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  • Titel og undertitel skal stå med store bogstaver (Versaler) og skal holdes indenfor de to vandrette grå linjer.

    Titlen kan stå i farve, eller der kan vælges en baggrundsfarve fra en af farvepaletterne til feltet mellem de to vandrette linjer.

    What can we learn about gender equality and care policy from academic research: The case of the Nordic countries Professor Tine Rostgaard, University of Aalborg, Denmark tr@dps.aau.dk

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Overview

    • Gender equality in the Nordic and Danish welfare model

    • Gender equality characteristics - Denmark and the Nordic

    countries

    • The Nordic/Danish model of social care for elderly

    • The Nordic/Danish model of Early childhood education and

    care

    06-12-2012 Tine Rostgaard 2

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Gender equality in the Nordic welfare model

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    The pursuit of gender equality is said to

    constitute one of the main characteristics

    of the Nordic welfare model, both in the

    labour market and in the private sphere

    Also as one of the main societal values.

    “Gender equality is integral to

    Scandinavian citizenship Ellingsæter and

    Leira (2006, p. 7)

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler. Nordic gender equality model the outcome

    of a long development, consisting of

    three important historical stages:

    1. The formalization of equal rights of

    women and men in legislation,

    2. the facilitation of women’s take up of

    paid labour,

    3. this stage - of which we perhaps still are

    to witness its full implementation –

    represents women and men’s full sharing

    of both economic and care

    responsibilities of the family (Eydal).

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Gender equality is perceived as being not

    only equality of opportunity, but also

    equality of outcome and especially the

    gendered division of unpaid and paid

    work is central (Leira 2006).

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    The Nordic gender equality model implies

    the dual earner/dual carer model, calling

    for men and women’s equal sharing of

    the responsibility of care for children and

    paid work

    But mainly so in regards to child care

    Here at a stage dominated by the effort to

    reconstruct gender and gender relations

    towards more active fatherhood

    More implicit in regards to care for the

    elderly

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Welfare regimes • SD/Universalist welfare regime: Universal state support for families,

    high commitment to gender equality in work and care and strong

    support for working parents (Nordic countries)

    • Conservative/Social insurance welfare regime: Medium level of support

    for families, mainly as cash benefits. Supports male breadwinner model

    (Germany, France, Netherlands)

    • Liberal/Residual welfare regime: low support for families, the few policies

    in place targeted at special needs groups. State does not intervene and

    wide support for market (UK, Australia, US, Switzerland)

    • Mixed regime: Fragmented along occupational lines, combination of

    universal and private services and benefits (Southern European

    countries)

    • Post-socialist model(s): Wide variation, but often Liberal/Conservative

    corporatist mix

    • (Amongst other Thevenon, 2010)

    06-12-

    2012

    Tine Rostgaard 8

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Denmark as an outlier among Nordic countries

    Different insitutionalisation of gender equality:

    When gender equality was written into the law in 1970s,

    women’s/gender equality committes abolished

    Women’s movements not represented in political parties

    EU membership since 1973 (Sweden since 1995, Finland since

    and Norway not a member). EU directives shaped

    Denmark’s approach to gender equality.

    More liberal and negative gender equality discourse, focussing

    on conservative family values

    (Borschorst)

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Gender equality characteristics Denmark/Nordic countries

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler. In the European Gender Equality Index , (GE index)

    Denmark ranks third among 25 EU MS,

    (Plantenga et al, 2009).

    Based on:

    High female employment rate (ranked 5th in the

    sharing of paid work)

    Highly regulated labour market, with 37 hours work

    week, 5-6 weeks annual vacation, 1-2 days of in

    rel. to sick child, 10 care days per child.

    Large public sector

    But high part-time rate and gender segregated

    labour market

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Labour force participation, Nordic countries

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Gender equality characteristics Denmark

    Gender pay gap, 17% (EU average of 15%)

    Adjusted for factors such as educational level, work

    experience etc. there persist an unexplained

    wage gap of 2-6 % (SFI, 2008).

    Main explanatory factor for the gender pay gap is

    the segregation at the labour market, where

    women typically work in administration and care

    and men in IT and technical science. Women are

    also overrepresented in the public sector

    (Ministry of Gender Equality, 2006).

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Low risk of poverty

    Despite substantial gender pay gap, the in-work risk

    of poverty is low for both men and women, at 4

    % in 2007, EU27 at 8% (Eurostat). Due to high

    re-distribution.

    Denmark is placed on the 7th position out of EU25,

    regarding the sharing of money between men

    and women, based on the combination of gender

    pay and gender poverty gap in the European

    Gender Equality Index (GE index) (Plantenga et

    al, 2009).

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Underrepresented in politics

    Women are underrepresented in politics, with fewer

    women than men in the Danish Parliament and in

    local politics.

    As a consequence, Denmark takes up a position well

    behind Sweden and Finland in a European

    comparison of equal sharing of decision-making,

    placing Denmark on the 9th rank, among

    countries such as Germany and Estonia

    (Plantenga, 2009).

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Equal sharing of time

    Danish men and women spend in total approximately the

    same amount of time on the combination of housework and

    paid work

    Women spend 1 hour more daily than men on housework and

    men spend 1 hour more daily than women on the job.

    One explanation is that more women are working part-time

    and they also often have shorter transport hours (SFI,

    2002).

    In a comparative perspective, the relatively equal sharing of

    time between men and women places Denmark in the lead

    position in a comparison of EU 25 MS (Plantenga et al,

    2009).

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    European Gender Equality Index

    Source: Plantenga et al, 2009

    Equal

    sharing of

    paid work

    Equal

    sharing of

    money

    Equal

    sharing of

    decision-

    making

    power

    Equal

    sharing of

    time

    5th 7th 9th 1st

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Work-family balance, %

    18 OECD: Better Life Index

    0,00

    10,00

    20,00

    30,00

    40,00

    50,00

    60,00

    70,00

    80,00

    90,00

    Employees working very long hours Employment rate of women with children

    Time devoted to leisure and personal care

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    19

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    Total score work-family balance

    Total score

    work-family

    balance

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    The Nordic social care model: Denmark as a case

    http://www.aau.dk/

  • Overskrift og underoverskrift i versaler.

    Reconciliation in The Adult worke