Volvo Penta 4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test

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  • NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

    Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

    Volvo Penta 4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test June 21, 2010 June 21, 2011 George Zoubul, Mel Cahoon, and Richard Kolb Volvo Penta of the Americas, Inc. Chesapeake, Virginia

    Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5400-52577 October 2011

  • NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 www.nrel.gov

    Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

    Volvo Penta 4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test June 21, 2010 June 21, 2011 George Zoubul, Mel Cahoon, and Richard Kolb Volvo Penta of the Americas, Inc. Chesapeake, Virginia

    NREL Technical Monitor: Keith Knoll Prepared under Subcontract No. NFM-0-40043-01

    Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5400-52577 October 2011

  • This publication received minimal editorial review at NREL.

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    4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test

    By

    George Zoubul

    Mel Cahoon

    Richard Kolb

    July 20, 2011

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    Acknowledgements

    This report and the work described herein were funded by the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) under stewardship of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Program. The technical direction of Kevin Stork (Fuels Technology Team Lead) and Steve Przesmitzki is gratefully acknowledged.

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    List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

    AKI Anti Knock Index CARB California Air Resources Board CFR Code of Federal Regulations CO Carbon Monoxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide DOE Department of Energy E0 Unleaded gasoline with no ethanol E10 Unleaded gasoline with 10% ethanol by volume E15 Unleaded gasoline with 15% ethanol by volume E98 Unleaded gasoline with 98% ethanol by volume EGT Exhaust gas temperature EPA Environmental Protection Agency g/kW-hr Grams per kilowatt hour HC Total Hydrocarbons HC + NOX Total Hydrocarbon plus Nitrogen Oxide hp horsepower ICOMIA International Council of Marine Industry Associations Indolene EPA certification gasoline containing no ethanol ISO International Organization for Standardization kW kilowatt L liter NMMA National Marine Manufacturers Association NOX Nitrogen Oxide NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory OHV Over head valve SD/I Sterndrive/Inboard VPA Volvo Penta of the Americas, LLC WOT Wide open throttle

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    Executive Summary A new Volvo Penta carbureted 4.3 GL engine was subjected to emissions and dynamometer durability testing from break in to expected end of life using an accelerated ICOMIA marine emissions cycle and E15 fuel. The accelerated ICOMIA cycle used here was based on the standard ICOMIA cycle but with limited Mode 5 (idle) and Mode 4 (25% load) operation. The E15 fuel used for this experiment was a splash blend of retail-grade gasoline (E10) with denatured ethanol (E98). No control over fuel properties or additives was exercised beyond ethanol content. All aging was conducted using this splash-blended E15 fuel. Exhaust emissions were sampled at 5 intervals during the test cycle at the beginning of life and at 25% intervals thereafter until completion of the abbreviated ICOMIA cycle. Emissions at each interval were measured using both the site blended E15 aging fuel and EPA (40 CFR 86.113-04) certification fuel (E0). Numerous engine operating parameters were monitored at each test interval, including exhaust gas temperature (EGT), torque, power, barometric pressure, air temp, fuel flow, HC, NOX,CO and CO2. The engine completed the durability test cycle with no noticeable impact on mechanical durability or engine power. Emissions performance degraded beyond the CARB 3-Star certification limit for this engine family. The majority of this emissions degradation occurred by the first emissions test interval (at 83 hours or 28 % of expected life) with HC+NOX just exceeding the CARB limit of 14.0 g/kW-hr with E0. This rapid degradation in emissions is inconsistent with VPAs prior experience with other 4.3 GL engines aged on E0 and E10 fuels. It should be noted, however, that this result is from only one engine under laboratory test conditions. It would be inappropriate to consider these results conclusive and applicable to the fleet at-large. The test engine finished the durability cycle with emissions of HC+NOX about 4% over the CARB 3-Star standard. Although the E15 fuel used for emissions testing was not blended from certification-grade gasoline, emissions tests were performed on both fuels to provide some indication of the effects of increased ethanol. Emissions comparisons between E0 (certification-grade) and E15 (retail-grade) fuels at each test interval showed that E15 resulted in lower emissions of CO and HC, but with an increase in NOX emission. This is the expected behavior for non-feedback controlled carbureted engines with increased oxygen content in the fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with E15 compared with E0 again, as expected due to ethanols lower energy density compared with gasoline. Immediate impacts of increased ethanol in fuel for E15 vs. certification gasoline are shown in the following table.

    Summary Table Engine Emissions, Fuel consumption and Exhaust Gas Temperatures

    E15 (retail-grade) VS E0 (certification-grade)

    HC (g/kW-hr)

    NOX (g/kW-hr)

    HC+NOX (g/kW-hr)

    CO (g/kW-hr)

    CO2 (g/kW-hr)

    Fuel (g/kW-hr)

    EGT C

    -23.25% +8.81% -1.66% -39.69% +0.79% +2.18% +2.23%

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    Values included in this table are the average values over the five consecutive emissions tests. Throughout testing, the engine exhibited poor starting characteristics on E15 fuel for both hot re-start and cold-start conditions. These characteristics included backfire, stumble, idle surge, and stall on initial start-up. Cranking time to start and smooth idle was roughly doubled compared with typical E0 operation. This result was expected since the carburetor on this engine is factory set for lean operation to ensure emissions compliance. Test protocols did not include carburetor adjustment to account for the increased oxygen present in the E15 fuel.

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    Background DOE via its national labs has been heavily engaged in evaluating the potential impacts of mid-level ethanol blends gasoline blended with 15% to 20% ethanol on the U.S. motor vehicle population as well as non-road and specialty engines. Because on-highway vehicles consume the vast majority of gasoline in the U.S., vehicle impacts have been the dominant focus of DOEs studies to-date. However, no credible data currently exists to suggest how marine engines would adapt to these higher ethanol blends in conventional gasoline. The present study was commissioned to provide an initial assessment of how marine engines would adapt to higher ethanol blends in gasoline. This study is one part of a larger effort including evaluations of both sterndrive/inboard (SD/I) and outboard marine engine durability. Both evaluations are considered only as pilot studies and represent only a small portion of the overall test plan originally outlined by the marine industry for mid-level ethanol blends evaluation. In this study, a single SD/I engine manufactured by Volvo Penta is evaluated over an industry-standard durability test cycle using E15 fuel. Both emissions and durability assessments are included.

    Engine Description A VPA 4.3 GL SD/I was used as the test engine for this program. This engine was chosen in consultation with NMMA (National Marine Manufacturers Association), a tr