Virtually meaningful or virtually meaningless?
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PAULA NOVO (UPM), APARNA SRIDHAR (LSE) AND ELENA LOPEZ-GUNN (FMB-OBS)
ISTANBUL 18TH MARCH 2009Virtually meaningful or virtually meaningless?
OutlineWF Onion layersWater & EnvironmentWater & EquityProblems with Translating Virtual Water?
WF Onion LayersSocial & politicalEnvironmentalEconomicHydrologicalAllan (1997), Hoekstra (2000), Chapagain and Hoekstra (2004), Yang et al. (2006), Zimmer and Renault (2002), etc.UPM-FMBFMB-OBS, Chapagain et al. (2006)199720072009????Roth and Warner (2008) Allan (2008 )
Water & EnvironmentE water footprint- to consider at least two aspects:Environmental flows ( & E water footprint ) Example: Guadalquivir (Spain), South AfricaWater quality ( & Grey water footprint)Example:Brazil and Biofuels: quantity but not quality neutral
States in Brazil
IBGE (2008)Sugar Production in Brazil Bertrand et al (2006, 36)Source: Sridhar (2008)
- Grey WF of Biofuels in BrazilHoekstra and Chapagain (2006)Brazils WF to be 233.59 Gm3/year. Sridhar (2008)7% of Brazil's total WF can be attributed to sugar cane ethanol production in So Paolo. However, the WF of sugar cane ethanol, is predominantly polluted water. Degradation of water quality (
Water & EquitySocial WFMixing apples with pears:Aquifer 23 (Mancha Occidental, Spain): PEAG + Re-forestation10000 /ha + 600 /ha x 20 years -> Social Water Footprint? More jobs per (ill)legal drop?
Myth of social water neutrality (Roth and Warner, 2008)Number of farmersIrrigated land with water rightsSource: Zorrilla (2009)Source: Zorrilla (2009)
Water & TranslationsMeaning is dependent on context
Can translations have unintended consequences?
StakeInterestExamplePower (Allan 2006)EpistemiccommunityKnowledge (Blue washing ?)www.waterfootprint.org.edu CompaniesCSR(Green washing?)Corporate conferences.comGovernmentPlanning(delay/ divert planning?)Art 5 WFDCanal Isabel IIMARM .netNGOsAdvocacy(dangerous liaisons?)The Guardian.org
Issue+ Meaningful?- Meaningless?Location: North/ South AppropriatenessBlueprint for all?Policy: Opportunity/RiskTransparencyRule of Capture?Policy actors: Epistemic community NGOs
Policy makersLegitimacy on methodology?WF as a policy driver to change existing policiesNormative change internalizing the externalitiesA Policy Decision support tool suitable for IWRMNaive on policy translation?Legitimacy quandaries?
Coca colas water neutrality?
Ticking boxes ? Unintended consequencesSpain and breaking myths on solidarity of water use (territoriality of water) (Garrido et al. forthcoming)Land shopping in Africa?
WF Onion Layers
HydrologicalEconomicEnvironmentalSocial & Political
Thank you for your attention!
**Add graph with publications vs time**Most of the gray water contributions in Brazilian ethanol production come from the processing phase rather than the sugar cane cultivation phase. However, Sao Paulos poorest have little access to quality monitored waterways- thus depend on polluted waters or resort to depleting groundwater sources. Exploring water quality- has management implications/opportunities. How much is being leached, can water be re used in the processing phase (Brazilian ethanol industry is pursuing this cost effective and environmentally advantageous avenue).Other countries- endowments in water resources are not equal as are regulations/enforcement over water quality- ethical dilemmas on the right to water vary. Brazil is well-endowed in water resources but countries like India are not. Choices in water allocation heavily dependent on ethical and social obligations of government.***- NGOs- changing consumption behaviors?***