ascribed, in part, to the post-

    apartheid legacy. As a starting point we need

    to increase the dialogue among ourselves to

    re-write our history. Use this as our starting

    point to move forward, with a clearer sense of


    As black people we are generally riding on a

    false power. Which is tells you that you are not


    good enough and you cant do it on your own,

    so well (current owners of economic

    resources and power) give you a share.

    Examples of false power:

    - Your salary

    - BEE

    - The credit approval granted by a bank to get

    you that luxury car or tiny apartment in the


    - The approval of your community and social

    circles that are stuck in the same debilitating


    The formerly oppressed, once they attain

    power, become the next oppressor.

    There is evidence of this statement in our

    society right now. The quality of education

    afforded to children in townships has seen

    marginal improvement post-apartheid. The

    changed oppression is becoming increasingly

    visible. The most vehement critics of Slikours

    song represent a newspaper whose readers

    are largely black. This systematic prevention of

    reasoning and introspection to challenge and

    build ourselves will cripple our chances of self-

    actualization, especially when the very people,

    who prevent this personal development look

    like us, speak like us, share our history, and

    live among us.

    How great do we think we are as individuals?

    If we do not buy into our own greatness we

    can never self-actualize.

    Its time for black South Africans, to recognize

    that we are unlikely to see the South Africa

    that we want to live in. It is time to start

    building a country with a legacy that is beyond

    our enjoyment, because it is our responsibility.

    To repair the damage that apartheid caused

    we need to repair the state of the mind of

    every black person, to the point where we

    dont feel the need to put our hands for more

    grants or false empowerment.

    Lets be careful about how we, as black

    people, speak. Theres a growing trend of split

    speech in the sense that black people who are

    the partial haves referring to themselves as us

    and those with even less than the partial haves

    as them. Implicitly it means, even if it is on a

    subconscious level, we as black people are

    starting to see ourselves as different to other

    black people of lesser economical means.


    Given that every one of us is the leader, the

    government, the economy, how are we going

    to take ownership of our country? Looking at

    the litany of the things that are not satisfactory

    in the country it is about time we started doing

    something about it. We need to break the

    cycle of abuse of redoing the very same

    things that we know do not lead to the success

    we desire. We need to hold each other to

    account, otherwise we will never achieve the

    level of excellence that the country needs.


    FORUM 22 MAY 2012 :

    The conversation with

    Slikour continues

    The forum session of the 22/05/2012

    Our previous session with Slikour and Shaka

    Sisulu was a great success. The conversation

    was very insightful. We had posed a question

    in the session to Slikour in terms what he is

    doing about the challenges that face the very

    Blacks he says are Fools. He took up the

    challenge and has an exciting idea which he

    would like to share and get input from us. The

    purpose of the forum was the unpacking of his

    idea and finding ways to ensure that his

    endeavor is successful and impactful.

    Reflections on the forum by Tebogo Moalusi


    Once again he illustrated to us there is a real

    misconception that South African artists are

    aloof about issues that face South African

    people. When Slikour started this journey, he

    actually worked hard at formulating a strategy

    and journey for what he was about to do. The

    song was critical at getting peoples attention

    and getting them talking. Now that he has our

    attention, the guy is working on an exciting

    project that will address some of the issues he

    raises in the song. So last night was the

    YPF gave Slikour input on the documentary

    he is working on. He wants the documentary to

    be factually correct and to represent a diverse

    set of views on the subject matter. What struck

    me the most about last night was that this

    could be the beginning of something massive

    but a lot of work has to be done to make sure it

    gains traction and momentum.

    As young professionals, we need to find better

    ways of integrating our efforts. There are so

    many great things happening around us, being

    driven by young and dynamic youth leaders.

    But the impact and reach of their efforts is

    limited by the lack of partnership, visionary

    leadership and effective networking. We need

    to break boundaries and do things differently.

    We have to take control and not be afraid to

    fail. If we fail we have learnt, and that is still


    I admire Slikour courage in going forward with

    this intervention. Many of us are educated and

    empowered, but we are big talkers who arent

    able to convert ideas to something tangible.


    The moment we convert half of the great ideas

    we have is the moment we start to really carve

    our place in society as young professionals.

    What also great about this journey is that the

    Arts, a sector not seen a professional and

    serious by many, is integrating with the YPF.

    We have always said that artists,

    sportswomen and men, civil servant and

    entrepreneurs are also professionals. We must

    continue to build the foot print of the Young

    Professionals Forum so it includes

    professionals from different industries and

    sectors. It not just about dark suits, pencil

    skirts and high-rise buildings. We will break

    boundaries with Slikourbecause before we

    are anything else, we are Proud Africans in the

    pursuit of success and excellence. Aspire.

    Inspire. Desire. Perspire. Retire.MoFire!


    Forum 12 June 2012:




    Reflections on the forum by YPF

    members: Arnold Mokoena and Tlhokomelo


    Arnold Mokoena @arnoldmokoena :

    On Tuesday the 12th of June, The Young

    Professionals Forum had the pleasure of

    engaging with ANC NEC member Enoch

    Godongwana and a colleague of his Njabulo

    Sithebe (A retired economist) .The discussion

    was around the ANC policy documents to be

    reviewed at the Upcoming policy conference

    26th of June 2012. Mr Godongwana got the

    discussion going with his opening statement

    was The ANC is a church it debates,

    integrates and acts in the best interest of all

    citizens of the country.

    Both our guests were involved in drafting the

    Economic transformation discussion paper,

    which will be debated at the ANC policy

    conference. What I found interesting from the

    evening was the ANC government is aware of

    the current problems affecting South African

    citizens (youth unemployment , crime ,

    poverty and many other issues of equal

    importance ) and they want to improve the

    quality of life for all South Africans but they

    dont have all the answers they need help. We

    as South Africans complain a lot and never

    do anything about it , Enoch also encouraged

    all of us to write discussion documents and

    not sit on the sidewalks . After writing our

    discussion documents we should also hold our

    leaders/government to task. Helen Zille DA

    leader always says you get the government

    you deserve. I was challenged to get involved

    and to stop being noisy

    Tlhokomelo Mogale @tlhoksta :


    Pertinent comments from the Forum:

    The forum felt very strongly about challenges

    facing small medium enterprises in South

    Africa. The general consensus at this forum

    was that when it comes to economic

    development and transformation,

    entrepreneurship should be seen as one of

    the pillars of economic growth. There forth

    governments and political parties through their

    policies should look to create an environment

    whereby entrepreneurship will flourish

    organically. By environment, meaning:

    Easy to start a company (company

    registration, tax clearance etc.).

    Easy to access finance.

    Relaxation of labour laws etc.

    A challenge was then raised to the forum by

    Mr Godongwana. He requested that we draft a

    paper that would highlight the issues related to

    the process of registering a company as well

    as the proposed solutions. YPF is to put team

    together to draft this paper.

    A very important point was raised by a YPF

    member that when it comes to ANC policies,

    these are usually very sound. The issue lies

    with the implementation of these policies and

    that is where the government does not excel.

    Skilled labour is currently concentrated in the

    private sector, with a few government

    departments being able to compete.

    Moving forward, government has to look at

    developing a relationship with the new crop of

    young professionals. The relationship with this

    group of people is critical in that it would allow

    government access to best minds in the

    country to implement projects. At the same

    time, it is the responsibility of young

    professionals to create their own platform that

    will allow them to be active and visible in the

    public domain. We must be seen to be taking

    a leadership role in formulating a vision for our


    In closing, it was clear that young

    professionals are ready, willing and able to

    work. Government as well as the ANC must

    take an active role to get these young people

    involved through various channels to ensure

    full participation in the different spheres of the

    government as well as the countrys politics.


    FORUM 26 JUNE 2013:



    Reflections by Tebogo Moalusi


    Polo Radebe: Business Leader

    passionate about young people,

    entrepreneurship and women


    Magdalene Moosamy: ANCYL

    Spokesperson and NYDA Chief

    Operations Officer.

    Andile Khumalo: M&G Top 200 Young

    South Africans, Black Business Council

    Treasurer and Business leader who is

    positive about prospects of South Africa

    Musa Kalenga: M&G Top 200 Young

    South Africans, Nedbank Head of

    Digital Marketing, media specialist and

    opinion leader.

    The topic for the session was How do young

    people in SA organise and mobilise

    themselves behind a common cause that

    results in effectively getting matters that affect

    the youth elevated on the National agenda and

    actually getting things done.

    We proceeded by breaking the problem

    statement into 3 main questions:

    1. How do we define a relevant common

    cause for young people that transcends

    our differences

    2. How to practically get broader buy-in

    from young people

    3. What are the steps that should be to be

    taken once young people have

    organized themselves behind a

    common cause to achieve meaningful


    My views on the session

    This is both a simple and difficult question to

    answer. In terms of the simplicity, the reality is

    that the issues facing South African young

    people have not changed dramatically. The

    National Development Plan is a good

    reference in terms of articulating these

    challenges. Therefore when we know what the

    problem is, we should be able to unite behind

    alleviating and eradicating it. The difficulty lies

    in how society has become stratified and what


    role various people play in rallying behind the


    What seems to have happened is that with the

    Black educated middle class increasing in

    size, it has brought about various complexities

    that divide the masses. Fragmenting the

    critical mass, even though the problems

    remain the same, they no longer affect

    everyone in the same way. Resulting in a

    unique yet challenging opportunity, where

    young professionals have the power and

    capability to effect relevant change. Yet the

    world they live in distracts them from truly

    connecting with the struggle. Helping fellow

    countrymen rise above their circumstances

    and contributing to society is no longer an

    imperative and ideology which is the baseline

    that enjoins us. Being part of the solution has

    been relegated to charity that one does based

    on convenience. This can be seen in

    participation of young professionals in

    progressive youth organisations and in

    programmes that seek to be the solution.

    Much like the Gym and New Years

    Resolution Syndrome (GNYRS). At the

    beginning, because there is a cool factor

    attached to getting involved, there are a

    healthy number of professionals that get

    involved. As time passes and the initiative

    become more demanding, the numbers

    dwindle leading to the initiative taking strain

    and possibly failing. What I have also noticed

    is that although the numbers decrease the

    complaints about what government and the

    ruling party are not doing stay the same or


    As one of our panelists Musa put it, we are

    great at rallying behind problems and

    complaints but we are horrible at rallying

    behind solutions and value. The twitter and

    facebook page supporting the complaints

    behind the NYDA is more likely to have a

    greater support in comparison to one that

    would have sought to create an alternative

    youth development agency that takes

    advantage of the gap created by the NYDAs

    inefficiencies. The reality is that by

    complaining and identifying problems, we dont

    have to expend ourselves and commit to

    anything except our opinion. However when

    you rally behind a solution, you are then

    required to invest yourself in trying to make it

    work, which is where the real challenge lies.

    Why should young professionals spend their

    precious time identifying and applying


    themselves to solutions that take their time

    away from studying or working? We quickly

    forget about our responsibilities as young

    leaders and allow our professional life to

    dictate whether or not we will continue to make

    a difference. Our purpose is better defined by

    our job description than by our understanding

    of what contribution we need to make to the


    I quote a colleague who asserted: we must

    not make the mistake of thinking that simply

    because one is a young professional; they

    have a propensity or even appetite to lead.

    Some people are comfortable just living their

    lives without being bothered about things like

    making a difference. Andile Khumalo said

    yesterday that organisations such as the YPF

    are conduits for self-actualisation, platforms

    and vehicles that allow young people to

    achieve their purpose. However, we must not

    make the mistake of thinking that all change

    will come about from the collective. It has to

    start with you. So the change we want to see

    will start with the individual and will be

    amplified through progressive organisations

    they chose to align themselves with.

    Main points that came out of the session:

    Across the world can observe many

    examples of what it takes to change

    ones destiny. We need to learn and

    implement these strategies.

    As young people, it is our time. We

    have the greatest interest in making

    sure that things work. The return of

    investments that we will see in the

    future will be as a result of what we do

    now and tomorrow. So if we squander

    the opportunity, we shouldnt be

    surprised if our grandchildren still ask

    the same questions and face the same


    We need to become a society that is

    able to rally behind solutions and value.

    Identifying problems is easy. Its coming

    up with solutions and following through

    that shift the status quo.

    Our language has to change to one that

    is positive. That is how we will change

    the culture of entitlement and victim

    mentality. So change the way you think

    about your world so the world can

    change how it relates to you.


    Be self-aware. Have a clear purpose in

    life. Invest in your abilities and let those

    unlock value that your community and

    people can enjoy.

    Leverage off partnership, innovation

    and integration

    As a collective, increase your footprint.

    Be heard, but be relevant. Allow

    experience to build depth in your

    understanding and use your

    understanding to take advantage of

    opportunities instead of just seeing the


    Use platforms, networks and

    associations youre affiliated with realise

    your full potential.

    Speed is an important aspect of winning

    a battle. Being a critical mass has to be

    used as an asset and sometime you

    should not be apologetic about being a

    champion of change in the face of

    adversity. There will always be people

    who are not interested in a new day.

    With privilege comes great

    responsibility. Wear the title of Young

    Professional with pride. Work to get

    other young people to enjoy the same

    opportunities you have been exposed

    to, thusanang.

    Education is vital as a national we

    should be using education as the focal

    point of our efforts because it is through

    an educated population that we can

    really address economic freedom and

    ensuring that our people enjoy the

    benefits of all the other freedoms

    We must start to distinguish between

    small business and entrepreneurialism.

    We should focus on building the

    entrepreneurial spirit in people and

    support people who try and even fail.

    Entrepreneurship needs to be

    recognised and celebrate. A failed

    entrepreneur is a better one next time

    round. The systems and institutions

    need to understand this and gear

    themselves to ensuring that we give

    people the chances the need to change

    the world.

    Innovation and creativity is yet to bloom

    in South Africa. Young people are so

    bombarded by other peoples creativity

    that they dont have time to think for

    themselves. Social media and media in


    general have created a dependency for

    thought and therefore we are unable to

    be creative and take advantage of

    opportunities. Local problems are

    exploited by foreign people and

    businesses. It cannot be that we know

    the problem but cannot find our own

    solutions for it. We are constantly

    importing intellectual capability, whilst

    we are more than capable of

    addressing our issues constructively.



    FORUM 31ST JULY 2012 :




    On Tuesday, the 31st of July, the Young

    Professionals Forum (YPF) met with Dr.

    Siphamandla Zondi for what turned out to be

    not just a session with some fantastic quotable

    quotes but stern re-affirmation of the

    importance of the work being done by the YPF

    and a reminder of our responsibility as the

    emerging middle class of South Africa.

    Before I get into what was discussed and what

    I took from it let me first introduce you to Dr.

    Zondi for those who may not know the man.

    He is a director of the Institute for Global

    Dialogue who is a sought after political analyst

    and is published widely in topics ranging from

    regional integration to public health policy and

    has co-ordinated the Africa Institute of South

    Africas regional integration and sustainable

    development programs. Dr. Zondi has

    travelled extensively on the continent and

    received his DPhil in African Studies at the

    University of Cambridge, UK.

    From his profile I had geared myself up to a

    theoretical debate of an abstract group of

    people know as the Middle Class, and how

    they werent playing their part in formal

    politics, policy formulation etc. I thought it

    would be an intellectual discussion that may

    highlight some interesting statistics about

    their buying power, living conditions,

    preferences and so on and how all of this was

    changing over time. Instead, what I got was a

    very practical, very real talk on how we are

    neglecting our responsibility of being the

    change agents of our time, how selfish weve

    become and more importantly how if we do not

    change for the better, well be changed for the


    What first struck me was the recurring theme

    weve all heard (especially those that have

    attended a YPF session with a guest speaker

    involved in politics) and that is that we as the

    young professionals are seen to have

    neglected anything that we dont see as being

    directly beneficial to us and our way of life not

    realizing that the broader stability and

    prosperity of the country is imperative if we are

    to attain the material goods we so want. All of


    us who were in attendance, and I suspect

    anyone reading this, are without doubt part of

    the middle class a class defined by the fact

    that they live in formal housing with access to

    electricity, sanitation, running water, basic

    education, reliable telecommunication, a level

    of control on your ability to achieve certain

    things and so on.

    We are the middle class because we are not

    on either side of the social spectrum; we are

    neither excluded and marginalized nor

    entrenched and powerful, unless we organize

    ourselves because an organized minority is a

    political majority.

    The most important take out from the session

    for me was what Dr. Zondi repeatedly pointed

    out to us, that being that historically it has

    always been the responsibility of the middle

    class to lead a sustainable and effective

    revolution to make the point our esteemed

    speaker used the Class of 44 as an example,

    he spoke about how a group of affluent, middle

    class individuals took it upon themselves to be

    the leaders of their generation by being

    concerned about the greater good of their

    society, not just of themselves. This group was

    made of individuals who are now considered

    giants of society, Mandela, Tambo, Sisulu to

    name a few, were alive to their responsibility

    and did not shy away from it. The truth is,

    they have taken us as far as they can and we

    must be conscious to the fact that the baton

    has been passed on to us. It is in our hands,

    right now!

    This brings us to the reason why today, we as

    the middle class are a muddled class. We live

    in a country of great contradictions, a country

    that is only different from many on the

    continent due to the depth of its challenges


    and height of its opportunities. Yet we seem

    not to be taking advantage of this even though

    as things stand today these heights far

    outweigh the potential depths. To steal from

    the presentation South Africa is a country of

    great skill but incompetence reigns, a country

    of great minds but fools reign, a country of

    great hope but despair reigns and the main

    reason for this is that the middle class is not at

    the centre of it all. We have relegated

    ourselves to the sidelines and only flex our

    collective muscle when our luxuries are

    threatened (think e-toll saga here) yet when it

    comes to voting we seem to have short-term

    memory loss before returning to our corners

    were weve mastered the art of complaining.

    When challenged on our apolitical approach

    we tend to give excuses like the fact that we

    do not identify with politics, the political

    landscape is vulgar and unclean or that we are

    too smart to get involved as its a space

    occupied by morons. Dr. Zondis response to

    these common excuses was in the form of 2


    1. In the same way that society requires

    doctors to help cure illnesses, politics requires

    leaders to give direction and rid it of corruption

    We Are Those Leaders

    2. If a moron is driving a car and is

    headed directly to a wall and the genius sit in

    the passenger seat complaining surely the

    moron must be applauded for at least

    attempting to drive whereas the genius is

    more to blame for the accident? Come On

    Geniuses, Play Your Part.

    What was interesting was learning that the

    word politics is derived from an old Greek word

    Politika which means to be concerned about

    the change and affairs of your society, so Dr.

    Zondi pointed out that if you are concerned

    about your society and how it changes, you

    are by definition involved in politics. The trick I

    guess is to make your involvement impactful

    and the way to do this is to be in the centre of

    it all because as any change agent knows,

    Change Happens in the Centre!!!


    As I sat there and listened I took pride in the

    work weve done as the YPF, the past 4 years

    have been eye-opening and I do believe that

    we are onto something that is necessary. We

    are getting organized, we are conscious of our

    greater responsibility and we understand that

    change doesnt just happen, it is caused.

    Dr. Siphamandla Zondi was an engaging

    speaker who got us thinking and I really

    enjoyed the session. He mentioned that he is

    writing a book on the subject and some of the

    comments from the floor seemed to get him

    thinking too so I look out for a YPF mention in

    the sleeves a what promises to be an

    interesting read.

    Speaking of which, he did suggest that we

    read a book by Dr. Miles Munroe called The

    Burden of Freedom which apparently

    describes the state South Africa finds itself in

    at the moment.

    This was another fantastic YPF session with

    new faces and many new possibilities.

    Watch This Space

    By Itumeleng Merafe









    On the 15th of August 2012 YPF was fortunate

    to have been extended an invite to the

    National Development Plan handover event.

    This was indeed an auspicious occasion for

    South Africa as it illustrated the positive strides

    our government continues to make. In the

    words of President Zuma National

    Development plan was government fulfilling its

    promise to the citizens of South Africa.

    The consultative process of the National

    Planning Commission reaffirmed that there is a

    place for organisations such as the Young

    Professionals Forum and active citizens as the

    architects of the South Africa we are building.

    Which also meant that we as an organisation

    must continue to grow,organise ourselves and

    make sure we are ready and able to contribute

    positively to the Republic of South Africa we

    take pride in.


    FORUM 27 JULY 2013:


    IN SA

    Refection points by Karabo Radebe

    Need for the Tri-partied alliance given the

    difference in agenda's - history to address

    a broader movement behind the ANC's

    position in the RSA context. Highly

    involved in the democracy of RSA. RDP

    initiated to address issues across SA

    society, currently a contest within the tri-

    apartheid alliance. If Cosatu were to leave

    the tri-apartheid would be deemed a loss

    by Cosatu as ANC was founded on

    socialist policies. Workers are there to

    keep ANC in check.

    Participation in NDP process leading up to

    the current document In 2009 Cosatu

    contested the commission to be

    established, as what powers would it

    have? The composition of the

    commission, bias towards business.

    Cosatu engaged when diagnostic report

    took place. Property ownership, particuarly

    in the context of colonial ownership (small

    minority taking over majority's property). If

    a revolution doesn't address that issue,

    then it is not a revolution. Gender and

    class amongst key themes to be

    addressed, ownership of economic stock

    etc must be addressed. The NDP doesn't

    address any of these issues!

    Cosatu relevance to young professionals

    given exploitation- progressive mass

    movements, Sasco, Cosas. Focus at the

    student level as will be future leaders.

    Long history of students and workers

    driving revolution from pre 1968 years.

    Black professionals must coordinate else

    will continue to be excluded from the

    economy ("black" -all those on the

    receiving end of the apartheid system) .

    We need to continue be active citizens,

    only if we have a mind-set change,

    amongst those most desperate for


    Working with young professionals in an

    effort to change attitudes so as to be

    change agents.

    Labour vs capital, mutually exclusive -

    labour has always had a place in political

    historically of RSA ; not necessarily anti

    capital, but rather manage its worst parts

    so not exploitative as other parts of the


    Youth unemployment- risk youth remain


    unemployable? Rejection of youth wage

    subsidy. Any other suggestions to address

    youth unemployment- - rejected due to

    unemployment issue in RSA being

    structural unemployment. For example

    extraction of minerals, extracted and sent

    away, this structure remains in place.

    Monopolies dominating most of the

    economy. No beneficiation for example

    would create additional employment

    avenues. Educational structure

    marginalises the majority, healthcare.

    Youth subsidy is a pacifier, doesn't

    address issue. In corporates interest as

    they make more profit. People never really

    employed, churned in and out of


    Investment arms of parties and unions-

    they are a reality, some run very well and

    benefits given to workers in form of

    scholarships etc, clothing and textile

    worker arm also doing well. Risks also

    exist and possibility of conflicts of interest

    Continuous strike seasons- "coincidence"

    given that negotiations begin similar time

    each year. Strikes we see are a minority of

    wage negotiations not settled. Violent

    strikes publicized, creating expectation

    that unless things get violent won't get

    resolution. Which is dangerous.

    Education of workers- self admittedly

    unions are weak in this regard. Only

    leadership supposed to be under training

    but that still doesn't take place. Contradict

    selves. Need to establish deliberate career

    path for workers. Australian trade union

    movement is An example, numsa used to

    work with them.

    How do we build united democratic

    society, have to address immediate

    challenges of race etc. What programs run

    to attract non-discriminatory audience.

    Economic freedom fighters - ousted youth

    league leaders. Have a grievance, would

    never have established it had they not

    been "wronged"... Never create political

    parties off the back of personal issues.

    About ideas and ideology should drive


    Middle class of RSA- that's where should

    engage most, how do we go about it. We

    as professionals, should have a bias

    towards the people "society" at large.

    Middle strata must see its destiny with the

    workers, not the capitalists. Risk change


    ideologies. Risk of inferiority complex and

    create antagonism between workers and


    Celebrate rise of black people employed in

    corporate with the comfort that they will

    work at addressing the issues of the

    working class.