U.S. Government Chapter 4 Federalism. .
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Transcript of U.S. Government Chapter 4 Federalism. .
U.S. GovernmentChapter 4Federalism
Types of Governmental StructuresThe way that government within a country is structured can determine the power relationships between its citizens and government.
Three major types of governmental structuresUnitaryConfederalFederal
Unitary Form of GovernmentThis government will have a strong central government but weak or nonexistent regional governments
Confederal Form of GovernmentThis government will have strong state governments but weak central government
Central GovernmentCitizenState Government
Federal Form of GovernmentThis type of government has shared powers between the central government and state governments.This type of structure is found in the United States.
Central GovernmentCitizenState Government
Arguments for FederalismBy dividing power, federalism prevents tyranny by a fewFederalism increases opportunities for citizen participationFederalism allows states to serve as laboratories for experiments in public policiesOnly practical solution for a diverse nation
Dividing PowerPublic policies are made by local and state governments and our national governmentCan you give an example of local and state public policies that conflict with policies made by our national government?
Think of how we differ within our nation
Arguments against FederalismDivision of power can make it more time-consumingto solve problems because of overlapping programs
Constitutional Basis for FederalismPowers Found in the U.S. Constitution
National PowersEnumerated or expressed powers (listed powers)Article I, sec. 8Article II, sec. 2Article III, sec. 2
Delegated powers (exclusive powers of the national government)Article I, sec. 10Powers denied to the states, but not to the national government
National PowersImplied powersNecessary and proper clause in Article I, sec. 8Congress can enact laws necessary and proper to carry out the expressed powers
National supremacyArticle VI, sec. 2Relationship between national and state powers if there is a conflict
State Powers10th AmendmentThose powers not denied states or given exclusively to the national government may be exercised (reserved powers) by statesArticle IVThe article provides for admitting new statesIt also establishes a relationship between the states - Full faith and credit clause
Denied PowersPowers are denied to both the national and state governments
Examples of Denied PowersSuspending the writ of habeas corpus except in emergenciesWrits of habeas corpus are used to bring suspects before a court of law to determine if sufficient cause exists to hold them
New Orleans following Katrina
Examples of Denied PowersEnacting ex post facto (retroactive) criminal laws
Using bills of attainder (taking of life, freedom, or personal property without due process)
Concurrent PowersConcurrent powers are shared powers among the national and state governments
Increased growth of concurrent powersFederalism and federal grants
Concurrent PowersSome examples of concurrent powersTaxingProviding for the general welfareElections
Changing Views of Federalism
Dual FederalismDual federalism existed primarily from 1790s to 1930sGreat Depression forced changesEach level of government was to exercise separate functionsStates were responsible for most governmental functions, particularly in the economic areasVery limited federal roles
Dual FederalismThis is known as the layer cake federalism
Cooperative Federalism1930s - PresentThe Great Depression overwhelmed state governmentsOfficials had to rethink the traditional role of the national governmentThe changes in federalism led to interdependencies between governmentsThis federalism is known as marble cake federalism
State GovernmentsNational Government
Cooperative Federalism1930s - PresentFederal grants have led to interdependencies between the national government and state governments (cooperative federalism)
Purposes of Federal GrantsDevelopmental programsRedistributive programs
Developmental ProgramsGrants to help state and local governments develop programs related to national objectivesMany of them are infrastructure grants
Redistributive ProgramsGrants to redistribute income from more affluent citizens and communities to poorer citizens and communities
ExamplesNutrition programsEducation programsCommunity development block grants
Types of GrantsCategorical grantsThe grants are narrow in scope and usually fund one activityLibrary construction funds are categorical grantsFormula grantsThe grants use formulas (usually number of poor residents and substandard housing units) to determine amount of funds awarded
Types of GrantsProject grantsThe grants have a definite time frameHighway construction grants are both project and categorical grantsBlock grantsThe grants fund broad categories of government programsCommunity development block grants are examplesFunding can be used for many programs viewed as necessary for a thriving community
Advantages of Federal GrantsAdditional funds that can increase availability of programsIn 2010 Texas received $27.6 billion dollars in federal grantsMedicaid ($2.9 billion in 2010)Highway planning and construction ($3.2 billion in 2010)
Disadvantages of Federal GrantsAdministrative costsReports, audits, recordkeepingContinuation of the programWill the program be continued next year?Can a state or local government receiving funds this year also receive them next year
Disadvantages of Federal GrantsGrant requirementsMatching fundsShares that receiving governments must provideFormulasAnalyses must be done, using Census Bureau data
Workload of GranteesImagine a state or local government having several federal grantsMonthly, semiannual, or annual reportsAnnual or biennial auditsRecordkeepingGrantees (those receiving the grants) generally dedicate a certain number of work years to maintaining and disbursing federal grant funds
Example of a Federal GrantDont write this down its just an example
WIC Program10.557 SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS, AND CHILDREN FEDERAL AGENCYFOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AUTHORI Z ATIONChild Nutrition Act, as amended, Section 17, 42 U.S.C. 1786 TY PES OF ASSISTANCEFormula Grants
categorical grantcongressional authorization War on Poverty programsgranting agencyCFDA grant #
WIC ProgramUSES AND USE RESTRICTIONSGrants are made to State health departments or comparable agencies, Indian tribes, bands, or intertribal councils, or groups recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, or the Indian Health Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. These agencies distribute funds to participating local public or nonprofit private health or welfare agencies. State agencies are provided Federal funds according to legislative and regulatory formulas. Only local agencies qualifying under State agency applications with formal agreements may operate WIC programs.
WIC ProgramELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Pregnant, breastfeeding and postpartum women, infants, and children up to 5 years of age are eligible if: 1) they are individually determined by a competent professional to be in need of the special supplemental foods supplied by the program because of nutritional risk; and 2) meet an income standard, or receive or have certain family members that receive benefits under the Food Stamp, Medicaid or Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Programs. They must also reside in the State in which benefits are received. Individuals are certified as meeting an income standard, or as participating in certain other means-tested Federal programs. Certification regarding nutritional need for supplemental foods is determined by local level professionals.
WIC ProgramFormula and Matching RequirementsGrants are allocated on the basis of formulas determined by the Department of Agriculture which allocate funds for food benefits, and nutrition services and administration costs. No matching funds are required, but some States contribute nonfederal funds in support of a larger WIC Program in their State.
WIC ProgramReportsMonthly report of participation, value of food or food instruments issued, operating expenses, and funds withdrawn from the Federal letter of credit. AuditsState and local governments and Nonprofit organizations that expend a total amount of Federal awards equal to or in excess of $500,000 in any fiscal year shall have either a single audit or (in certain cases stated in the Circular) a program-specific audit made for such fiscal year.
WIC ProgramRecordsFull and complete records concerning program operations financial operationsfood delivery systemsfood instrument issuance and redemptionequipment purchases and inventorynutrition educationcivil rightsfair hearing procedures
Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistancewww.cfda.govListing of All Federal Grant Programs
Major Changes Occurred Again in Federalism during the 1960s
Centralized Federalism19 6 0s - PresentWar on Poverty Programs under presidents Kennedy and JohnsonHeavy use of formulas for grantsNumber of poor familiesNumber of substandard housing unitsStatistics developed from census dataExamplesHead StartActionCommunity Development Block Grants
Centralized FederalismNew federal grants in the 1960s and 1970s required coordination with state and local governments
Social Services GrantsInfrastructureGrantsEducation GrantsFederal Govt.State Govt.Local Govt.
Centralized FederalismThe national government required state and local governments to meet national objectives of clean air and water and other objectivesClean Air Act of 1963Clean Water Act of 1972
Centralized FederalismUse of unfunded mandatesState and local governments must meet the national objectives, but additional funding was not providedUse of crossover sanctionsMeet the objectives or lose federal funding that the state governments had been receivingPreemption-national government usurping state powers
Examples of Crossover SanctionsCarrot and Stick approachThe carrots are federal grant fundsThe stick is the loss of existing federal grant fundsMany of the crossover sanctions involve billions of dollars in federal highway fundsLower the speed limit on interstate and U.S. highwaysRaise the legal age for alcohol consumptionReplace diesel buses with compressed natural gas buses
Major Changes Occurred Again in Federalism during the 1980s
Rapidly increasing federal deficits at the time of budget surpluses in state governmentsMore of the burden for funding existing programs placed on state and local governments
Devolved FederalismConsolidation of categorical grant programs into block grant programsWelfare Reform Act of 1993
Todays FederalismEvery government function today involves at least two levels of government and more likely, three levels (national, state, and local)EducationLaw EnforcementPublic HealthPublic WelfareNational DefenseTransportation
Todays FederalismIt is apparent that federalism has changed from a simple view in the 19th century to a complicated arrangement in the 20th and 21st centuries
Federalism Argument Here is your chance to voice your opinion on the issue.Should we, as a country, have Federalism or is it just to complicated?
Write a five paragraph arguing for or against Federalism.Paragraph 1 Introduction (contains 3 points)Paragraph 2-4 Each explain a point from paragraph 1Paragraph 5 Conclusion (summarize and restate 3 points)
You must pick a side!