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Transcript of Typography - · PDF fileTypography Typography is what ... a quick primer. Transitional...

  • TypographyTypography is what language looks like.

  • TypographyTypography is what language looks like.

    One thing absolutely necessary for working with type is knowing its history:

    what came after what and, more importantly, why.

  • 6000 BC 113 CE(1st century)

    732 1400800 BC1200 BC3200 BC

    Pictograms Hieroglyphs Phoenicians Greek Roman Scribes Gutenberg

    a quick primer

  • Transitional Modern Contemporary

    1700 1800 1970

    Arts & Crafts

    1900

    Swiss

    1950

    Classical/Oldstyle

    1490

  • Transitional Modern Contemporary

    1500 1700 1800 1970

    Classical/Oldstyle Arts & Crafts

    1900

    Swiss

    1950

    Nicolas Jenson

    pietro Bembo

    Claude Garamond

  • Classical/OldstyleNicolas Jensonfrancesco Griffopietro BemboClaude Garamond

    Classical, or humanist types, have strong roots in calligraphy, mimicking the handwriting of earlier Italian scholars and scribes.

    Old Style types, although sharing the same roots, show a marked departure. Its from this period, that type gets into gear.

  • A specimen of Nicolas Jensons archetypal Roman typefaceLaertis, Venice, 1475

    nicolas jenson1420-14801420-1480

  • centaurbruce rogers, 1914abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    CloisterMorris Fuller Benton, 1926aBCdeFghijklMnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Adobe JensonRobert Slimbach, 1996AbcdefghiJklmnopqRStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    nicolas jenson inspired Typefaces(Humanist)

  • francesco Griffo

    A specimen of Griffos typeface, from a 60-page text about a journey to Mount Aetna written by the young Italian poet Pietro BemboDe Aetna, Venice, 1495

    (worked for Venetian printer, Aldus Manutius)1450-1518

  • francesco Griffoinspired Typefaces

    BemboStanley Morison, 1929 aBcdefghijklMnopqrStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    MinionRobert Slimbach, 1990 abcdefghijklMnopqRStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • claude Garamond

    Parisian type founder, publisher, punch cutter, type designerGaramonds roman text face, (based on type from De Aetna) 1540

    1480-1561

  • claude Garamondinspired TypefacesAdobe GaramondRobert Slimbach, 1989 AbcdefGhijklmnopqRStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Adobe Garamond Premier ProRobert Slimbach, 2004AbcdefGhijklmnoPqRStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    SabonJan Tschichold, 1967abcdefghiJklmnopqrSTuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • Transitional Modern Contemporary

    1500 1700 1800 1970

    Classical/Oldstyle Arts & Crafts

    1900

    Swiss

    1950

    Nicolas Jenson

    pietro Bembo

    Claude Garamond

    William Caslon

    John Baskerville

  • TransitionalWilliam CaslonJohn Baskerville

    This new type design, belonging to the 18th century, is now called Transitional because of its intermediate position between the Old Style and Modern styles.

    Faces features higher level of contrast, mostly vertical stress, and a more linear, austere design.

  • william caslon1692-1766

    English roman, a Latin text face of the Caslon typefaces. Caslon Specimen Sheet, 1764

  • william casloninspired TypefacesAdobe CaslonCarol Twombly, 1990 AbCdefghijklmnopqrsTuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Caslon Open FaceBarnhart Brothers and Spindler,1915aBCdeFghijklmnOpqrStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • john baskerville

    English businessman, printer and typographer.Folio Bible, Cambridge, 1763

    1706-1775

  • john baskervilleinspired TypefacesBaskervilleBruce Rogers, 1917aBcdefghijklmnopqRstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Baskerville Old FaceStanley Morrison, 1923aBcdeFghijklMnOpqrStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Mrs. EavesZuzana Licko, 1996abCdEfgHijkLMnopqrstuVwxyZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • Transitional Modern

    Giambattista Bodoni

    frederic Goudy

    slab serifs

    Grotesques

    Contemporary

    1500 1700 1800 1970

    Classical/Oldstyle Arts & Crafts

    1900

    Swiss

    1950

    Nicolas Jenson

    pietro Bembo

    Claude Garamond

    William Caslon

    John Baskerville

  • ModernGiambattista Bodonislab serifsfrederic GoudyGrotesque

    Modern fonts have drastically increased contrast, leading this parameter almost to the edge of legibility and technical feasibility.

    The most notable Modern offsprings are slab serif fonts (New Century Schoolbook is the most widely used Clarendon font).

  • GiambaTTisTa bodoni

    Italian typographer, most prolific creator of type.Manuale Tipografico, parma, 1818

    1740-1813

  • GiambaTTisTa bodoniinspired TypefacesBauer BodoniHeinrich Jost, 1926aBcdefgHiJklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Bodoni ATFMorris Fuller Benton, 1907ABcdeFghijklMnopqrsTuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    FilosofiaZuzana Licko, 1996abcdeFghijkLmnopqrstuvwxyZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • DidotFirmin Didot, 1811abcDeFghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    WalbaumJE Walbaum, 1800abcdEfghiJklmnopqrstuvWxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    similar neoclassical faces

  • What Prompted Change?18th Century

    19th Century

    pinnacle for letterpress printing

    Mechanicazation offers greater speed at lower quality. Didot and Bodoni cannot survive poor printing conditions, and thick slabs and grotesques are developed.

  • slab serifs

  • clarendon

    One of the first egyptian slab serif typefaces

    Created by robert besley (England), 1845

  • clarendoninspired TypefacesCentury SchoolbookMorris Fuller Benton, 1918aBCdeFghijklMnopqrStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Goudy Old StyleFrederic Goudy, 1915abcdeFGhijklmnOpqrStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • clarendoninspired TypefacesCentury Schoolbook

    aBCdeFgabcdefgqaGoudy Old Style

    abcdeFGabcdefgqa

    Didot

    abcDeFgabcdefg qa

    Bodoni

    ABcdeFgabcdefg qa

  • wood TypeMetal type casting was limited to a few inches in height due to difficulties of casting larger type, the weight and the cost.

    Darius Wells invented the lateral router (1820), a saw that could cut curves in wood allowing for the production of a lighter, larger and cheaper letterform.

    1820s

  • woodTypeinspired Typefacesrosewoodadobeabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    KnockoutHoefler & Frere-Jones, 2004abcdeFgHiJKlmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • GroTesqueEarly sans-serifs

    Didot

    abcDeFgabcdefg qa

    Akzidenz GroteskHermann Berthold, 1898ABcdefGHijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • Akzidenz GroteskHermann Berthold, 1898ABcdefGHijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Franklin GothicMorris Fuller Benton, 1872aBcdeFGhijklMnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    GroTesque

  • Transitional Modern

    Giambattista Bodoni

    frederic Goudy

    slab serifs

    Grotesques

    Contemporary

    1500 1700 1800 1970

    Classical/Oldstyle Arts & Crafts

    1900

    Swiss

    1950

    Nicolas Jenson

    pietro Bembo

    Claude Garamond

    William Caslon

    John Baskerville

    Charles rennie Mackintosh

    erik Gill

    paul renner

    futura

    Memphis

  • Arts & CraftsCharles rennie Mackintosh

    erik Gill

    Arts & Crafts movement set out to revive the use of fine typography.

    The typography from Arts & Crafts is characterized as decorative and flourished.

  • charles rennie mackinTosh

    Scottish architect, designer and sculptor.

    1868-1928

  • mackinTosh inspired Typefaces

  • eric Gill

    British sculptor, typeface designer, stonecutter and printmakerTitle Page: Troilus and Criseyde, wood Engraving, 1929

    1882-1940

  • Gill TypefacesGill Sans (based on Caslon)1927abCdefGhijklmnopqrStuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Perpetua (based on Baskerville)1926aBcdefghijklmnoPqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Joanna (based on Garamond)1931abcdefGhiJklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • paul renner

    German typeface designerSwiss National Tourist Office, Zurich, 1933

    1876-1956

  • renner TypefacesFutura1927abcdeFghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Braggadocio (based on Futura Black)Monotype Corporation, 1930aBCdeFghijklMnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

    Gotham (inspired by Futura)2000abcdeFGhijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz123456789

  • Transitional Modern

    Giambattista Bodoni

    frederic Goudy

    slab serifs

    Grotesques

    Contemporary

    1500 1700 1800 1970

    Classical/Oldstyle Arts & Crafts

    1900

    Charles rennie Mackintosh

    erik Gill

    paul renner

    futura

    Memphis

    Swiss

    1950

    Nicolas Jenson

    pietro Bembo

    Claude Garamond

    William Caslon

    John Baskerville

    adrian frutiger

    Max Miedinger

    Jan tschichold

    helvetica

    univers

  • Swissadrian frutigerMax MiedingerJan tschichold

    The Swiss Style (also known as the International Typographic Style), developed in Switzerland in the 1950s.

    It emphasizes cleanliness, readability and objectivity. Hallmarks of the Swiss style are asymmetric layouts, use of a grid, sans-serif typefaces, and flush left, ragg