Ual level 2 certificate in drawing why draw
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UAL Level 2 Certificate in Drawing
There are many different reasons why people draw:
to visualise thought and work something out. to provide a pattern to follow or give instructions how to make something to help clients visualise what is proposed; to describe or record something; to give pleasure as ends in themselves.
Drawings made to help their makers visualise thought
First Concept of a Front-wheel Drive, Transverse-engine VehicleFirst Concept of a Front-Wheel Drive, Transverse-Engine Vehicle
Alec Issigonis (1906–1988)Britain1956Ballpoint pen and pencil on wove paperWidth 25.3 cm x height 32.9 cmMuseum no. E.210-1992Bequeathed by the designer
This sketch helped Issigonis to think through his ideas for the design of a car along new principles.
Sketch of the Pilgrim for' Love and the Pilgrim'
Edward Coley Burne-Jones (1833-1898)Britain
1869Chalk on paperSketchbook width 14.6 cm x height 26.2 cmMuseum no. E.1613-1926
This figure is draped in the finished composition but on this sheet the artist has tried out variations of the pose with the figure naked. The finished composition is known as a painting on which the artist worked for some twenty years and as an embroidery.
First Thoughts for the Building for the Great Exhibition of 1851First Thoughts for the Building for the Great Exhibition of 1851Joseph Paxton (1791-1865)Britain1850Ink on blotting paperWidth 28 cm x height 39.1 cmMuseum no. E.575-1985
Paxton had these thoughts during a board meeting of the Midland Railway, hence the doodle on blotting paper. The sketches show a cross section and a side elevation.
Christ Crowned with ThornsAnthony Van Dyke (1599-1641)BelgiumAbout 1620Ink and brown wash on laid paperWidth 20.7 cm x height 23.3 cmMuseum no. Dyce 525
This is one of several studies that Van Dyke made for this subject of which he made two paintings. The studies enabled him to experiment with the content, structure and mood of the final paintings. Ultimately the subject was treated with greater restraint than in this study. The sketch was thus made as part of his thinking towards the finished composition.
Studies for the painting ‘The death of Decius Mus’Studies for the painting ‘The death of Decius Mus’Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)NetherlandsAbout 1617Black chalk, heightened with white on laid paperWidth 31 cm x height 41.2 cm
Museum no. Dyce 516. The vigorously drawn studies on this sheet show the painter experimenting freely with various arm movements which are key features in the finished painting.
Drawings made to provide a pattern or give instructions
Design for an altarDesign for an altarFrancesco di Simone (1437-1493)ItalyAbout 1460-1490Black chalk, ink and wash on laid paperWidth 28 cm x height 44.5 cmMuseum no. 4903
There are seven known drawings by Simone (including two others in the V&A’s collection) which show him trying out different combinations of tabernacles and altars as if he were trying to work out the most elegant solution.
Cartoon for Stained Glass
Cartoon for Stained GlassFord Madox Brown (1821-1893)BritainAbout 1860Pencil and wash on wove paper; squaredWidth 36.2 x height 99.4 cmMuseum no. E.2906-1927
This drawing is the same size as the window for which it is the design. Such designs are termed ‘cartoons’. The main wash lines indicate the lead lines. Pencil notes provide colour details.
Design for a Bureau BookcaseDesign for a Bureau BookcaseThomas Chippendale (about 1718-1779)BritainAbout 1750Ink and wash on laid paperWidth 14.1 cm x height 31.7 cmMuseum no. D.699-1906
This drawing was made for reproduction in Chippendale’s 'Gentleman and cabinet-maker’s director', first published in 1754. It enabled patrons to make selections and craftsmen to find inspiration and guidance for their work.
Pattern for the Decoration of a Majolica DishPattern for the Decoration of a Majolica DishBattista Franco (known as Semolei) (about 1498-1561)Italy16th centuryInk and wash, concentric circles drawn with a compass on laid paperDiameter 26 cmMuseum no. 2404
A dish is known with the pattern of putti around the rim but it has a different central composition. Only half of the rim pattern is drawn as the majolica painter will have known to paint in a mirror image.
Design for Lower Stages of the Tower of Ulm CathedralDesign for Lower Stages of the Tower of Ulm CathedralAttributed to Moritz Ensinger (about 1430-1793) Germany About 1470Ink on vellumWidth 68 cm x height 181 cmMuseum no. 3547
Ensinger was the master mason in charge of the cathedral works and this drawing will have been made in order to show how work should proceed. In fact the tower was not completed until the late 19th century and a slightly later drawing formed the basis of its design.
How King Arthur Saw the Questing Beast and Therefore Had a Great MarvelAubrey Beardsley (1872-1898)Britain1893Ink and wash on wove paperWidth 27.1 cm x height 37.8 cmMuseum no. E.289-1972
This drawing is a design for illustration. It was reproduced photographically and on a smaller scale as the frontispiece to vol.1 of Thomas Malory’s 'Le Morte D’Arthur'.
Drawings made to help clients visualise what is proposed
Working Drawing for the Manufacture of a Carving ForkWorking Drawing for the Manufacture of a Carving ForkRobert Welch’s workshopBritain1964Ink on wove tracing paperWidth 47.4 cm x height 35.1 cmMuseum no. Circ.655-1965
This drawing shows the guard movement of the fork. It is one of a series of precise actual size construction guides to the manufacturer of the final prototype from which the dies for the carving set were cut. Nine more related drawings
Design for a Monument to General WolfeDesign for a Monument to General WolfeJohn Michael Rysbrack (1694-1770)BritainAbout 1760Ink, wash and water-colour on laid paperWidth 24.3 cm x height 33.5 cmMuseum no. E.277-1973
There is not enough information in this drawing to enable the monument to be constructed, nor does it have the freedom of a drawing which is part of the thought process. The clarity of its outline and the way the different materials are carefully rendered suggests that it was made for presentation to the selecting committee.
Wardour Castle, WiltshireWardour Castle, WiltshireJames Paine (about 1716-1789)BritainAbout 1768Ink and water-colour on laid paperWidth 47.9 cm x height 59.7 cmMuseum no. 8416.3
This drawing shows a section through the house and thus includes many of its grandest features. It is one of many that the architect made to show his client clearly and attractively how his plans would materialise.
Elevation and plan of the Temple of Clitumnus, Spoleto
John Soane (1753-1837)BritainAbout 1779Ink and wash on laid paperWidth 41.5 cm x height 42.4 cmMuseum no. 3436.187
Soane drew this building while touring Italy. It was admired particularly in his guidebook written by Lady Anna Miller. He wrote offering her the drawing and subsequent correspondence revealed that his hope was to construct a facsimile of the temple in her garden.
Design for a Sauce Tureen and StandUnknown About 1790Britain Ink and wash on laid paperWidth 33.5 cm x height 23.3 cmMuseum no. 8389.1
This drawing is inscribed 'This drawing was made from the Sauce Tureen & Stand You so much approved off (sic)' when in London. It must have been a means of reminding a prospective client of an object that had caught his eye.
Drawings made to describe or record
A Range of Hygena Ltd. Kitchen Units and FittingsA Range of Hygena Ltd. Kitchen Units and FittingsGeorge Féjer (born 1912)Britain1962Ink and chalks on wove paperWidth 50.5 cm x height 40.6 cmMuseum no. E.244-1978
Terracotta Models by Giambologna for the Fountain of the Apennine with a Detail of the Base of the Fountain of SampsonTerracotta Models by Giambologna for the Fountain of the Apennine with a Detail of the Base of the Fountain of SampsonPietro Francavilla (1548-1615)Italy1560 - 1602Ink and chalk on laid paperWidth 10 cm x height 13.7 cmMuseum no. E.695-1993
Francavilla was Giambologna’s assistant and it is thought that he made these drawings as a record of models stored in the studio.
View in Borrowdale of Mountains and a TreeJohn Constable (1776-1837)Britain1806Pencil and water-colour on wove paperWidth 27.3 cm x height 19.1 cmMuseum no. 187-88Isobel Constable Bequest
The inscription on the reverse of the drawing: ‘Borrowdale 4 Oct 1806 - Dark Autumnal day at noon – tone more blooming that [‘that’ scored out] this… the effect exceedingly terrific [‘terrific’ scored out] terrific – and much like the beautiful Gaspar I saw in Margaret St.’ makes it clear that Constable was concentrating on capturing or recording a specific light effect.
Diagrammatic Copy to Reduced Scale of Part of a Textile DesignDiagrammatic Copy to Reduced Scale of Part of a Textile DesignUnknownBritainAbout 1885-1905Ink on wove tracing paperWidth 12.3 cm x height 3.4 cmMuseum no. E.1126-1970
This drawing is from a credit book compiled by the textile manufacturer, Arthur H.Lee & Sons Ltd, 1885-1905 as a source of ready reference. The design for the textile is also in the V&A’s collection.
Perspective View of the Cashier’s Desk and Cloaks Counter, Fischer’s Restaurant and Long Bar, New Bond Street, LondonRaymond McGrath (1903-1977)Britain1932Pencil, chalks and gouache on wove tracing paperWidth 33.5 cm x height 27 cmMuseum no. Circ.565-1974
McGrath made this drawing to convey to the client in an atmospheric way, the structure, colour and lighting of his proposal for the restaurant’s interior. Tracing paper will have been used as a quick way of tracing in the composition prior to colouring.
The Gallery at SyonUnknownBritainAbout 1820Pen and ink and watercolour on paperMuseum no. E.1063-1940
This drawing records the appearance of the gallery at Syon and was reproduced exactly in 'The works of architecture of Robert and James Adam, volume III, plate II, 1822'.
Studies of Lemon BlossomFrederic Leighton (1830-1896)Britain1859Pencil on toned wove paperWidth 15.7 cm x height 22.8 cmMuseum no. E.3803-1910
Leighton made this on-the-spot study in Capri. He records on the sheet 'buds pink violet'. Although blossom of this kind appears again and again in his paintings this drawing was made in order to extend his understanding of the details of the blossom and their relationship to each other with no specific painting in mind.
Drawing to illustrate lectures on Botany, given at the Government School of Design,
Christopher Dresser (1834-1904)BritainAbout 1855Pencil and water-colourWidth 75.5 x height 55 cmMuseum no. 3968
Christopher Dresser, designer and writer on design, began his career teaching botany. This is one of a series of drawings of elements of flowers that he drew in a diagrammatic form to help him explain principles of biology.
Drawings made to give pleasureStudies of a Standing Man and of a Head
Studies of a Standing Man and of a HeadAntoine Watteau (1684-1721)France1720Red chalk on laid paperWidth 18 cm x height 31.9 cmMuseum no. CAI 258
By the 17th century sketches were popular because of the extent to which they provide insight into the artist’s thought processes. As result many artists made sketches specifically for sale. The sketches on this sheet do not relate to any of Watteau’s more finished compositions. It is likely they were drawn specifically to cater for the trade in sketches.
Architectural CapriccioAntonio Canal (called Canaletto)(1697-1768)ItalyAbout 1755Ink and wash over pencil on laid paperWidth 38.4 cm x height 25.1 cmMuseum no. E.3791-1934
This drawing combines certain features of Montague House, London, with imaginary structures. Many drawings mixing actual buildings with imagined ones are known for such drawings were popular with collectors.
Girl’s Head, the Face with an Expression of PainGirl’s Head, the Face with an Expression of PainAttributed to Jean-Baptiste Greuze (1726-1805)FranceLate 18th centuryBlack chalk with traces of heightening on grey wove paperWidth 20.4 cm x height 28.3 cmMuseum no. Dyce 604
Greuze made a great many studies of expression, some in preparation for specific paintings and others, like this sketch, as works in their own right. Known as 'têtes d’expression' they were much sought after by collectors.
Portrait of Mrs MackieJean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867)France1816Pencil on wove paperWidth 16.5 cm x height 17 cmMuseum no. E.230-1946Given by Miss Winifred M. Giles in memory of her sister, Miss Alice M. Giles, through the National Art Collections Fund
Ingres made many portraits like this while in Rome. They were commissioned as works in their own right as souvenirs for the sitters.
Small SoundpieceSmall SoundpieceSîan Bowen (born 1959)Britain1999Pencil on a fragment of wallpaperWidth 18 cm x height 24 cmMuseum no. E.359-2005
Maybe Icon of the DepositionDeanna Petherbridge (born 1939)Britain1984Ink and washesWidth 51.4 cm x height 73 cmMuseum no. P.5-1985
Petherbridge is an example of an artist for whom drawing is her chosen medium of expression. She has said: ‘In my own work I’ve never done preliminary drawing, because it’s sometimes difficult to repeat something or to continue when the urgency’s gone. I work on drawing as a final product. It is my entire visual art practice: I eat, sleep, think, write about, and do drawing’.