Unit 6 Nutrition and Hydration

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Unit 6 Nutrition and Hydration. Nurse Aide I Course. Nutrition and Hydration Introduction. This unit introduces the nurse aide to the basic principles of nutrition and emphasizes the functions of the major nutrients required for health. Nutrition and Hydration Introduction (continued). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Unit 6 Nutrition and Hydration

  • Unit 6Nutrition and HydrationNurse Aide I Course

    DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Nutrition and HydrationIntroductionThis unit introduces the nurse aide to the basic principles of nutrition and emphasizes the functions of the major nutrients required for health.

    DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Nutrition and HydrationIntroduction(continued)This unit covers the Food Guide Pyramid, the use of therapeutic diets, adaptive devices, alternative methods of feeding, providing water and nourishments, the procedure for feeding a resident, and the effects of good nutrition and poor nutrition.

    DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Nutrition and HydrationIntroduction(continued)Knowledge of nutrition will enable the nurse aide to recognize the important relationship between food and good health.

    DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • 6.0Identify the general principles of basic nutrition.6.1Identify factors that influence dietary practices.

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  • Good NutritionPromotes physical and mental healthProvides increased resistance to illnessProduces added energy and vitality

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  • Good Nutrition(continued)Aids in healing processAssists one to feel and sleep better

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  • Functions of FoodProvides energyGrowth and repair of tissueMaintenance and regulation of body processes

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  • Factors Influencing Dietary PracticesPersonal preferenceAppetiteFinanceIllnessCulture

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  • 6.1.1Review cultural variations in diet.

    DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Culture and Dietary PracticesThe diets of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and people from Far East include rice and tea The diets of Spanish-speaking people include spicy dishes containing rice, beans and corn

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  • Culture and Dietary Practices(continued)The Italian diet includes spaghetti, lasagna, and other pastasScandinavians have a lot of fish in their diets

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  • Culture and Dietary Practices(continued)Americans eat a lot of meat, fast foods, and processed foodsUse of sauce and spices are culturally related

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  • Culture and Food PreparationFryingBakingSmoking RoastingFresh/raw

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  • 6.1.2List seven examples of foods avoided by some religious denominations.

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  • Religion and Dietary PracticesDays of fasting when all or certain foods are avoided.Christian Science - avoid coffee/tea and alcoholRoman Catholic - avoid food one hour before communion, observe special fast days

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  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Muslim/Moslem - avoid alcohol, pork products7th Day Adventist - avoid coffee/tea, alcohol, pork and some meats, caffeine

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  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Baptists some avoid coffee, tea and alcoholGreek Orthodox - fast days, but usually forgiven when ill

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  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Conservative Jewish faithProhibits shellfish, non-kosher meats such as porkRequires special utensils for food preparation

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  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Conservative Jewish faithForbids cooking on SabbathForbids eating of leavened bread during Passover

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  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Conservative Jewish faithForbids serving milk and milk products with meatStrict rules regarding sequence in which milk products and meat may be consumed

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  • 6.1.3Review the major classification of nutrients and their function in the body.

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  • Nutrients Nutrients are essentialFour classifications of nutrientsFats - provide energy, help body use certain vitamins, conserve body heat and protect organs from injuryProteins build and repair tissue

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  • Nutrients(continued) Four classifications of nutrients (continued)Carbohydrates - provide energy and fiber that help in bowel eliminationVitamins and minerals - ingested through food and are necessary for carrying out and maintaining specific body functions

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  • Nutrients(continued)Fats, proteins and carbohydrates measured in calories

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  • Nutrients(continued)Water - solvent for nutrients and metabolic waste productsFound in all body tissueEssential for digestion of foodMakes up most of blood plasma6 to 8 glasses necessary per dayHas no caloric value

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  • 6.1.4Describe six factors that influence caloric needs.

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  • Factors That Influence Caloric NeedAgeSexSize and activity levelClimateState of healthAmount of sleep obtained

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  • 6.1.5Cite nine age-related changes/factors that affect the residents nutritional status.

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  • Age Related Changes/Factors Affecting NutritionNeed for fewer caloriesVitamin and mineral requirements changeDrugs that affect how nutrients are absorbed and usedTeeth/dentures affect ability to chew food

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  • Age Related Changes/Factors Affecting Nutrition(continued)Diminished sense of taste and smellAssistance required with eatingDecreased saliva and gastric juices productionDiscomfort caused by constipationDecreased appetite and thirst

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  • 6.1.6Recognize the signs of good nutrition.

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  • Signs Of Good NutritionHealthy, shiny looking hairClean skin and bright eyesA well-developed, healthy bodyAn alert facial expressionAn even, pleasant disposition

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  • Signs Of Good Nutrition(continued)Restful sleep patternsHealthy appetiteRegular elimination habitsAppropriate body weight

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  • 6.1.7Identify seven results of poor nutrition.

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  • Results of Poor NutritionHair and eyes appear dullIrregular bowel habitsWeight changesOsteoporosis and other diseases

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  • Results of Poor Nutrition(continued)Lack of interest - mental slowdownSkin color and appearance poor

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  • Results of Poor Nutrition(continued)Anemia leading to:tired feelingshortness of breathincreased pulseproblems with digestionpale skinpoor sleep patternsheadaches

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  • 6.2Discuss the six basic food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid that contribute to balanced nutrition.

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  • Dietary Guide For AmericansGuidelines are the foundation of the Food Guide Pyramid and include nine key recommendations.Key recommendation #1: Consume nutrient-dense foods and beverages within calories needed for age, sex and activity level.

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  • Dietary Guide For AmericansKey recommendation #2: To maintain health body weight, balance calories consumed with calories expended. Key recommendation #3: Engage regularly in a variety of physical activities and reduce sedentary activities.

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  • Dietary Guide For AmericansKey recommendation #4: Encourage the following:Choose variety of fruits and vegetables daily.Half of daily grains should come from whole grains.Consume 3 cups fat-free or low fat milk or equivalent milk products daily.

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  • Dietary Guide For AmericansKey recommendation #5: Consume foods and beverages that are low in saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol.Key recommendation #6: For carbohydrates: Choose fiber-rich foods, vegetables and grains often.Reduce intake of sugar- and starch-containing foods.

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  • Dietary Guide For AmericansKey recommendation #7: Consume less than a teaspoon of salt per day.Key recommendation #8: Consume alcoholic beverages in moderation if alcohol intake is permitted.Key recommendation #9: Prepare foods in a safe manner to avoid microbial foodborne illness.

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  • Six Basic Food Groups From the Food Pyramid Guide

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  • Food Pyramid GuideGrain Group (breads, cereal, rice, pasta)Providescarbohydratesmineralsfiber

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  • Food Pyramid GuideGrain Group (breads, cereal, rice, pasta)(continued)1 ounce equivalent is about 1 slice of bread, about 1 cup of breakfast cereal or cup cooked rice, cereal or pasta.

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  • Food Pyramid GuideGrain Group (breads, cereal, rice, pasta)(continued)Daily:6 ounce equivalents for males over 605 ounce equivalents for females over 60

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  • Food Guide Pyramid Vegetable GroupProvides:vitaminsmineralsfiber (roughage)Easier to chew if cooked, chopped or diced

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  • Food Guide PyramidVegetable Group(continued)Chose from all five vegetable subgroups:dark greenorangelegumessta