World war i
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- 1. WORLD WAR I BY: KARINAPOLANCO 1914 - 1920 1914 - 1920
2. WAR BREAKS OUT IN EUROPE 3. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
- Imperialism:the policy by which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker nations or territories.
- Nationalism:a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward ones country.
- Militarism:the belief that a nation needs a large military force.
- Alliances: an alliance of Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, and seven other countries during World War I.
- European nations divided into two opposing alliances.
- The Central Powers were made up of Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.
4. 5. STALEMATE IN THE TRENCHES
- When the war began in August, most people on both sides assumed it would be over within a few months.
- The First Battle of Marne, in September 1914, stopped the German advances.
- Instead of one side quickly defeating the other,the two side stayed stuck to the mud for more than three years.
- The soldiers were fighting a new kind of battle, trench warfare.
- Trench warfareis a kind of warfare during World War I in which troops huddled at the bottom of trenches and fired artillery and machine guns at each other.
6. 7. A WAR OF NEW TECHNOLOGY
- The tank, a British invention, smashed through barbed wire, crossed trenches, and cleared paths through no mans land.
- Soldiers had machine guns that fired 600 bullets a minute.
- Poison gas, used by both sides, burned and blinded soldiers.
- By 1917, fighter planes fought eachother far above the clouds.
- At sea, the Germans used submarines, which they called U-boats, to block trade. They were equipped with both guns and torpedoes.
8. AMERICAS PATH TO WAR
- When the war started in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson announced a policy of neutrality, refusing to take sides in the war.
- The German submarines sank all allied merchant ships they found off the British coast.
- The sinking turned many Americans against Germany, yet President Wilson kept the U.S. neutral.
- In the election of 1916, the Democratic Partys campaign slogan, He kept us out of war, appealed to voters. Wilson won reelection.
- Zimmermann telegram was a message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered World War I. This made Americans furious.
- President Wilson asked for a declaration of war. The majority shared the presidents commitment to join the Allies.
9. REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA
- Events in Russia made U.S. entry into the war more urgent for the allies.
- In August 1915, Czar Nicholas II insisted on taking control of the troops himself. His poor leadership was blamed for more deaths.
- In March 1918, Russia withdrew from the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
- The Allies urged American troops to come quickly.
10. AMERICA JOINS THE FIGHT 11. RAISING AN ARMY AND A NAVY
- The U.S. Army was not ready for war. American fighting forces consisted of fewer than 200,000 soldiers many of them recent recruits.
- In May 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act.
- This act required all males between the ages of 21 and 30 to sign up for military service.
- By the end of 1918, nearly 3 million men had been drafted.
- About 2 million Americans soldiers went to France.
- They served under general John J. Pershing as the American Expeditionary Force (AEF).
- Wilson believed that having distinct and separate American combat units would guarantee the United States a major role in the peace talks at wars end.
- Most U.S. troops fought separately, but some fought under Allied command.
- Close to 50,000 American women also served in WWI.
- For the 1 sttime in history women also served in the military
- Around 400,000 African Americans served in the armed forces.
12. AMERICAN SHIPS MAKE A DIFFERENCE
- American Rear Admiral William S. Sims convinced the Allies to adopt the convoy system.
- In a convoy system, a heavy guard of destroyers escorts merchant ships during wartime.
- Begun in May 1917, this strategy quickly reduced the loss rate.
- Beginning in June 1918, the Allies laid a barrier of 70,000 mines in the North Sea.
- The 180-mile-long minefield made U-boat access to the North Atlantic almost impossible .
13. AMERICAN TROOPS ENTER THE WAR
- By the time the American troops arrived in France in June 1917, the Allies had been at war for three years.
- In March 1918, the German launched an offensive to end the war before the Americans arrived in force.
- Just in time, in May 1918, one million fresh American troops arrived ready for action.
- On May 28, American soldiers attacked the French town of Cantigny, which was occupied by the Germans.
- Americans proved themselves in combat by defeating Balleau Wood.
- One unit lost 380 men 0f its 400.
14. PUSHING THE GERMANS BACK
- The Second Battle of the Marne is a 1918 marked the turning point of the war; allied troops along with Americans halted the German advances into France.
- September 26, 1918, marked the beginning of the final Meuse-Argonne offensive.
- The wars final battle left 26,000 Americans death.
- By November, the Germans were retreating.
- In Argonne Forest, Alvin York attacked German machine gunners, killing 25 of them and returned to the American lines with 132 captives.
- Eddie Rickenbacker won fame as the U.S. ace of aces for shooting down a total of 26 enemy planes, which won him the Medal of Honor.
15. GERMANY STOPS FIGHTING
- After the defeat ofMeuse-Argonne, General Erich Ludendorff advised the German government to seek peace.
- In early November, Germanys navy mutinied and its allies dropped out.
- On November 11,1918, at 11:00 A.M. the 11 thhour of the 11 thday of the 11 thmonth all fighting ceased
- About 8.5 million soldiers died in the war, and abut 21 million were wounded.
16. LIFE ON THE HOME FRONT 17. MOBILIZING FOR WAR
- World War Icost the United States $35.5 billion.
- Americans helped to pay almost one-third of that amount by buying government war bonds.
- War bonds were low-interest loans by civilians to the government, meant to be paid in a number of years.
- Schoolchildren rolled bandages and collected tin cans, paper, toothpaste tubes, and apricot pits.
- So that more food could be sent to soldiers, people planted victory gardens in back yards and vacant lots.
- Women would get together and knit socks and sweaters and sew hospital gowns.
- Citizens would save food by observing wheatless Mondays and Wednesdays, and meatless Tuesdays.
- The war brought more governmentcontrol over the economy .
18. INTOLLERANCE AND SUSPICIONS
- Patriotic propaganda did much to win supportfor the war.
- Suddenly people distrusted anything German.
- Berlin, Maryland, became Brunswick.
- People called hamburger Salisbury steak , and German shepherds police dogs
- On June 15, 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act. This law set heavy fines and long prison terms for antiwar activities and for encouraging draft resisters.
- Sedition Act was a law passed in 1918 thatmade it illegal to criticize the war; it set heavy fines and long prison terms for those who engaged in antiwar activities.
- People argued that these acts violated their freedom of speech.
- Justice Holmes argued that freedom of speech could be limited specially in war time.
19. NEW JOBS AND GREAT MIGRATION
- As soldiers went off to battle, the United States faced labor shortage.
- Northern factories were suddenly willing to hire workers they had once rejected.
- Between 1910 and 1920, about 500,000 African Americans moved to Northern cities such as New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis hoping for a better life. This movement was called the Great Migration.
- Many Mexican immigrants settled in Texas, Arizona, Colorado, and California where many became farm workers and others worked in factories in the Northern cities.
- The war time labor shortage also meant new job choices for women.
- Many women worked in steel mills, ammunition factories, assembly lines, streetcar conductors, and elevator operators.
- Their presence gave the public a wider view about their abilities.
20. THE FLU EPIDEMIC OF 1918
- Another result of the war was a deadly flu epidemic that swept the globe in 1918.