Unit 6 Nutrition and Hydration

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Unit 6 Nutrition and Hydration. Nurse Aide I Course. Nutrition and Hydration Introduction. This unit introduces the nurse aide to the basic principles of nutrition and emphasizes the functions of the major nutrients required for health. Nutrition and Hydration Introduction (continued). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Unit 6 Nutrition and Hydration

  • Unit 6Nutrition and HydrationNurse Aide I Course

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Nutrition and HydrationIntroductionThis unit introduces the nurse aide to the basic principles of nutrition and emphasizes the functions of the major nutrients required for health.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Nutrition and HydrationIntroduction(continued)This unit covers the Food Guide Pyramid, the use of therapeutic diets, adaptive devices, alternative methods of feeding, providing water and nourishments, the procedure for feeding a resident, and the effects of good nutrition and poor nutrition.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Nutrition and HydrationIntroduction(continued)Knowledge of nutrition will enable the nurse aide to recognize the important relationship between food and good health.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • 6.0Identify the general principles of basic nutrition.6.1Identify factors that influence dietary practices.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Good NutritionPromotes physical and mental healthProvides increased resistance to illnessProduces added energy and vitality

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Good Nutrition(continued)Aids in healing processAssists one to feel and sleep better

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  • Functions of FoodProvides energyGrowth and repair of tissueMaintenance and regulation of body processes

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Factors Influencing Dietary PracticesPersonal preferenceAppetiteFinanceIllnessCulture

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • 6.1.1Review cultural variations in diet.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Culture and Dietary PracticesThe diets of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and people from Far East include rice and tea The diets of Spanish-speaking people include spicy dishes containing rice, beans and corn

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Culture and Dietary Practices(continued)The Italian diet includes spaghetti, lasagna, and other pastasScandinavians have a lot of fish in their diets

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Culture and Dietary Practices(continued)Americans eat a lot of meat, fast foods, and processed foodsUse of sauce and spices are culturally related

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Culture and Food PreparationFryingBakingSmoking RoastingFresh/raw

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • 6.1.2List seven examples of foods avoided by some religious denominations.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Religion and Dietary PracticesDays of fasting when all or certain foods are avoided.Christian Science - avoid coffee/tea and alcoholRoman Catholic - avoid food one hour before communion, observe special fast days

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Muslim/Moslem - avoid alcohol, pork products7th Day Adventist - avoid coffee/tea, alcohol, pork and some meats, caffeine

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Baptists some avoid coffee, tea and alcoholGreek Orthodox - fast days, but usually forgiven when ill

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  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Conservative Jewish faithProhibits shellfish, non-kosher meats such as porkRequires special utensils for food preparation

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Conservative Jewish faithForbids cooking on SabbathForbids eating of leavened bread during Passover

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Religion and Dietary Practices(continued)Conservative Jewish faithForbids serving milk and milk products with meatStrict rules regarding sequence in which milk products and meat may be consumed

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • 6.1.3Review the major classification of nutrients and their function in the body.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Nutrients Nutrients are essentialFour classifications of nutrientsFats - provide energy, help body use certain vitamins, conserve body heat and protect organs from injuryProteins build and repair tissue

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  • Nutrients(continued) Four classifications of nutrients (continued)Carbohydrates - provide energy and fiber that help in bowel eliminationVitamins and minerals - ingested through food and are necessary for carrying out and maintaining specific body functions

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Nutrients(continued)Fats, proteins and carbohydrates measured in calories

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  • Nutrients(continued)Water - solvent for nutrients and metabolic waste productsFound in all body tissueEssential for digestion of foodMakes up most of blood plasma6 to 8 glasses necessary per dayHas no caloric value

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • 6.1.4Describe six factors that influence caloric needs.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Factors That Influence Caloric NeedAgeSexSize and activity levelClimateState of healthAmount of sleep obtained

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  • 6.1.5Cite nine age-related changes/factors that affect the residents nutritional status.

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  • Age Related Changes/Factors Affecting NutritionNeed for fewer caloriesVitamin and mineral requirements changeDrugs that affect how nutrients are absorbed and usedTeeth/dentures affect ability to chew food

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  • Age Related Changes/Factors Affecting Nutrition(continued)Diminished sense of taste and smellAssistance required with eatingDecreased saliva and gastric juices productionDiscomfort caused by constipationDecreased appetite and thirst

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  • 6.1.6Recognize the signs of good nutrition.

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  • Signs Of Good NutritionHealthy, shiny looking hairClean skin and bright eyesA well-developed, healthy bodyAn alert facial expressionAn even, pleasant disposition

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  • Signs Of Good Nutrition(continued)Restful sleep patternsHealthy appetiteRegular elimination habitsAppropriate body weight

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  • 6.1.7Identify seven results of poor nutrition.

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  • Results of Poor NutritionHair and eyes appear dullIrregular bowel habitsWeight changesOsteoporosis and other diseases

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  • Results of Poor Nutrition(continued)Lack of interest - mental slowdownSkin color and appearance poor

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  • Results of Poor Nutrition(continued)Anemia leading to:tired feelingshortness of breathincreased pulseproblems with digestionpale skinpoor sleep patternsheadaches

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  • DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • 6.2Discuss the six basic food groups that contribute to a well-balanced diet.

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Food Guide Pyramid Vegetable GroupProvides:vitaminsmineralsfiber (roughage)Easier to chew if cooked, chopped or diced

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  • Food Guide PyramidVegetable Group(continued)Three to five servings daily. One serving is equal to:one cup raw leafy, green and yellow vegetables cup other cooked or chopped raw vegetables cup vegetable juice

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  • Food Pyramid GuideFruit GroupProvidesvitaminsmineralsfiber (roughage)

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  • Food Pyramid GuideFruit Group(continued)Two to four servings daily. One serving is equal to:one piece of fruit (a medium size apple, orange or banana) cup chopped, cooked or canned fruit cup of juice

    DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • Food Pyramid GuideMilk, Yogurt, Cheese GroupProvidesproteinsvitamins (A)minerals (calcium)carbohydratesfat

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  • Food Pyramid GuideMilk, Yogurt, Cheese Group(continued)Two to three servings daily. One serving is equal to:8 oz glass of milk or yogurt to 1 oz cheese2 ounces of processed cheese

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  • Food Pyramid GuideGrain Group (breads, cereal, rice, pasta)Providescarbohydratesmineralsroughage

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  • Food Pyramid GuideGrain Group (breads, cereal, rice, pasta)(continued)Six to eleven servings daily. One serving is equal to:1 slice of bread or roll1/2 cup of cooked rice, cereal or pasta1 cup uncooked cereal

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  • Food Pyramid GuideMeat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs and Nuts GroupProvidesproteinfatsvitaminsminerals

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  • Food Pyramid GuideMeat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs and Nuts Group(continued)Two to three servings daily. One serving equals:2 to 3 oz of cooked lean meat, poultry or fish1/2 cup of cooked beans2 tablespoons of peanut butter1 egg

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  • Food Pyramid GuideFats, Oil and Sweets GroupProvideslittle to no nutritional valuehigh in caloriesuse sparinglyNo recommended servings or serving sizes

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  • Food Pyramid GuideFats, Oil and Sweets Group(continued)Includes:cooking oils, shortening, butter and margarinesalad dressingsoft drinksall candycakes and piesall alcoholic beveragessour cream and cream cheese

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  • DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 6

  • 6.3Define a therapeutic diet and recognize the