XXV. The New Republic A. New Government 1. March 4, 1789 new Congress under the Constitution 2....
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Transcript of XXV. The New Republic A. New Government 1. March 4, 1789 new Congress under the Constitution 2....
XXV. The New RepublicA. New Government 1. March 4, 1789 new Congress under the Constitution 2. April 30, 1789 Washington inaugurated as first President 3. Almost everything Washington does sets a new precedent a. Constitution regulates Congress very little on President b. addresses Congress in legislature c. Washington's title, "Mr. President" d. the Cabinet 4. Alexander Hamilton a. young genius b. wanted Washington to become king c. first secretary of the treasury d. Hamilton's motivation and goals i. needed to establish government's financial stability ii. tie interests of the rich to well being of country iii. promote credit & foreign trade especially with England
e. meeting his goals i. exchange depreciated currency & bonds for full value a. speculators bought up old bonds and currency b. speculators already rich only ones who benefited ii. asked congress to assume $21.5 mill. in state debts a. many states already paid their debts b. Creditors look to fed. Government for payments iii. Congress agrees if Capitol is Washington D.C. a. Virginia wanted capitol as far away as possible f. Proposed a series of excise taxes to balance the budget i. quickly exercise the power or loose it ii. Whiskey Tax, taxed making distilled liquor 3/1791 iii. Hamilton accused of graft, innocent but has trouble iv. Whiskey Rebellion, summer of 1792B. Domestic Crisis 1. Farmers of Western Penn. converted gain to alcohol
2. Aug. 1792 Pittsburgh convention denounced tax 3. Washington issued proclamation warning against mobs 4. July 1794 armed resistance 500 men at John Neville’s home a. Neville not home but gunfire exchanged 5. Parkinson's Ferry convention with 200 delegates a. argued for secession 6. Washington feared the spread of the rebellion a. orders insurgents home b. calls out troops in surrounding states c. 8/1794 federal army marches on Pittsburgh d. rebels disperse across Ohio River C. Foreign Policy 1. French Revolution (1789-1799) a. At first supported in America, 1792 France a republic b. America officially neutral, afraid of another war c. By 1793 and 1794 the excesses were clear
i. Edmund Genêt to raise American sentiment ii. Genêt commissions American privateers iii. Washington warns Genêt iv. Genêt appeals to Congress v. Aug. 2, Washington demands Genêt's recallD. In fighting 1. too many factions & parties (over 30) 2. Washington hampered and frustrated 3. Thomas Jefferson resigned over Hamilton & bank 4. Madison and Jefferson form opposition to Federalists 5. Washington retired after two terms & abusive last yr.
XXVI. Jeffersonians & FederalistsA. Campaign of 1796 1. John Adams, 2nd most votes, Vice President a. favored strong central government over the states b. favored implied powers 2. Thomas Jefferson, Sec. of State till 1793 a. strict interpretation of constitution b. the voice of opposition to Washington 3. Adams 71 electoral votes, Jefferson 68 B. Adams as President, 1796-1800 1. X-Y-Z Affair a. situation in France growing extreme b. Adams needs treaty recognizing American neutrality c. John Marshall, Charles Pinckney & Elbridge Gerry sent d. French foreign minister, Talleyrand refuses to meet e. Three French ministers want a loan and $240,000 bribe f. outraged but fearful of war Gerry stays in France
2. Congress takes steps towards War a. May of 1798 create Dept. of Navy b. repeals 1778 treaty of friendship c. approved 10,000 man army 3. Alien & Sedition Acts a. Naturalization Act, i. residency for citizenship extended from 5 to 14 years b. Alien Act, i. Authorized President to expel any dangerous alien c. Alien Enemies Act, i. President may suspend Habeas Corpus d. Sedition Act, 1798 i. illegal to conspire in opposition to government policy ii. illegal to form insurrection, riot or unlawfully assemble iii. illegal to print, write, speak bringing disrepute to gov. iv. vastly limits free speech and opposition to government
4. Resentment of Alien and Sedition Acts a. Virginia and Kentucky condemned i. claimed had right to revoke it in jurisdiction b. Adams smuggled guns into his house 5. 1799 Adams sues for peace with FranceC. Election of 1800 1. Federalists falling apart a. Adams abused government power b. Adams still runs, splits party with Hamilton 2. 2 Republican candidates, Aaron Burr and Jefferson a. Jefferson and Burr tie with 73 electoral votes b. House of Representative decided the election c. Hamilton led Federalists to support Jefferson d. After 36 votes Jefferson elected e. 12 amendment, separate ballots for Pres & V.P. D. New Capitol
1. Nov., 1800 after election capitol moves to D.C. 2. Congress hired French engineer Pierre L'Enfant 3. African American, Benjamin Banneker helps 4. Capitol building on hill, rest of city belowE. Midnight Judges 1. Adams appoints as many judges as possible before he left 2. appointed William Marbury to Justice of Peace for D. C. 3. commission made but not delivered 4. Marbury found out and sued under Judiciary Act of 1789 a. calls any case against cabinet tried by Supreme CourtF. Marbury v. Madison 1. New Chief Justice, John Marshall, appointed by Adams 2. Jefferson wanted to remove Marshall 3. decide in favor of Marbury, Jefferson could ignore 4. If ruled in favor Madison would admit court powerless 5. avoided pitfalls challenged the law with, Judicial Review
a. claimed Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional b. Marshall denies Marbury the commission c. Jefferson has to abide or Marbury will get jobG. Jefferson's Administration 1. Jefferson reduces the government a. with no war, reduces the army b. believes could best protect individual rights c. decreases size of whole federal government d. decreased national debt e. able to reduce taxes, did away with the hated excise tax f. launched several public works connecting the west 2. Believed in Yeoman Farmer a. wants every American to be small scale farmer b. hopes to increase production by expansion west 3. 1798 Thomas Malthus, English Political Economist a.”Essay on the Principle of Population” 1798 & 1803 b. claims population enforces own controls
c. disease, starvation and war control population growth d. based theory on over crowded European society e. Jefferson felt westward expansion will avoid fate 4. Jefferson increases westward migration a. Land Act 1796 sets price $2 acre & 640 acre min b. cuts minimum in half and encourages more migration c. 8% discount for cash 5. Louisiana Purchase a. 1800 Napoleon controlled most of Europe i. Placed Joseph Bonaparte on throne of Spain ii. asked for land ceded to Spain in New World iii. Oct. 1802 Spain closed New Orleans iv. Jefferson thought this would lead to war v. 1/1803 James Monroe buy New Orleans for $2 mil. b. 1791 Slaves in Haiti rebel i. Toussaint L'Ouverture leads revolt burns plantations
ii. 1799 Napoleon tries to restore French rule iii. French catch yellow fever and die iv. L’Ouverture captured Rebels keep fighting v. Jan. 1, 1804 Haiti declared independent c. Napoleon reevaluates his position in New World i. No port in Haiti to launch reconquest ii. Americans intruding west can’t stop iii. Needed money to fight in Europe d. Talleyrand offers all of Louisiana for $15 mill i. Louisiana almost doubles size of U.S. ii. Constitution had no allowance to buy land 7. Lewis and Clark a. nothing known about Louisiana b. Jefferson wanted a survey and explore territory c. 2 1/2 years. Started spring 1804 with 48 men d. hire Frenchman & Shoshone wife, Sacagawea
e. crossed Rocky Mts. helped by Nez Pierce f. Wintered on Pacific at Fort Clatsop waited for ship g. No ship, split up to go home h. Clark took Yellowstone River on trip back i. Arrived in St. Louis Sept. 23, 1806 8. Jefferson sent others to explore the territory a. 1805 Zebulon Pike explored source Mississippi R. i. stops in 1806 at Lake Leech in Minnesota b. 1806 Pike explores New Mexico and Colorado c. Thomas Freeman leads party up Red River i. near Arkansas, Oklahoma&Texas meet Spanish ii. told territory is New Spain and return home 9. Aaron Burr a. bitter over defeat in 1800 election b. intended to break of Louisiana or give to British c. betrayed by Territorial Governor James Wilkinson
d. Burr caught fleeing to Spanish Florida e. John Marshall conducts trial i. hates Jefferson ii. makes it impossible for jury to find Burr guilty iii. Burr acquitted but wanted in six states a. New Jersey & New York for murder of A. Hamilton b. shot in a duel when dueling was illegal in states c. four other states wanted him for treason e. Burr lives most of the rest of his life in Europe f. eventually returns to New York in old age