Valvular Heart DISEASE. What is Valvular Heart Disease?

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Transcript of Valvular Heart DISEASE. What is Valvular Heart Disease?

  • Slide 1
  • Valvular Heart DISEASE
  • Slide 2
  • Slide 3
  • What is Valvular Heart Disease?
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  • What Are the Types of Valve Disease? There are several types of valvular heart disease, include: 1)Valvular stenosis: When a valve opening is smaller than normal 2)Valvular Insufficiency/REGURGITATION: occurs when a valve does not close tightly, thus allowing blood to leak backwards. Both valvular diseases can involve all four valves.
  • Slide 5
  • Types Mitral Stenosis Mitral Regurgitation Aortic Stenosis Aortic regurgitation Tricuspid valve is affected infrequently Tricuspid stenosis causes Rt HF Tricuspid regurgitation Pulmonary valve disease
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  • Congenital : mostly affect the aortic or pulmonic valve, Acquired :. Other Acquired causes? Rheumatic fever Infective endocarditis Coronary artery disease Heart attack Cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease) Syphilis. Hypertension. Aortic aneurysms. Connective tissue diseases What Causes Valvular Disease?
  • Slide 7
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease Inflammatory process that may affect the myocardium, pericardium and or endocardium Usually results in distortion and scarring of the valves Caused by a type 2 inflammatory reaction secondary to sore throat caused by a bacteria called S.pyogenes
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  • Rheumatic Heart Disease, cont. Prior history of rheumatic fever General malaise Pain may or may not be present Murmurs Dyspnea polyarthritis
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  • Infective endocarditis Infection of heart valves Commonly bacterial Results in damage to valve structure giving rise to senosis or regurgitation
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  • Mitral Stenosis Usually results from rheumatic carditis Is a thickening by fibrosis or calcification Can be caused by tumors, calcium and thrombus Valve leaflets fuse These narrows the opening and prevents normal blood flow from the LA to the LV LA pressure increases, left atrium dilates, PAP increases, and the RV hypertrophies Pulmonary congestion and right sided heart failure occurs Followed by decreased preload and CO decreases
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  • Mitral Stenosis, cont. Mild asymptomatic With progression dyspnea, orthopneas, dry cough, hemoptysis, and pulmonary edema may appear Right sided heart failure symptoms occur later Signs Atrial fibrillation Apical diastolic murmur is heard
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  • aortic stenosis characterized by an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve opening.
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  • Causes of Aortic Valve Stenosis 1)Most commonly, aortic stenosis is due to age-related progressive calcification 3)Rheumatic aortic stenosis(10%)
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  • Clinical presentation Congestive heart failure Syncope Angina
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  • Aortic Regurgitation is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. Causes: Infective endocarditic Rheumatic disease Trauma Aortic dilatation like in Marfans Syndrome, syphilis
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  • Mitral Stenosis Usually results from rheumatic carditis Is a thickening by fibrosis or calcification Can be caused by tumors, calcium and thrombus Valve leaflets fuse These narrows the opening and prevents normal blood flow from the LA to the LV LA pressure increases, left atrium dilates, PAP increases, and the RV hypertrophies Pulmonary congestion and right sided heart failure occurs Followed by decreased preload and CO decreases
  • Slide 19
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  • Mitral Stenosis, cont. Mild asymptomatic With progression dyspnea, orthopneas, dry cough, hemoptysis, and pulmonary edema may appear Right sided heart failure symptoms occur later Signs Atrial fibrillation Apical diastolic murmur is heard
  • Slide 21
  • Mitral regurgitation : -occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly while the heart pumps out blood. -Most common cause is mitral valve prolapse (MVP). -Pathophysiology ; blood leaks back into LA> dilatation of LA >reduction in LV systolic function>later LV dilatation. -symptoms are (palpitation- dyspnea- edema- fatigue- ascitis)
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  • diagnostic tests Echocardiography. Transesophageal echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization.(also called an angiogram) MRI
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  • Treatment of valvular heart disease Drugs to facilitate myocardial functioning Surgical-valve replacement/valve repair
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  • Medial Treatment Nonsurgical management focuses on drug therapy and rest Diuretic, beta blockers, digoxin, O2, vasodilators, prophylactic antibiotic therapy Manage atrial fibrillation, if develops, with conversion if possible, and use of anticoagulation
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  • Surgical Management of Valve Disease Mitral Valve Mitral Valve Replacement Balloon Valvuloplasty Aortic Valve Replacement
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  • Baloon valvuloplasty
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  • Mechanical Valve
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  • Tissue Valve
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  • Advantages of surgical repair Reducing progression into heart faliure better functional outcome Disadvantages Valve failure Some valves warrant life long anticoagulatioln
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  • Thank you.