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sni VIGYAN VARTA An International E-Magazine for Science Enthusiasts E-Mail: [email protected] Volume: 01 Issue:04 August 2020

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Contents Volume: 01, Issue: 04 August 2020
1 Integrated Nutriment Management for
Sustainable Agriculture
KranthiKumari and G. K.
Siddeswari 4-7
3 Price Indices- A Brief Note Ch. Ramya Sri*, K. Ashok, D.A.
and Rajini Devi 8-11
to Cure Diabetes (Madhumeha)
Priya Chaudhary, Aarti Kotnala,
5 Medicova: Nutritional and Medicinal
Value of Mushroom
6 Significance of Antinutritional
7 Milking Technique for Best Quality of
the Milk
A Comparison
Sumit Sow* and Shivani Ranjan 32-34
Technology in Rice - Wheat Cropping
Friendly and Water Saving
12 Q-Fever: A Neglected Zoonosis Bhargavi Dadimi* and Maria Anto
Dani Nishanth 42-46
Digital Marketing K. Ashok* and B. Naresh 47-50
14 Antibiotics Use in Poultry in India Snehal Lonare 51-54
15 Consumer Behaviour in Online
Kumar 55-59
for Everyone
Kumari and M. R. Meshram 60-64
FMD Carrier State
Dash 65-68
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M. Jayalakshmi and G. PrasadBabu
KrishiVigyan Kendra Banavasi, Kurnool, AP, 518360
Acharya N.G Ranga Agriculture University, Guntur, A.P
Corresponding Author
M. Jayalakshmi
Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article:
Jayalakshmi, M. and Prasadbabu, G. 2020. Integrated nutriment management for sustainable
agriculture. Vigyan Varta 1(4): 1-3
integrated nutrient management system
(INMS), nevertheless, remains the
fertility for sustained crop productivity on long
term-basis and to reduce inorganic (fertilizer)
input cost. The three main components of
INMS as defined by FAO, 1998 are:
1. Maintain or enhance soil productivity
through a balanced use of fertilizers
combined with organic and biological
sources of plant nutrients
Components of Integrated Nutrient
Integrated nutrient management plays a key role in maintaining sustainable Agriculture.
Combination of chemical fertilizer, manures, bio fertilizers, compost, green manures, and crop
rotation maintains soil fertility also helps in ecological balance. Nitrogen (N) losses and GHG
(greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower
inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as
intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under
advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Strong and convincing evidence
indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for
sustainable agriculture worldwide
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• Green Manure
• Crop Rotation
fertilizers are favoured by many farmers as their
effects on crop production are visible and
spectacular. Before the commercial production
of fertilizers was started, farmers were
traditionally applying organic manures.
position very quickly and therefore the use of
organic manures in crop production, at the
present is extremely much ignored or neglected.
Fertilizers contain the nutrients in higher
concentration with high consumption of energy
and since of this reason, they are costly.
Majority of the resource poor small and
marginal farmers can hardly afford to spend
more on such inputs. Besides, non-availability
of raw materials locally is forcing the country
to import several them from others to satisfy the
local demand. Further, continuous uses of
chemical fertilizers create ill effects to the soil.
physical conditions, which help in proper
growth of plants. Increasing water holding
capacity, aeration, permeability, soil
decreasing bulk density and soil crusting are
attributed to the continuous use of organic
manures. In this way productivity of soils is
improved and serves over a long period to
sustain the crop yields. Organic manures are of
different origin and hence, exhibit wide
variability in their nature and chemical
composition. Apart from higher quantities of N,
P and K, they also contain secondary and
micronutrients. All these nutrients are released
into soil system when organic manures are
applied to fields. The available estimates show
that about 875 million tonnes of organic wastes
are generated annually in our country. Out of
which only 60 percent is available for
agricultural purpose. Their usage for fuel
purposes, thus, does not permit the full potential
to be harnessed for crop production. Several
organic wastes are recycled through rural and
urban composting. Crop wastes and residues
are renewable and readily available but are
usually applied to the field since composting
can be done.
recent years because it is environment friendly
and economic. Biogas plant spent slurry has 1.4
to 1.8%, N, 0.4-0.9% P and 0.6-1.0% K and it
can be used effectively for crop production.
Green Manures
turned down into the soil when it is 40-60 days
old, while green leaf manuring through
application of lopping of trees and shrubs also
serve the same purpose. Benefits of Green
Manuring are
other nutrients to soil
• Enhances soil microbial activity
conservation and management of pests as
trap crops under some specific situations
microorganisms for seed treatment or soil
application with objective of increasing the
number of such microorganisms and
accelerates the microbial process of converting
unavailable form of plant nutrients to available
form. Classification of Bio-fertilizers:
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microorganisms and their sustenance
• Can meet part of nitrogen demand needed
by the plants in certain cropping situations,
Increase the efficiency of
nutrients to available form.
renewable source of plant nutrient supply
component of integrated nutrient
Cropping Systems
It is defined as the order in which the crops are
grown or cultivated on a piece of land over
fixed period.
cropping systems having crops with high
nutrient uptake, the recommended dose of
fertilizers need to be applied to each crop.
• When residual effects of applied fertilizers
are not expected, the individual crops in
the system must receive optimum doses of
fertilizer nitrogen.
fertilizers makes them require low N and
leave behind 20 to 50 kg N/ha for use by
succeeding crop.
sequence must receive adequate potassium
dressing, while the legumes need adequate
phosphorus dressing too.
phosphorus to be applied in dry season,
while potassium application appears
Intercropping systems
system, balance application of fertilizers is
suggested. The intercrop does not need to
be fertilized when water use efficiency is
only aimed at.
purpose, small quantity of N may be
applied to it. If maximum production from
the crop is expected, all the crops must
receive optimum of fertilizers.
applied to cereal crop only, while
application of N to legume has to be 10-20
days in advance and earlier than the
beginning of symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
• Nitrogen application should be in higher
quantities to the cereals than for cereal-
legume combination.
nutrient management. FAO, Rome
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Rejuvenating Family Farming-A Magnetic Approach for Retaining Youth and Women in Agriculture
K. Shireesha1, Srividhyarani N.2, B. KranthiKumari3 and G. K. Siddeswari4 1Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Aswarapet,
PJTSAU 2Scientist (Extension), KVK, Vonipenta, Dr. YSRHU
3Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Badvel 4Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension, Sri KrishnaDevaraya College of
Agricultural Sciences, Ananthapuramu
Family farming, youth in agriculture, women in agriculture, future farming
How to cite this article:
Shireesha, K., Srividhyarani, N., Kranthikumari, B. and Siddeswari, G.K. 2020. Rejuvenating family
farming-a magnetic approach for retaining youth and women in agriculture. Vigyan Varta 1(4): 4-7
village was an individual unit of production
by cultivating staple food crops, managing
livestock and was self-sufficient with nutritious
foods required for family members and the
surplus was marketed in the local markets. The
joint family culture in those days helped them
to practice agriculture along with the cattle by
large section of the rural people. On the other
side the sheep and goat were reared by the
resource poor people in the villages. Diversified
practices viz., application of farm yard manure
and sheep and goat manure to the crops helped
in the enrichment of soil health; pest and
disease management by natural agents;
recycling the crop residues as feed to the cattle;
dairy products produced from their own cattle;
In the ancient India, every farm family in a village was represented an individual unit of
production of crops, milk, egg and meat. The byproducts from these were recycled and utilized
for farm and home utilities. In this way, the subsistence farming helped in maintaining
agroecology. In the modern world these have been disappearing leading to many abnormal
variations in farming and human life. Retaining youth in agriculture has become a global
problem now. To have better future in the farming there is immediate need to blend the
advanced technologies with the ancient Indian culture and norms so that there will be scope
to rejuvenate family farming among those who are interested in farming
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gardening in the backyards led to the healthy
and long life span of people in the villages in
the olden days. This ambient atmosphere
helped to maintain the not only the agroecology
system but also the traditions and culture of the
gigantic nation.
forms of agriculture world-wide, both in
developing and in developed countries. The
sector comprises a wide spectrum of farm sizes
and types, ranging from very large land
holdings in high-income economies that are
easily cultivated by one or two family members
with the use of labour-saving machinery and
hired labour to the small holdings of a few
hectares or less in low-income economies.
These small family farms, run by small
producers are by far, the most numerous:
globally, there are approximately 525 million
small family farms, 290 million of which are in
China and India alone (IFPRI, 2012). Thus,
although family farmers and small producers
are not identical groups, they share much
common ground and hence face a series of
similar issues.
“only” ~16 % of GDP but the largest sector for
employment. Officially farmers are only a few
hundred million, but adding family members
who help or occasionally farm, as also wage
labourers, the number of farm workers is likely
to be closer to half a billion people. But how
many people would India need farming if it
were as labor efficient as the US for growing
crops? I am not suggesting it is possible, or even
desirable (large, mechanized farms with
massive chemical and water inputs) but as a
thought exercise? Just four million people. The
US is extreme; with less than 2% of its
population growing food sufficient for almost 2
billion people, but much of it is fed to animals.
The US also focuses on many crops suitable for
mechanisation, but even using metrics from
many East Asian countries, with about 10% of
the population in agriculture - as opposed to
half the workforce for India - that is hundreds
of millions of people who could shift to
alternative options. Agriculture is dying, OK,
not as in the production of food but as a
desirable profession. The clearest indicator of
the problems of agriculture as a profession is
how there are actually shortfalls of labour in
some areas, with larger farms relying on
imported farm labourers, drawn not just from
the neighbouring states but from the far ends of
the country (especially the north-east) and even
Nepal. Younger generations do not want to
follow their parents’ footsteps, which pushes
urbanisation. Unfortunately, urban areas, while
offering more opportunities, also relegate many
to low-end jobs.
intensive agricultural production, requirement
opportunities led to drastic changes in the
farming patterns in the villages and broken
down the joint family system into nuclear
families. This gave rise to split up of large land
holdings into small and marginal land holdings
which resulted in the greater number of small
and marginal farmers in the country. Due to
increased rate of pollution, uncertain climatic
conditions agriculture ecology has been
disturbed completely leading to the less profits
and poor income levels of farming community.
The resource poor farmers migrated from rural
areas to urban areas in search of employment
opportunities in the urban areas leaving the
villages abandoned. Geographic isolation, lack
of public transportation, poor infrastructure,
low educational attainment, low health literacy,
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care workforce and a lack of specialty care,
cultural or social differences, stigma, and norms
are leading to disintegration of the family
farming system. If this situation is continued,
then there would be no human being in the
villages in the coming decades. As quoted by
Mahatma Gandhi “The future of the nation lies
in its villages”, in order to see the future of the
nation it is our responsibility to protect our
villages from disintegration which is possible
through mobilizing family farming as a
magnetic approach for retaining youth and
women in agriculture. The policy makers must
come forward to implement the innovative
strategies to regain the village structure and
agroecology prevailed in those days to suit to
the present day needs of the people. Different
capacity building activities must be taken up to
upgrade the stakeholders involved in the entire
farming system through a systematic approach.
The family institution at village level must
become the single window system for all the
food products required by the human beings of
all the ages. To rejuvenate the family farming
system primarily the infrastructure facilities at
the villages must be improved to a large extent.
Secondarily the linkages between the rural and
urban amenities must be enhanced and
interdependence of both rural and urban areas
must be designed sophisticatedly.
the social and cultural factors that influence
farm economics and farm structure. There is a
need to develop farm transition policies and
technical assistance programs that are aligned
with the values and needs of different types of
farmers and their households.
In a blog can we feed the world the author
suggested solutions for making agriculture
more attractive to younger generations using
the following means viz., link social media to
agriculture, improve agriculture’s image,
strengthen higher education in agriculture,
greater use of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT), empower young people to
speak up, facilitate access to land and credit, put
agriculture on the school curricula, greater
public investment in agriculture, make
agriculture more profitable.
rural and urban areas must be streamlined so
that the people living in both areas get benefits.
If the people in the rural areas are bestowed
with the physiological needs, security needs
and social needs that are essential for them, then
they never try to migrate to the urban areas. The
local self-government personnel, department
education facilities, occupational appraisals,
satisfactory level of rural people. The digital
world can help to boost up the agroecology
system optimistically in the villages, to identify
the major constraints faced by the rural people
regarding farming, to suggest the innovative
and economically feasible strategies for
policymakers in order to fasten the rejuvenation
of family farming system.
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for retaining youth and women in agriculture
factors influencing farm transition.
Answers to the post on What is the role
of family farming in agricultural
engage youth in agriculture.
India Forum, October 4, 2019.
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Price Indices- A Brief Note Ch. Ramya Sri1, K. Ashok2 and D.A. Rajini Devi3
1Ph.D Scholar, PJTSAU, Department of Agricultural Economics,
2Ph.D Scholar, NDRI, Department of Agricultural Extension,
3Scientist, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jagtial, PJTSAU
Corresponding Author
How to cite this article:
Sri, C. R., Ashok, K. and Devi, D. A. R. 2020. Price Indices- A Brief Note. Vigyan Varta 1(4): 8-11
changes within the cost of living so as to
work out the wage increases necessary
to take care of a continuing standard of living.
They still be used extensively to estimate
changes in prices over time and also are wont to
measure differences in costs among different
areas or countries. Price indexes have several
potential uses, for particularly broad indices,
the index are often said to live the economy's
general price index or a price of living, more
narrow price indices can help producers with
business plans and pricing, sometimes, they can
be useful in helping to guide investment,
inflation is measured by constructing inflation
indices, inflation indices which help in
calculating inflation rates indicate what
proportion prices have changed over a period of
your time , the indices themselves are a
representation of the extent of costs at a specific
time. Not all prices are included in the index,
only a specified basket of goods and services,
the basket in the index is representative of the
items which are relevant to a market or group.
There are different price indices for the costs
faced by different groups. Consumer price
index, Producer price index, Export price index,
Import price index and GDP deflator.
There are different price indices for the prices
faced by different groups.
A price indices or price level may be a normalized average (typically a weighted average) of
price relatives for a given class of products or services during a given region, during a given
interval of time. It is a statistic designed to assist to match how these price relatives, taken as
an entire differ between time periods or geographical locations. Price index is a measure of
relative price changes, consists a series of numbers arranged in order that shows the
comparison between the values for any two period will show the average change in prices
between periods or the typical difference in prices between places
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changes that appears in the price level of market
basket of consumer goods and services
purchased by households. It includes prices of
goods and services sold in the retail market, i.e.
the final prices which the top consumers need
to pay. It is hence also called the cost of living
index. It is also used for indexing dearness
allowance to employees for increase in prices.
Calculating the CPI for a single item
Current item price = Base Year Price X Current CPI
Base Year CPI
CPI = ∑ CPIi X Weighti
prices of the first commercial transactions of
goods and services or the transactions at the
point of first sale. Most of the countries have
replaced their WPI with the PPI in the 1970s
and the 1980s, except India. A Producer Price
Index (PPI) is a price index that measures the
average changes in prices received by domestic
producers for their output. The Indian
Wholesale Price Index (WPI) was first
published in 1902 and was used by policy
makers until it was replaced by the Producer
Price Index (PPI) in 1978. The PPI usually
covers the industrial (manufacturing) sector as
well as public utilities. The WPI prices include
taxes and transportation charges, whereas the
producer prices do not.
commodities entering international trade using,
ideally, f.o.b. export prices. An export price
index measures changes in the prices of exports
of merchandise from a country.
Import Price Index
Cost, insurance, and freight prices of imported
goods. Foreign-currency import prices are
converted to euro using the mean rate for the
statistical reference month.
total goods and services produced in an
economy in a year. Value means the entire
quantity of the products and services (total
output) multiplied by their respective prices.
From this we arrive at two concepts of GDP: the
nominal GDP and the real GDP. The nominal
GDP, when compared to the GDP of some
previous year reflects the change in the total
output produced by the economy as well as
change in their prices. So, to arrive at the true
picture of whether the economy has grown in
terms of the actual output produced, we have
the real GDP. The real GDP is calculated by
taking the output of the year under
consideration but multiplied by the prices of the
base year. Like the consumer price index (CPI),
the GDP deflator is a measure of price
inflation/deflation with respect to a specific
base year; the GDP deflator of the base year
itself is equal to 100.
GDP deflator = Nominal GDP
Real GDP X 100
"basket" for the GDP deflator is allowed to
change from year to year with people's
consumption and investment patterns.
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can be assigned and hence a large number of
formulae for constructing Index Numbers have
been devised. Some commonly used methods
suggested by different authorities are as
Laspeyre’s method
number would be
P01 = ∑ 1 0
p refers to price of each commodity,
q refers to quantity of each commodity,
0 base year,
Price index
X 100 = 202000/1700 = 118.82
X 100 = 188000/1700 = 110.588
the quantities of the current year are used as
weights as compared to base year quantities
used by Laspeyres.
P01 = ∑ 1 1 ∑ 0 1
X 100
X 100 = 212000/1880 = 112.76
X 100 = 212000/2020 = 104.95
Fisher’s Ideal Index
weights whereas Paasche’s has used current
year quantities as weights for the computation
of Index Number of prices.
The geometric mean of the Laspeyre’s and
Paasche’s must be calculated and that figure
should be the Index Number. Symbolically
F P01 = √ 01 01
Items Base
A 24 20 30 24 480 576 600 720
B 30 14 40 10 420 300 560 400
C 48 10 40 18 480 864 400 720
D 10 32 10 28 320 280 320 280

A 24 20 30 24 480 576 600 720
B 30 14 40 10 420 300 560 400
C 48 10 40 18 480 864 400 720
D 10 32 10 28 320 280 320 280

Quantity Price Quantity Price
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weights is found out.
Dorbish and Bowley’s method
If we find out the arithmetic mean of Laspeyres
Index and Paasches Index, we get the index
suggested by Dorbish and Bowley.
This method considers both the base year as
well as current year weights. The formula is
DB P01 = 01+ 01
In this method, the arithmetic mean of the
quantities in the base year and current year are
taken as weights i.e. w = (q0+q1)/2 for
calculating price index and the prices in the
base year and current year are taken as weights
i.e. w = (p0+p1)/2 for calculating quantity index.
The formula is
Kelly, the weights should be fixed for all
periods. This method is also known as
aggregative index with fixed weights. The
formula is
P01 = ∑ 1
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(Madhumeha) Priya Chaudhary1, Aarti Kotnala2, Neetu Negi2 and Pracheta Janmeda1
1Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan-304022, India 2Azoth Biotech LLP, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201306, India
Corresponding Author
Pracheta Janmeda
Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article:
Chaudhary, P., Kotnala, A., Negi, N. and Janmeda, P. 2020. Ayurvedic Approach: A Natural Way to Cure
Diabetes (Madhumeha). Vigyan Varta 1(4): 12-15
traditional approach with roots
religious medicine. It connects physiologic,
spiritual, and physical processes to maintain a
healthy association among the soul, body, and
mind. The major aim of Ayurveda is the
equilibrium maintenance between the five basic
elements of vacuum, air, fire, water, and earth
with the theory of the three life forces.
According to Ayurveda, equilibrium between
these forces denotes the healthy life whereas
imbalance may result in disease. The main
medicines prescribe in Ayurveda are procured
from medicinal plants. The application of
Ayurveda in diabetes, a chronic ailment has
resulted significant improvement in the
patient’s health. Diabetes includes lack of
insulin sensitivity and the subsequent
incapacity of the body to maintain glucose level
Ayurveda is a traditional medicinal practice that is emerging all over the world as an
alternative and complementary cure of chronic disorders. Diabetes (madhumeha) is a human
disorder that has long-term inferences for persons suffering from the illness, also the health-
maintenance system as a whole. One of the factors that is involve in the occurrence of diabetes
is the damaging effect of free radicals. Therefore, anti-diabetic bioactive constituents with
antioxidant activity should be utilized. Moderation in lifestyle, exercise, and diet are all crucial
factors for the effective treatment of diabetes. Medicines procured from medicinal plants are
being utilized by around 60% of the globe population. Though several approaches are utilized
to decrease the damaging effect of diabetes, but medicinal plants and the herbal formulations
are adopted due to their low cost and lesser aftereffects.
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digestive system, peripheral nerves, eyes,
kidneys, blood vessels, ability of wound
healing, sexual response, and heart. Because of
the cause and cure of diabetes are associated to
lifestyle and diet, Ayurvedic approach is a
promising practice to deal with type II diabetes.
Thus, the usage of Ayurveda in the treatment of
type II diabetes should benefits large number of
sufferers, suffering from diabetes all over the
protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism
determined by raising level of post prandial and
fasting blood sugar. It is a metabolic disorder
resulting from the dysfunction and
insufficiency of insulin. Diabetes may result in
severe complications in different organ system.
Types of Diabetes
dependent upon the external supply of insulin.
Type II Diabetes: It is independent of insulin.
Person suffering from this type is not able to
respond to insulin. It can be cured with
medication, exercise, and dietary changes.
Symptoms for diabetic condition
are as follows: high blood sugar level,
polydypsis, polyurea, polyphagia, weight loss,
vomiting, blurred vision, nausea, weakness, and
mood fluctuation.
and include obesity, diabetic family history,
absence of physical activity, poor diet,
excessive intake of calories, low intake of
fibers, high intake of trans and saturated fat,
greater glycemic load, greater glycemic index,
smoking of cigarette, and consumption of
available for the diabetes and its complications.
Medicinal plants listed in Table 1 form the
major components of these herbal formulations.
Table 1: Medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential
Plant name Common name Antidiabetic effect
Withania somnifera Ashvagandha Hypoglycemic effect
Punica granatum Anar Anti-hyperglycemic effect
Emblica officinalis Amla Hypoglycemic effect
Ipomoea batatas Sakkargand Reduces insulin resistance
Murraya Koenigii Curry patta Hypoglycemic effect
Eugenia jambolana Jamun Anti-hyperglycemic effect
Aegle marmelos Bel Decrease blood sugar
Aloe vera Aloe Hypoglycemic effect
Azardirachta indica Neem Anti-diabetic activity
Momordica charantia Bitter gourd Anti-hyperglycemic agent
Ocimum sanctum Holy basil Blood sugar reduction
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Herbal formulations
are available in the market that can be utilized
regularly for the treatment of diabetes on the
direction of physician.
proved to be beneficial in the regulation of
diabetes; however, their practice is advised
after the complete assessment of the risk
factors, individual requirement, and overall
health of a patient. After considering the patient
as a whole, yoga practice of low or high
intensity is recommended.
Diet in diabetes
diabetes as shown in Table 3. Diet is
recommended based on season, body
constitution, age, and environmental
complementary remedy available for the cure of
their illness. Awareness regarding the
Ayurvedic approaches is essential for the
successful patient counselling and care. The
advantage of offering broad array of remedy
option includes decrease in ill effects with
advised usage of herbs and herbal formulations
along with mind-body calmness approaches.
Table 2: Herbal formulations with anti-diabetic effect
Company Drug Ingredients Effect
Ayurvedic herbal
health products
Turmeric, Periwinkle, and Gurmar
centary, Barberry, and English walnut
Diet type Name
Fruits Amlaki, Kapitha, Apple, Watermelon, Orange, Jamun, Pomegranate
Vegetables Bitter gourd, Methi-Fenugreek leaves, Green banana, Garlic, Bathuva, Drum
Cereals Wheat, Barley, Rice, Kodrava
Flesh Pigeon, Rabbit, Harina
Alcoholic liquid Old wine
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Banasthali Vidyapith supported by DBT and
DST for providing computation and networking
support through the FIST and CURIE programs
at the Department of Bioscience and
Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith,
R. 2019. Use of Ayurveda in the
treatment of type 2 Diabetes mellitus.
Global Advances in Health and
Medicine. 8: 2164956119861094.
and Devasagayam, T.P.A. 2007. Indian
herbs and herbal drugs used for the
treatment of diabetes. Journal of Clinical
Biochemistry and Nutrition. 40(3): 163-
and Tewari, D. 2015. Diabetes mellitus
(Madhumeha) and ayurvedic
management: an evidence-based
S.R. 2018. Therapeutic role of yoga in
type 2 diabetes. Endocrinology and
Metabolism. 33(3): 307-317.
Yoga practice Benefit
Yoga nidra Decrease of postprandial and fasting blood glucose level
Aum chanting Mind stabilization and negative thoughts removal
Meditation (Dhyan) Positive influence on the level of sugar
Kapalbhati Enhance the pancreatic β-cells efficiency
Prana mudra, surya mudra,
Decrease sugar levels, promote loss of weight, and boost metabolic
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Aarti Kotnala1, Priya Chaudhary2, Kiran Bisht3, Neetu Negi1
1Azoth Biotech LLP, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201306, India 2Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan-304022, India
3J Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd., Okhla Industrial Area Phase-1, New Delhi-110020, India
Corresponding Author
Aarti Kotnala
Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article:
Kotnala, A., Chaudhary, P., Bisht, K. and Negi, N. 2020. Medicova: nutritional and medicinal value of
mushroom. Vigyan Varta 1(4): 16-18
throughout the world to express the
variable species of fungi belongs to the
order Ascomycetes or Basidomyecetes. These
Ascomycetes and Basidomycetes are found in
the soil rich in animal waste, moist wood,
humus, and organic matter after the sudden
alteration in temperature and rainfall but soon
they disappear and leave no sign except
mycelium. The people of rural areas eat more
mushrooms than the urban areas individual.
Older peoples give more values to mushrooms
than the younger generations. Mushrooms are
utilized as a therapeutic as they treat cancer,
atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and
Mushrooms play an important role in the
ecosystem of forest as they have unique ability
to break down organic matter, leaves, and wood
and recycle them back into the ecosystem.
Many of the mushrooms and fruiting bodies of fungi are edible in nature and act as a great
source of protein, whereas some other mushrooms reported to have narcotic effect and
utilized as a medicine. They are enriched in nutritional components such as trace elements,
fibers, minerals, vitamins, and proteins, and have low content of cholesterol. They are utilized
by the individual as an additional vegetable due to its great quality and have beneficial
influence on the human fitness and health. Mushrooms reported to have healing properties
and utilized for the treatment of various diseases. They are used as anticancer, antiviral, and
antibacterial agents due to the presence of active bio-constituents. Because of these
properties, mushrooms are utilized to promote the health of the individuals as a dietary
supplement all over the globe.
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cultivated throughout the Europe and Asia due
to their greater biological efficiency.
Mushrooms has higher concentration of fiber,
carbohydrates, fat, proteins, and water in it.
Higher content of microelements and proteins,
and low calorific content make it suitable for
the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Basically, a well-balanced diet is required for
the prevention of ailments and mainly the
oxidative stress in the body. So, in this respect,
mushrooms have a long back history to be
utilized as an oriental medicine to prevent
various diseases. In recent years, the extracts of
mushrooms have been commercialized due to
their anticancer and immunity enhancement
properties. Thus, through this article we
highlighted the nutritional and medicinal values
of mushrooms.
Nutritional value of Mushrooms
and a unique texture and type as shown in
figure-1 that differentiate mushrooms from the
other cultivated food crops. Different
nutritional components of the mushroom are
described below:
Carbohydrate content
determine the bulk of fruiting bodies which
accounts for 50 to 65% of carbohydrate,
majorly 80% of mannitol based on dry weight.
Fresh mushroom comprises of different
percentage of carbohydrate such as:
• 0.91% hemicellulose
• 0.59% glycogen
based on the substratum composition,
pileus size, harvesting time and
mushroom species
mycelium varied from 32 to 42% on dry
weight basis
protein than the other wild plants and
vegetable crops, 15.20 to 18.87% and
14.71 to 17.37% protein in the fruiting
bodies of Lactarious sanguiffus and
Lactarious deliciosus, respectively
bodies of mushroom are of unsaturated
fatty acids type
to species i.e. 2.32% in Agaricus
campestris, 3.66% in Suillus luteus, and
2.04% in Suillus granulatus
for the vitamins
dark cultivated Agaricus bisporus
they are poor in vitamin E, D, and A
Mineral constituents
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are depend upon the diameter of fruiting
bodies, age, and species
also utilized as therapeutic food product. It is
found to be effective in the treatment of disease
like cancer, inflammation, hypertension, and
diabetes as shown in below.
Mushrooms Medicinal value
Osmoporus odoratus
Antibacterial activity
against Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Escherichia
proliferation of solid tumor
Morchella esculents Anti-inflammatory activity
- And OH-
proliferation in cancer
proliferation in leukemia
Lentinus polychrous Dyspepsia
mankind and provide extensive economic and
biological impact. From earlier times, man has
utilized wild mushrooms because of their
pleasant flavour and taste. The edible
mushrooms provide a great quality of vitamin
C, vitamin B-complex, minerals, fibers, and
protein and have low fatty acid content. But
starch is absent from mushrooms. They
comprise significant quantity of potassium,
sodium, phosphorous with low quantity of iron
and calcium. Mushrooms are reported to have
various medicinal uses for the treatment of
different diseases. Many proteins in
mushrooms also have anti-HIV and antiviral
Banasthali Vidyapith supported by DBT and
DST for providing computation and networking
support through the FIST and CURIE programs
at the Department of Bioscience and
Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith,
Azoth Biotech LLP, Noida and J Mitra & Co.
Pvt. Ltd. for their support.
Paredes-López, O., 2015. Edible
mushrooms: improving human health
Journal of Microbiology, 2015. pp 1.14
Waktola, G. and Temesgen, T., 2018.
Application of mushroom as food and
medicine. Advances in Biotechnology
and Microbiology, 113. pp.1-4.
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Preetilagna Dhal
PhD Scholar,
Odisha University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003
Corresponding Author
Preetilagna Dhal
Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article:
Dhal, P. 2020. Significance of antinutritional compounds in vegetables. Vigyan Varta 1(4): 19-21
Antinutritional factor is known to interfere with metabolic processes such that growth and
bioavailability of nutrients are negatively influenced. Anti-nutrients are natural compounds
that interfere with the absorption of nutrients, hence are known to reduce nutrients
availability to animals and humans. Vegetables is an important source of protective food and
a part of healthy diet. However, plants generally contain toxic secondary metabolites or anti-
nutritional factors and they have been shown to be highly biologically active. Antinutritional
factor is known to interfere with metabolic processes such that growth and bioavailability of
nutrients are negatively influenced. They include saponins, alkaloids, protease inhibitors,
oxalates, haemaggluttinins (lectin), cyanogens, lethogens, and goitrogen. Some of these plant
chemicals have been shown to be deleterious to health or evidently advantageous to human
health, if consumed in appropriate amounts. However, some antinutrients may exert beneficial
health effects at low concentrations like phytic acid, lectins, tannins, saponins, amylase
inhibitors and protease inhibitors have been shown to reduce the availability of nutrients and
cause growth inhibition. However, when used at low levels, phytate, lectins, tannins, amylase
inhibitors and saponins have also been shown to reduce the blood glucose and insulin
responses to starchy foods and/or the plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. In addition,
phytates, tannins, saponins, protease inhibitors, goitrogens and oxalates have been related to
reduce cancer risks. This implies that anti-nutrients might not always harmful even though lack
of nutritive value.
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reduce the ability of nutrients such as minerals,
vitamins and even proteins within the plant
material. This, in turn, affects the nutritional
value of these plants. Anti-nutrients comprise
of amino acids to proteins, simple amines to
alkaloids, glycosides and phenolic compounds.
Anti-nutritional factors are naturally occurring
compounds, present in different vegetables in
varying amounts depending on the kind of food,
mode of its propagation, chemicals used in
growing the crop as well as those chemicals
used in storage and preservation of the food
substances (Panhwar, 2005). These anti-
nutritional factors are also known as “secondary
metabolites” in plants and they have been
shown to be highly biologically active. These
secondary metabolites are secondary
processes leading to the synthesis of primary
metabolites. Antinutrients are chemicals which
have been evolved by plants for their own
defense, they are produced by plants to defend
themselves against fungi, insects and predators,
and offer a protective mechanism for the plant
has fungicidal, antimicrobial & insecticidal
crystalline solid at standard temperature and
pressure, used as reagent, precipitating
cholesterol act as antidote to mercury.
Solanine and Chaconine
(30-80% close to skin) which act as defence
mechanism to late blight disease and increase
level of glycoalkaloid which is bitter in taste.
contain cyanogenic glycosides from which
hydrogencyanide (HCN) may be released by
hydrolysis (Akande et al., 2010). The
compounds which release HCN on hydrolysis
are called as “cyanogens”. HCN so released
block the respiration. Their general function in
plants is dependent on activation by β-
glucosidases to release toxic volatile HCN as
well as a ketones or aldehydes to fend off
herbivore and pathogen attack.
A salt formed from oxalic acid is known as an
Oxalate: for example, Calcium oxalate, widely
distributed in plant kingdom. Strong bonds are
formed between oxalic acid, and various other
minerals, such as Calcium, Magnesium,
Sodium, and Potassium which, results in the
formation of oxalate salts. Sodium and
potassium oxalate salts are soluble, but calcium
oxalate salts are basically insoluble. As calcium
oxalate is insoluble, has the tendency to
precipitate (or solidify) in the Kidneys or in the
Urinary tract, when the levels are high enough,
thus forming sharp-edged calcium oxalate
crystals. These crystals play a role to the
formation of kidney stones in the urinary tract
when the acid is excreted in the urine (Nachbar,
these compounds convert haemoglobin to
metaemoglobin (a function less protein) that is
unable to carry out the oxygen transport
function of the former. The NO3 level more than
75 ppm is toxic while NO2 results in toxicity
beyond 200 ppm. An excessive nitrogen
fertilization can lead to their accumulation in
vegetables. Both environmental and
concentrations in vegetables. The former
includes soil moisture, light intensity and
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crop protection strategies.
peanuts, spinach, asparagus, broccoli, potatoes,
eggplants (Price et al., 1987). Saponin is bitter
in taste and can haemolyse red blood cells. It
occurs in all parts of plant, although the
concentration is affected by variety and stage of
growth. Saponin, disrupt red blood cells causes
diarrhoea and vomiting in humans. Also, have
anti-spermal effect on human spermatozoa:
significantly inhibit acrosine activity of human
sperms and the spermicidal effect is attributed
to strong damage of the spermal plasma
membrane (Su and Guo, 1986; Pant et al.,
1989). Saponin present in garlic useful in
lowering cholesterol levels, helps in reduce the
risk of heart disease (Esenwah and
Ikenebomeh, 2008). Saponin have immense
industrial importance due to its insecticidal,
antibiotic, and fungicidal properties. It exerts
antifungal activity due to its capacity to
associate with steroids of fungal membranes,
causing damage to its integrity and pore
formation (Loewus, 2002).
proteins and various other organic compounds
including amino acids and alkaloids (Gemede
and Ratta, 2014).
performance and animal health due to a variety
of mechanisms including, reducing protein
digestibility, binding to various nutrients
,damaging the intestinal wall ,lowering
digestive efficiency, causes nutritional
utilization of nutrients, antinutritive can
interfere with food components before intake,
during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract,
and after absorption in the body but it has some
positive effects like promoting the growth of
beneficial bacteria. The lectins present in
legumes assessed to act as a mucosal adjuvant,
beneficial outcome in hypercholesterolemia
been observed.
Makhdoomi, M. I. 2010. Antinutritional
factors in vegetables. Rashtriya Krishi,
6(1). pp-9-11
Processing effects on the nutritional and
anti-nutritional contents of African
seed. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(2),
Antinutritional factors in plant foods:
Potential health benefits and adverse
effects. International Journal of
food grains and seeds. Food Phytates,
Isolation and characterization of a lectin
from the tomato (Lycopersicon
esculentum). Journal of Biological
oil seeds as aflatoxin in ground nut.
Digitalverlag GmbH, pp.1-8.
Price, K. R., Johnson, I. T., Fenwick, G. R. and
Malinow, M. R., 1987. The chemistry
and biological significance of saponins in
foods and feedingstuffs. Critical Reviews
in Food Science & Nutrition, 26(1),
activity of human spermatozoa by
saponins of Bulbostermma paniculatum
Chem. Abstr (Vol. 1008, p. 49459).
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1PhD Scholar, Livestock Production Management Section, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal,
Haryana 2PhD Scholar, Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar,
Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh
How to cite this article:
Singh, N. P., Bhatt, N. and Chaudhary, P. 2020. Milking technique for best quality of the milk. Vigyan
Varta 1(4): 22-25
19. But quality milk production has always
been an issue in India which is always been
neglected. But now being the leader in milk
production in world we are now focused on
quality milk production. Clean milk production
has always been the biggest concern for both
producers and consumers. With regards to
limiting mastitis and bringing down substantial
somatic cell counts, the region where we have
the most control is our milking systems. This is
a basic advance to keeping up most extreme
milk quality. Milking process should be done at
regular intervals and time of milking should
also be fixed at the same time every day.
The basic goal of the milking process is to
• Produce large quantities of a high-quality
end-product for consumers
• Limit mastitis infections
cows and staff
is to understand the how’s and whys of the
Getting good quality milk is an important issue in India. Getting clean and best quality milk is
dependent on the milking operations. Clean and quality milk fetch more prices to producers in
market. For getting best quality milk we need to follow some steps during milking procedure,
these steps are minimizing stress, wearing gloves, cleaning cows, fore-stripping, pre-dipping,
drying teats, attaching milking units, removing milking units and post-dipping. Following these
steps would help us achieve clean and best quality milk to consumers.
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operation. Lastly write these procedures down
and post them where everyone involved in the
milking process can see them. Working
strategies ought to be conveyed to workers and
intermittently assessed.
consider for quality milk production
1. Minimize stress
when cows reach the milking parlor. Bring
them into the parlour calmly and gently. Hitting
or yelling will cause them to become excited
and stressed. Time in the holding pen ought to
be limited to less than total two hours per day.
If cows are stressed a steroid hormone
adrenaline is released into the bloodstream
which interferes with oxytocin secretion from
the brain of the cow. Oxytocin is a hormone that
is naturally released in the Cow's body to signal
for milk letdown. Without regular timely
letdown of milk, the quantity of milk you
produce may be lowered. Additionally, cows
that are stressed or more likely to slip fall or
defecate while entering the parlour.
2. Wear gloves
aureus may live on your hands and can be
transmitted between cows during milking.
Before milking, at least hand should be cleaned
in complete with water and soap. Ideally
because bacteria are less likely to adhere to
gloves than rough callous skin. Latex or nitrile
gloves must be worn. Gloves minimize the
spread of contagious mastitis between cows and
help protect the milker’s skin. They are also
easier to disinfect than bare hands.
3. Clean Cows
the milking area. Clean cows are not only
exposed to fewer environmental mastitis
pathogens, but they are also easier to clean prior
to milking. If you want to wash a high level of
your dairy animals, you might need to
reevaluate how your fields or horse shelters are
overseen. To improve dairy animals’
cleanliness, dirt manure or debris can
frequently be expelled by hand or with a towel
without the utilization of water. At the point
when dairy animals are unnecessarily filthy
some utilization of water might be important to
clean the teats. In any case, this practice ought
to be the special case and not the standard. If
water is used, be sure to only wet the teats and
not the entire udder because it is nearly
impossible to dry the udder and this water ends
up being drawn into the inflations. In addition,
the usage of water in the parlour contributes to
higher rates of mastitis and bacteria in milk
(Pantoja et al., 2011).
Once the cow is in position in the milker’s
prepared the first step in the actual process is
generally fore-stripping. This involves
milk from each teat. This process allows you to
examine the milk for any signs of mastitis,
including clotty stringy or watery milk. Also,
fore-stripping helps to stimulate the teats and
udder and encourage milk letdown. Effective
stimulation helps increase milk flow rate and
reduce milking unit time. Ideally fore-stripping
is accomplished using a strip cup. Milk may
also be stripped onto to the floor and hosed off
immediately. Milk ought not to be stripped into
the hand or towel since this would lead to
spread of mastitis among teats and between
dairy animals. Fore-stripping can be
accomplished before or after pre dipping but
absolutely must occur before drying. Often fore
stripping and pre dipping are accomplished in
the same task within a routine to save time. This
activity will take around 10 to 20 seconds per
cow to enable adequate stimulation (Tangorra
et al., 2017).
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5. Pre-dip
prior to milking and helps to control mastitis,
caused by environmental mastitis pathogens. At
least three-quarters of the teat will be filled with
a target of covering the whole teat while pre
dipping. A non-return teat dip cup should be
used to prevent contamination. The pre-dip
must stay on the teats before drying for at least
30 seconds.
solitary assistance retentive fabric or paper
towel. Never utilize a similar towel on two
dairy animals. All debris manure and pre plunge
buildup on the teats ought to be expelled while
drying utilizing a delicate turning movement.
During the drying procedure specific
accentuation ought to be set on getting the teat
ends spotless and dry. If not, adequately dried
water containing mastitis causing bacteria may
end up in the teacups and expose the open teat
ends to these bacteria. In the end improperly
dried teats contribute to increased occurrence of
mastitis. When using cloth towels, research has
demonstrated that at least two of the following
must occur during laundering, firstly washing
with detergent and sanitizer, second using hot
water above 140 and number three using a
heated drying cycle.
stimulation, oxytocin which triggers milk
letdown reaches peak rates 60 seconds. Milkers
will then be connected within 1 to 1.5 minutes
of stimulation of the teat (Jessell et al., 1977).
The goal here is to coordinate milker
attachment with milk letdown when milk flow
is highest. Attaching too soon or too late can
result in excessive milking time or reduced
yield. Attach the milker without allowing
excessive air into the milking system. Adjust
the milking unit to hang squarely beneath the
cow's udder and arrange it and the hoses to
avoid any twisting. The milking units should be
checked and adjusted to prevent liner slips
throughout the process. When units are not
aligned properly too much milk will remain in
the udder after milking and teatcups may slip or
squawk. When the teatcup liners slips small
droplets of milk may be forced back toward the
end of the teat. When these droplets of milk
contain organism-inducing mastitis, they can
infiltrate the udder and result in a new infection.
8. Remove milking units
with automatic takeoffs or detachers. With
either process avoid over milking which can
increase the incidence of liner slips and lead to
teat end damage. Adjust automatic takeoffs to
ensure they do not stay on too long.
Additionally, milkers should resist the
temptation to override the automatic
detachment by putting the milker back on.
When teatcups are removed manually be sure to
shut the vacuum off before removal. Removing
teacups while under vacuum can lead to
increased infections and tissue damage. The
process of machine stripping or holding down
on individual teacups or milking clusters should
be avoided. Properly stimulated cows milked
with correctly functioning and attached units
should not have excessive residual milk left in
the udder.
9. Post-dip
The teats will be soaked with a post-dip for as
long as possible after the milking devices are
withdrawn. Documented to be an efficient
germicide, through independent studies. The
target would be to cover at least three-quarters
of the teat as with pre-dipping. An effective
post dip kills organism on teats, prevents
organisms from colonizing in the teat canal and
reduces the rate of new infections from
contagious mastitis pathogens. Teat dip cups
should be kept clean a non-return teat dip cups
should be used to prevent teat dip
contamination. Some dairy farmers prefer to
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towel across the teat immediately after dipping
is a safe way to check the efficacy of post
dipping. The purpose is to see on the paper
towel a continuous line of teat dip showing the
whole teat was protected. You can also notice
split traces of teat dip from spraying since the
teat's opposite side is not exposed.
quality milk is not supplied to consumers. So,
to avoid this type of situation farmer must check
the milking procedure that he is following at his
farms. Farmers should follow the strict
procedure recommended during the milking
operation. Any type of casual attitude during
milking would lead the loss in quality of milk.
The practice of proper pre and post dipping the
teat has certainly led to the decrease in cases of
mastitis, which are important steps during
milking procedure. So, following the steps in
proper and critical way will help the farmer get
quality milk from animals and will certainly to
more income generation.
P. L., 2011. Factors associated with
coliform count in unpasteurized bulk
milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 94(6),
analgesics inhibit substance P release
from rat trigeminal nucleus. Nature,
268(5620), pp.549-551.
N. and Moroni, P., 2017. Pre-milking
mechanical teat stimulation and milking
performance of dairy buffaloes in early
lactation. Journal of Agricultural
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Moon Moon Satpathy1, Abhilash Routray2 and Sonam Sarita Bal3
1PG Scholar, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab 2PhD. Scholar, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, LUVAS, Hisar, Haryana
3PG Scholar, Department of Veterinary Pathology, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab
Corresponding Author
How to cite this article:
Satpathy, M. M., Routray, A. and Bal, S. S. 2020. DNA diagnostics vs. Serodiagnostics: a comparison.
Vigyan Varta 1(4): 26-31
tool for accurate diagnosis,
monitoring, screening and predicting
Veterinary and Human Medicine. It helps the
practitioner to diagnose the specific ailment or
disease of a patient and hence plays a very
crucial role in prescribing the most appropriate
treatment for it. For some diseases like that in A
A diagnostic test plays an important role in the present era not only for accurately diagnosing
a disease condition but also has a key role in monitoring, screening and predicting its
prognosis. Hence it is of immense significance the field of Veterinary and Human Medicine. We
have two approaches in diagnostics; one is serology based which includes agglutination based
tests, precipitation based tests , Enzyme linked Immuno sorbent assay, western blotting,
complement fixation test, Viral neutralization test etc., other one is DNA based including
Polymerase Chain Reaction, Reverse Transcriptase PCR, Real-time PCR etc. Serology based
tests are fast, require less manpower and pen-side tests with reasonable sensitivity and
specificity whereas DNA based tests are highly sensitive and specific with enormous scope of
use including identifying unknown bacteria by targeting its 16s rRNA, but these also have
certain limitations like these may not be always convenient in every situation, even fail to
detect current infection and past exposure. These also detect the presence of dead
microorganism which can also mislead the present disease status. Hence choosing an
appropriate diagnostic test well suited to our purpose is necessary as it not only saves time but
also saves manpower and resources.
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case of cancer, it is not only important to know
the disease but it is equally important to
understand the degree of development, whether
it is stable or in regression, hence the chosen
diagnostic test helps the health care providers to
access whether the given treatment is effective
in controlling the disease. Infectious diseases
pose a greater threat to the world today than
years back possibly due to a myriad of
emerging and re-emerging diseases, new
bacteria, viruses and parasites, increasing
population density, changing food habits of
people and easy travel facilities. Rampant use
of antibiotics without proper testing has paved
the way for emergence of resistant bacteria,
thus an appropriate diagnostic test also checks
development of AMR. Diagnostic tests are also
important for confirming the health status of
animal and identifying pathogens. It plays a
crucial role early detection, management and
control of animal diseases including zoonotic
diseases. As per WHO, about 60% of the
emerging infectious diseases reported globally
are zoonotic, hence they help to safeguard the
public health. Tests help to monitor the disease
status and immune response to a vaccination
program in a herd. It also helps in herd health
screening for various diseases like Bovine Viral
Diarrhoea (BVD), Brucellosis etc. Apart from
this, accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases
helps to prevent huge economic losses due to
mortality, morbidity and reduction on
productivity in livestock and poultry
populations and also facilitate safe trade in
animals and animal products.
For selecting an ideal diagnostic test, the
ASSURED criteria can be used as a benchmark,
where ASSURED denotes Affordable,
robust, Equipment free and Deliverable to end
users. Tests should be easy to perform, reliable
and require less machinery. Pen-side
Diagnostic tests that can be performed near the
animal are preferred. Other factors like it should
not be much influenced by temperature, should
also withstand the test in different countries
should be reproducible and validated, should be
reliable i.e. it should produce same result both
in lab and in field condition.
However not all tests perfectly fit into these
criteria especially those requiring infrastructure
and necessary equipment, but they can be
perfectly accurate in identifying a disease-
causing pathogen.
regarding the response of immune system to
pathogens or introduced substances is called
serology. In other words, the measurement of
antigen-antibody interactions for diagnostic
Serodiagnostics are based on the principle of
detecting ‘antigen’ or ‘antibody’ in serum,
where antigen being the organism itself or any
toxin produced by it and antibodies are
immunoglobulins secreted in response to the
antigen by the specialized lymphocytes called
plasma cells. Both antigen and antibody can be
detected by various methods. It is done by
separating the serum from blood and using it to
detect antigen or antibody. These tests also
serve as a primary laboratory diagnostic test for
the organisms that are difficult to culture in
been available since early and middle part of the
past century. In due course of time, their
sensitivity and specificity has been increased
using better reagents and methods thus making
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traditional tests.
categories i.e. primary binding tests, secondary
binding tests and tertiary binding tests.
Primary binding tests directly measures the
binding of antigen to antibody. Under this
category comes RIA, ELISA, FAT,
Immunoperoxidase test, Western Blotting etc.
RIA stands for Radio Immuno Assay. It is one
of the most sensitive techniques for detecting
antigen or antibody developed in 1960s by S. A.
Berson and Rosalyn Yalow to determine the
levels of insulin-anti insulin complexes in
diabetics. Immunofluorescence Assays
make use of fluorescent dyes like FITC
(Fluorescein isothiocyanate), Rhodamine
(EIAS) are commonly called as ELISA. It has
similar principle as RIA, but it depends on
enzyme rather than radioactive label for test.
Immunoperoxidase test is used to detect antigen
in tissue sections. Its principle is similar to
Immunofluorescence test or direct/indirect
immunoglobulin are used and DAB is used as
chromogenic substrate. Western blotting
in a complex protein mixture.
In secondary binding test, the reaction between
antigen and antibody forms a stable complex
which is followed by which can be visualized.
It measures the antigen- antibody reaction
invitro. The secondary binding tests include
precipitation test, agglutination test and
Complement Fixation Test (CFT).
antigen interacts with antibodies. Precipitation
tests involve reaction of soluble antigen
(precipitinogen) with an antibody (precipitins).
CFT is used to measure the serum levels of
specific antibody against antigens. These tests
are less sensitive but easier to perform.
Tertiary binding tests are also called assays in
living system in which the actual protective
action of antibodies in an animal is measured. It
is the most complex of all tests. Under this
comes neutralization test and protection test.
DNA Diagnostics
presence of an organism by detecting its nucleic
ELISA plate
Rose Bengal
Plate test
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a particular gene which is specific to that
Reactions) by using specific DNA sequences
for unique portions of microbial DNA called as
primers in order to allow its specific
amplification, followed by detection on agarose
gel. Quantification of the DNA can be done
PCR or branched chain DNA assay. The RNA
from RNA viruses can be detected by reverse-
transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and its
quantification can be done by using real-time
PCR or branched chain DNA assay. In real-time
PCR or q-PCR DNA concentration is indicated
by the release of fluorescent molecules during
amplification. Branched chain DNA assay is
based on the technique of signal amplification
for detecting nucleic acids.
following queries must be considered i.e. what
to use? How to use? When to use? Where to
ability to correctly identify a true positive case.
DNA diagnostics can detect even if there one
DNA or RNA strand in the sample whereas for
a serological test, there is a minimum limit of
detection below which it may not detect the
test to correctly identify the true negatives.
DNA based tests are more specific as the gene
of interest or the particular gene targeted is not
found elsewhere rather than in the organism
itself. Whereas Serological tests can show a
wide range of cross reactivity, hence they are
relatively less specific too.
must use a standard kit which is much easier
than performing a DNA based test which
requires trained personnel and sophisticated
equipment. Serodiagnostics can be used as pen-
side test. Thus, it can be performed near the
patient whereas a DNA based test can never be
performed as a pen-side test.
Duration of test
serological tests are very fast like slide
agglutination, lateral flow etc., whereas some
are very lengthy taking more than a day like in
case of ELISA(if pre-coated antigenic plates are
not available and we have to do it manually then
it may require overnight incubation ).DNA
based tests take roughly more than a day. Real
time PCR (q-PCR) also saves time.
Scope of Use
purpose, but they have enormous other uses.
These tests can be used paternity testing,
cloning and expression studies, genetic
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forensic science, identifying criminals etc. But
serology-based tests can only be used to detect
antigen or antibody for a particular pathogen
and quantify them. It can also be used for typing
bacteria (Streptococcus), standardize toxin.
from the field of microbiology are ABO typing
(blood typing) and diagnosis of autoimmune
diseases like autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
(coombs test).
expensive machinery whereas serology-based
DNA is present in every cells of the body, so
the biological samples for DNA based tests can
be any kind of cells or tissue like blood, hair,
bones, horns, hooves apart from samples like
blood, faeces, urine, sputum etc from which the
organism of interest can be directly isolated.
DNA based tests are particularly important in
the field of forensic science. DNA isolated from
archeological findings from different samples
like bones, hooves etc has paved the way for
studying the evolutionary history of humans
and animal. Serological tests lag behind the
DNA based tests in this aspect as they are
neither technically so advanced for serving
multipurpose use, nor do they operate using any
kind of biological sample as in case of DNA
based tests. Serological tests use only blood
serum or interstitial fluid.
kind of diagnostic tool. So far as cost factor is
concerned, initial cost of DNA based tests is
high but recurrent cost is less whereas in case
of serology-based tests, cost remains constant
every time. Some tests are cheap whereas some
are expensive.
may take time to develop ranging from few
weeks to even months, the diagnosis may get
delayed accordingly or may be even be
unreliable sometimes.
earliest antibody response to infection which
later converts to an IgG response as the
infection progress. IgM –specific assays are not
assays are not available for most bacterial
diseases and where available (Mycoplasma
pneumoniae or Toxoplasma gondii), solid
conclusions can’t be drawn from the tests due
to the fact that specific IgM may be present long
after an acute infection. The criteria for
serologically confirming an infection is based
on 4-fold rise in antibody titer between acute
and convalescent specimens, but in real world
of clinical laboratory testing, paired specimens
are extremely rare.
protective antibody against a vaccine whereas
PCR bases tests cannot. DNA based tests can
detect lineage and mutation of a pathogen
whereas serology-based tests cannot. Gene
expression studies can be done using PCR
based tests. Unknown bacteria can also be
identified by targeting its 16s rRNA can also be
done using PCR based tests.
Molecular tests are advantageous over
serological tests as detect microbes rather than
serological history of infection and thus can
detect the microbe much earlier than serological
tests. The empirical sensitivity of most
molecular tests especially nucleic acid
amplification assays tends to decrease over time
from time of infection to a positive assay. False
positive amplifications can also occur
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host’s innate immune response, so previous
exposure cannot be estimated by these tests.
Serological tests can be unreliable in case of
persistent infection as in case of Bovine Viral
Diarrhoea in which the persistently infected
calves are seronegative throughout their life.
Serology also has limited applications in
immunocompromised individuals.
depends on our use. If we need a test which
should be extremely sensitive, specific,
flexible, and not very lengthy, then DNA based
test wins. If we want to perform mutation and
genetic lineage studies, DNA based tests are
On the other hand, if we want a pen-side test
with reasonable sensitivity and specificity, less
sophisticated and faster, then serology-based
tests solve the purpose well. Hence it can be
concluded, the best test for our need depends on
the type of need itself.
Infectious Disease Testing-Which,
Clinical Practice, 14(6), pp.373-376.
Block, C., 2006. Evaluation of eight
commercial tests for Mycoplasma
acute infection. Clinical Microbiology
and Infection, 12(7), pp.685-688.
of kinetics of immunoglobulin M and A
antibody responses to Toxoplasma
gondii. Journal of Clinical
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Sustainable Yield of Cereal Crops
Sumit Sow and Shivani Ranjan
PG Scholar, Department of Agronomy, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, 813210
Corresponding Author
Sumit Sow
Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article:
Sow, S. and Ranjan, S. 2020. Brown Manuring, an effective technique for weed management and
sustainable yield of cereal crops. Vigyan Varta 1(4): 32-34
commitment to support independence
consistently expanding population of the
nation. Maize considered as the queen of
cereals, is one of the most significant yields
close to rice and wheat in global agriculture.
Although maize is under development in India,
production and productivity are less over
temperate countries. The factor which causes
decrease in development, advancement and
yield of maize is weed which causes 40-70%
yield reduction under uncontrolled weed
development condition in maize. Fertilizers
have contributed significantly to the astounding
increment in crop production. However, use of
inorganic fertilizers alone in huge amount for a
long time brings about irregularity in the supply
As the population is increasing day by day and per capita land availability is decreasing leading
to poor soil fertility. So, efficient nutrient management is essential to main the soil fertility and
to gain sustainable yield of crops. Application of organic manure can play a vital role in this
direction. But these manures are generally bulky in nature and low in nutrient content. So,
farmers use inorganic fertilizer in huge amount. Therefore, substitution is highly required and
green manure can be a possible option to provide nutrient from sources. In green manuring,
the main limitation is as it is mainly practiced in rice crop which requires a duration of 45-60
days from seedling to decomposition with proper temperature and moisture after
incorporation. So, brown manuring is a viable option. Brown manure improves available
nutrients, porosity, organic carbon, CEC, aggregation of soil and improve soil properties. It will
suppress the weed population as well as increase the yield of the crops.
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combined use of organic manure and inorganic
fertilizers help in sustaining the yield of crops.
India has sufficient amount of organic waste
which can be converted into organic compost
and manure. But the huge quantity of organic
waste is not properly used and scientific
conversation into compost is not done and lost
in various ways. On the other hand, carrying
costs of low value bulky organic manure is too
expensive. So the option like green manuring
comes which add nutrient to the soil, but it
requires a period of time for decomposition
after incorporation into the soil. Moreover, the
decomposition process in green manuring
needs specific temperature and sufficient
moisture content in the soil which may not be
available throughout the year. In this context,
brown manuring is a viable option which is not
only free from these limitations but also
increase the yield sustainably of cereal crops.
Brown Manuring
using an herbicide to desiccate the crop plant
before flowering is brown manuring. In brown
manuring, green manure crops like Sesbania
are grown in standing cereal crops and selective
herbicide like 2,4-D or bispyribac sodium is
applied and after 4-5 days of spraying, green
manure crops start dying due to knock down
effect in the same piece of land. The plant
residues are left as such in that field along with
the main crop without incorporation or
ploughing until it's decomposition in the soil.
As a result of loss of chlorophyll due to
application of post emergence herbicide on the
green manure plant leaves showing brown in
colour referred to as brown manuring (Tanwar
et al., 2010). Brown manuring not only adds
organic matter to soil but also improves
biological and physico-chemical properties of
the soil. There are lots of benefits of brown
manuring specially maximizing the yield of
cereals and controlling weeds.
weeds by about 40-50% through raising green
manure crops like sunhemp, Sesbania etc. as
intercrop. Brown manuring can suppress 50%
of total weed population by shading effect of
the plant till 45 DAS up to which critical period
of crop weed competition continues in cereals
generally. Maity and Mukherjee (2007)
reported that combination of butachlor 1.5
kg/ha + brown manuring + 2,4-D 0.50 kg/ha
application at 40 DAS recorded lowest weed
index value of 4.5 and maximum weed control
efficiency of 88.15% at 60 DAS in Direct
Seeded Rice (DSR) in kharif. Application of
Wheat residue mulch at 4 t/ha along with
Sesbania intercropping for are equally effective
in controlling weeds in dry seeded rice (Singh
et al., 2007). Ramachandran et al., 2012
reported that Pre emergence alachlor 1.0 kg/ ha
+ brown manuring had higher weed control
efficiency of 92.15% at 40 DAS in irrigated
maize. Yadav et al. (2014) found that brown
manuring with cowpea and Sesbania had
positive effect in lowering weed population and
fostering the yield in DSR.
Effect on crop yield
direct seeding and brown manuring (4.23 t/ha)
has higher yield than direct seeding without
manuring (3.36 t/ha). Prabhakaran and
chinnuswamy, 2006 found that drum seeding
with dhaincha brown manure reduced weeds as
well as increased yield of rice. In rabi maize,
pre emergence alachlor + brown manuring
increased the yield attributes such as cob length,
no of rows) cob, no of grains/ row and test
weight which in turn reflected in higher grain
(7.227 kg/ha), stover yield (11,563 kg/ha) and
increase economic return (Ramachandran et al.,
2012). The highest grain (3.88 t/ha) and straw
(5.96 t/ha) was recorded with butachlor +
brown manuring + 2,4-D application in direct
seeded kharif rice (Maity and Mukherjee,
2007). Yield of DSR with brown manuring and
conventional transplanting of rice is mostly
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water over transplanting by moisture
system is in risk by increasing labour, water and
crisis of energy. In an experiment Nawaz et al.
(2017) Sesbania brown manuring in DSR
decreased the dry biomass 62-75%. By
replacing 25% of nitrogenous fertilizer by
brown manuring in DSR increased organic
carbon content 13.04% indicating better soil
health without affecting the economical
attributes. Sharma et al. noted that brown
manuring with basmati rice cultivated under the
method system of rice intensification boost up
the actinomycetes present in the soil. Brown
manure decreases bulk density of soil and
acting as buffer or lowering the transmission of
compaction to subsoil. Nutrient use efficiency
is positively influenced by weed. Skipping of
basal dose of nitrogen in the field has
considerable effect on nutrient use efficiency.
Nutrient use efficiency of N (50.00 and 64.67kg
grain yield/kg nutrient applied), P (229.36 and
296.64kg grain yield/kg nutrient applied) and K
(90.36 and 116.87 kg grain yield/kg nutrient
applied) was highest under butachlor 1.5 kg/ha
and brown manuring with 2,4-D 0.5kg/ha
during both the years in which nitrogen was
applied in four splits (Maiti and Mukherjee,
2007). Brown manure improves soil structure
and providing a protective cover for the soil
surface thus increases water infiltration and
retention, reduces wind and water erosion risk
as well as reduces the impact of extreme
temperatures. It also helps in maintaining the
earthworm population which indirectly
improve the soil fertility.
2050 and more than 10 billion by century's end
will require significant changes in agricultural
production systems. As the nutrient status of the
soil is depleting day by day due to overuse of
chemical fertilizers, brown manuring is viable
option to cereal crops to enhance productivity
and maintaining sustainability through
resource conservation technology but also
controls the weed population. Due to erratic
monsoon farmers are unwilling to take to risk
of green manuring, for them brown manuring is
a reasonable solution which is economically
viable and environmentally sustainable.
an effective technique for yield
sustainability and weed management of
cereal crops: A review. International
Journal of Bioresource Science. 4(1),
of Brown Manuring on Grain Yield and
Nutrient Use Efficiency in Dry Direct
Seeded Kharif Rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Indian Journal of Weed Science, 43(1-2):
pp: 61-66.
Hussain, T. and Nadeem, A. 2017.
Influence of Sesbania Brown Manuring
and Rice Residue Mulch on Soil Health,
Weeds and System Productivity of
conservation Rice–Wheat Systems. Land
Degradation and Development, 28: pp:
P. 2012. Effect of brown manuring on
weed growth, yield and economics of
irrigated maize. Indian Journal of Weed
Science, 44(3), pp: 204–206.
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Zero Tillage as a Resource Conserving Technology in Rice - Wheat Cropping
PG Scholar, Department of Agronomy, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, 813210
Corresponding Author
Shivani Ranjan
Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article:
Ranjan, S. and Sow, S. 2020. Zero tillage as a resource conserving technology in rice - wheat cropping
system. Vigyan Varta 1(4): 35-37
tillage is leading to soil compaction,
degradation of land, soil erosion etc. Extremely
low input use efficiency has led to improper use
of inputs and depletion of natural resources
besides environmental degradation (Hobbs et
al., 1997). Zero tillage can be a potential
solution to all these problems which involves
minimum disturbance of the soil. In zero tillage,
zero till seed cum fertilizer drill machine place
the seeds and fertilizers in a narrow slit created
by furrow opener in the soil with minimal soil
disturbance. The shape of the furrow is inverted
T. Adoption of zero tillage also increases the
amount of water infiltered into the soil,
The two most important cereal crops of India rice and wheat occupying an area of 43.86 million
hectare and 29.8 million hectares, respectively. Rice-wheat cropping system is practiced on a
large scale in Indo-Gangetic plains. There are issues or problems in rice-wheat cropping system
arising due to climate change and variability, emission of greenhouse gases, delayed sowing
of wheat, insect pest and diseases, lack of improved production technology, less water use
efficiency, less fertilizer use efficiency. These problems can be overcome by adopting zero
tillage in rice wheat cropping system. Zero tillage is a type of conservation tillage in which
primary tillage is completely avoided and secondary tillage is restricted to seed bed
preparation in the row zone only. In rice wheat cropping system, it can be also called as direct
sowing of wheat in rice field. Zero tillage in rice field system has reduced the fuel as well as
labour requirement and an overall reduction in cultivation cost. Yield is also more in zero tillage
as compared to the conventional tillage.
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erosion. It also helps in maintaining the
population of beneficial microbes in the soil.
The idea of zero tillage was given by Faulkner
in an early 1940s. G. B. Triplett is considered
as father of zero tillage.
Objectives of zero tillage
• To improve the organic matter content in
the soil
• Reducing soil compaction
environmental pollution
due to the reason that weed seeds remained
in deeper layer under zero tillage system in
comparison to conventional system
(Verma and Srivastava, 1989)
Growing of cover crops
which they do not allow the weeds to grow so
that the succeeding crop may get required
resource for growth.
Crop rotation
As residue is kept on the surface of soil and zero
tillage this can result in an outbreak of insect
pest. To avoid this problem crop rotation must
be followed to stop the life cycle of the plant
tillage as it can cause compaction of the soil.
Implements used for zero tillage are zero seed
cum fertilizer drill, rotary weeder, metal cutting
blade mould board plough.
machine (Erenstein, Malik, and Singh, 2007).
Management of crop residue
avoid burning.
than 15cm.
calibrated properly.
• Granular fertilizer should be used to avoid
choking of zero till seed cum fertilizer drill
after sowing.
should be sown.
sowing by ploughing 5 to 6 times causing a
delay in sowing of wheat leading to reduction
in number of plants, low yield and an increase
in cost of cultivation. There is also reduction in
yield if sown after 10 December. In traditional
sowing, cost of cultivation is more. Zero tillage
saves 15 to 20 days sowing time and reduces
cost of cultivation of wheat. The depth of seed
sowing is kept 3 to 5 cm in sowing and a soil
layer is f