World war i

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  • 1. WORLD WAR I BY: KARINAPOLANCO 1914 - 1920 1914 - 1920

2. WAR BREAKS OUT IN EUROPE 3. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I

  • Imperialism:the policy by which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker nations or territories.
  • Nationalism:a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward ones country.
  • Militarism:the belief that a nation needs a large military force.
  • Alliances: an alliance of Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, and seven other countries during World War I.
  • European nations divided into two opposing alliances.
  • The Central Powers were made up of Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.

4. 5. STALEMATE IN THE TRENCHES

  • When the war began in August, most people on both sides assumed it would be over within a few months.
  • The First Battle of Marne, in September 1914, stopped the German advances.
  • Instead of one side quickly defeating the other,the two side stayed stuck to the mud for more than three years.
  • The soldiers were fighting a new kind of battle, trench warfare.
  • Trench warfareis a kind of warfare during World War I in which troops huddled at the bottom of trenches and fired artillery and machine guns at each other.

6. 7. A WAR OF NEW TECHNOLOGY

  • The tank, a British invention, smashed through barbed wire, crossed trenches, and cleared paths through no mans land.
  • Soldiers had machine guns that fired 600 bullets a minute.
  • Poison gas, used by both sides, burned and blinded soldiers.
  • By 1917, fighter planes fought eachother far above the clouds.
  • At sea, the Germans used submarines, which they called U-boats, to block trade. They were equipped with both guns and torpedoes.

8. AMERICAS PATH TO WAR

  • When the war started in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson announced a policy of neutrality, refusing to take sides in the war.
  • The German submarines sank all allied merchant ships they found off the British coast.
  • The sinking turned many Americans against Germany, yet President Wilson kept the U.S. neutral.
  • In the election of 1916, the Democratic Partys campaign slogan, He kept us out of war, appealed to voters. Wilson won reelection.
  • Zimmermann telegram was a message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered World War I. This made Americans furious.
  • President Wilson asked for a declaration of war. The majority shared the presidents commitment to join the Allies.

9. REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA

  • Events in Russia made U.S. entry into the war more urgent for the allies.
  • In August 1915, Czar Nicholas II insisted on taking control of the troops himself. His poor leadership was blamed for more deaths.
  • In March 1918, Russia withdrew from the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
  • The Allies urged American troops to come quickly.

10. AMERICA JOINS THE FIGHT 11. RAISING AN ARMY AND A NAVY

  • The U.S. Army was not ready for war. American fighting forces consisted of fewer than 200,000 soldiers many of them recent recruits.
  • In May 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act.
  • This act required all males between the ages of 21 and 30 to sign up for military service.
  • By the end of 1918, nearly 3 million men had been drafted.
  • About 2 million Americans soldiers went to France.
  • They served under general John J. Pershing as the American Expeditionary Force (AEF).
  • Wilson believed that having distinct and separate American combat units would guarantee the United States a major role in the peace talks at wars end.
  • Most U.S. troops fought separately, but some fought under Allied command.
  • Close to 50,000 American women also served in WWI.
  • For the 1 sttime in history women also served in the military
  • Around 400,000 African Americans served in the armed forces.

12. AMERICAN SHIPS MAKE A DIFFERENCE

  • American Rear Admiral William S. Sims convinced the Allies to adopt the convoy system.
  • In a convoy system, a heavy guard of destroyers escorts merchant ships during wartime.
  • Begun in May 1917, this strategy quickly reduced the loss rate.
  • Beginning in June 1918, the Allies laid a barrier of 70,000 mines in the North Sea.
  • The 180-mile-long minefield made U-boat access to the North Atlantic almost impossible .

13. AMERICAN TROOPS ENTER THE WAR

  • By the time the American troops arrived in France in June 1917, the Allies had been at war for three years.
  • In March 1918, the German launched an offensive to end the war before the Americans arrived in force.
  • Just in time, in May 1918, one million fresh American troops arrived ready for action.
  • On May 28, American soldiers attacked the French town of Cantigny, which was occupied by the Germans.
  • Americans proved themselves in combat by defeating Balleau Wood.
  • One unit lost 380 men 0f its 400.

14. PUSHING THE GERMANS BACK

  • The Second Battle of the Marne is a 1918 marked the turning point of the war; allied troops along with Americans halted the German advances into France.
  • September 26, 1918, marked the beginning of the final Meuse-Argonne offensive.
  • The wars final battle left 26,000 Americans death.
  • By November, the Germans were retreating.
  • In Argonne Forest, Alvin York attacked German machine gunners, killing 25 of them and returned to the American lines with 132 captives.
  • Eddie Rickenbacker won fame as the U.S. ace of aces for shooting down a total of 26 enemy planes, which won him the Medal of Honor.

15. GERMANY STOPS FIGHTING

  • After the defeat ofMeuse-Argonne, General Erich Ludendorff advised the German government to seek peace.
  • In early November, Germanys navy mutinied and its allies dropped out.
  • On November 11,1918, at 11:00 A.M. the 11 thhour of the 11 thday of the 11 thmonth all fighting ceased
  • About 8.5 million soldiers died in the war, and abut 21 million were wounded.

16. LIFE ON THE HOME FRONT 17. MOBILIZING FOR WAR

  • World War Icost the United States $35.5 billion.
  • Americans helped to pay almost one-third of that amount by buying government war bonds.
  • War bonds were low-interest loans by civilians to the government, meant to be paid in a number of years.
  • Schoolchildren rolled bandages and collected tin cans, paper, toothpaste tubes, and apricot pits.
  • So that more food could be sent to soldiers, people planted victory gardens in back yards and vacant lots.
  • Women would get together and knit socks and sweaters and sew hospital gowns.
  • Citizens would save food by observing wheatless Mondays and Wednesdays, and meatless Tuesdays.
  • The war brought more governmentcontrol over the economy .

18. INTOLLERANCE AND SUSPICIONS

  • Patriotic propaganda did much to win supportfor the war.
  • Suddenly people distrusted anything German.
  • Berlin, Maryland, became Brunswick.
  • People called hamburger Salisbury steak , and German shepherds police dogs
  • On June 15, 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act. This law set heavy fines and long prison terms for antiwar activities and for encouraging draft resisters.
  • Sedition Act was a law passed in 1918 thatmade it illegal to criticize the war; it set heavy fines and long prison terms for those who engaged in antiwar activities.
  • People argued that these acts violated their freedom of speech.
  • Justice Holmes argued that freedom of speech could be limited specially in war time.

19. NEW JOBS AND GREAT MIGRATION

  • As soldiers went off to battle, the United States faced labor shortage.
  • Northern factories were suddenly willing to hire workers they had once rejected.
  • Between 1910 and 1920, about 500,000 African Americans moved to Northern cities such as New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis hoping for a better life. This movement was called the Great Migration.
  • Many Mexican immigrants settled in Texas, Arizona, Colorado, and California where many became farm workers and others worked in factories in the Northern cities.
  • The war time labor shortage also meant new job choices for women.
  • Many women worked in steel mills, ammunition factories, assembly lines, streetcar conductors, and elevator operators.
  • Their presence gave the public a wider view about their abilities.

20. THE FLU EPIDEMIC OF 1918

  • Another result of the war was a deadly flu epidemic that swept the globe in 1918.