of 19 /19
Turbulent Dynamo Stanislav Boldyrev (Wisconsin-Madison) Fausto Cattaneo (Chicago) r for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Pl

kele
• Category

Documents

• view

81

0

TAGS:

• analogy of magnetic

Embed Size (px)

description

Turbulent Dynamo. Stanislav Boldyrev (Wisconsin-Madison) Fausto Cattaneo (Chicago). Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas. Questions. 1. Can turbulence amplify a weak magnetic field?. What are the scales and growth rates of magnetic fields?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Turbulent Dynamo

Turbulent Dynamo

Fausto Cattaneo (Chicago)

Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas

Questions

1. Can turbulence amplify a weak magnetic field?

2. What are the scales and growth rates of magnetic fields?

Kinematic Theory

MHD Equations

v + (v¢r)v = -rp + (r£B)£B + v + f

B = r£(v£B) + B

Pm=/ - magnetic Prandtl number

Rm=VL/ - magnetic Reynolds number

V1

V2

B

B

Kinematic dynamo

Re=VL/ - Reynolds number

Kinematic Turbulent Dynamo: Phenomenology

B = r£(v£B) + B V(x, t) is given.

Consider turbulent velocity field V(x,t) with the spectrum:

K

EK

K0 K

K-5/3

V / 1/3

» /V/ -2/3

smaller eddies rotate faster

Magnetic field is most efficiently amplified by the smallest eddies

in which it is frozen.The size of such eddies is defined

by resistivity.

» 1/K

B

Kinematic Turbulent Dynamo: Phenomenology

K

EK

K0 K

K-5/3

K K

EM(K)

Role of resistivity

Small Prandtl number, Large Prandtl number,

Dynamo growth rate: Dynamo growth rate:

“smooth” velocity V/ “rough” velocity V / 1/3

» 1/ » 1/

PM´ /¿ 1 PMÀ 1

Phenomenology: Large Prandtl Number Dynamo

Large Prandtl number PM=/ À 1Interstellar and

intergalactic media

K

EK

K0 K

K-5/3

K

EM(K)

Magnetic lines are folded

Schekochihin et al (2004)

B

Cattaneo (1996)

Phenomenology: Small Prandtl Number Dynamo

Small Prandtl number PM=/ ¿ 1

Stars, planets, accretion disks,

liquid metal experimentsKK0 KK

EKK-5/3

EM(K)

V » 1/3

/ (RM)-3/4

» /V / 2/3

» 1// (RM)1/2

Dynamo growth rate:

[S.B. & F. Cattaneo (2004)] Numerics: Haugen et al (2004)

RM

Kinematic Turbulent Dynamo: Theory

B = r£(v£B) + B V(x, t) is a given turbulent field

Two Major Questions:

1. What is the dynamo threshold, i.e., the critical magnetic Reynolds number RM, crit ?

2. What is the spatial structure of the growing magnetic field (characteristic scale, spectrum)?

from dimensional estimates!

Kinematic Turbulent Dynamo: Theory

Dynamo is a net effect of magnetic line stretching and resistive reconnection.

RM > RM, crit : stretching wins,

dynamo

RM < RM, crit : reconnection wins,

no dynamo

RM=RM, crit: stretching balances reconnection:

B

When RM exceeds RM, crit only slightly, it takes

many turnover times to amplify the field

Kinematic Turbulent Dynamo: Kazantsev Model

No Dynamo Dynamo

incompressibility

homogeneity and isotropy

Kazantsev Model: Large Prandtl Number

Large Prandtl number: PM=/ À 1

Kazantsev model predicts:

1. Dynamo is possible;

2. EM(K)/ K3/2

Schekochihin et al (2004)

Numerics agree with both results:

If we know (r, t), we know growth rate and spectrum of magnetic filed

K

EK

K0 K

K-5/3

K

EM(K)

Kazantsev Model: Small Prandtl Number

PM=/ ¿ 1

KK0 KK

EK K-5/3

EM(K)

Is turbulent dynamo possible?

Batchelor (1950): “analogy of magnetic field and vorticity.” No

Kraichnan & Nagarajan (1967):

“analogy with vorticity does not work.” ?Vainshtein & Kichatinov (1986): Yes

Direct numerical simulations: (2004): No (2007): Yes

resolution

Small Prandtl Number: Dynamo Is Possible

K

EK

K0 K

K-5/3

K

EM(K)

KK0 KK

EK K-5/3

EM(K)

Keep RM constant. Add small-scale eddies (increase Re).

PM=/ À 1 PM=/ ¿ 1

Kazantsev model: dynamo action is always possible, but for rough velocity (PM¿1) the critical magnetic Reynolds number (RM=LV/) is very large.

Kazantsev Model: Small Prandtl Number

TheoryS. B. & F. Cattaneo (2004)

SimulationsP. Mininni et al (2004)A. Iskakov et al (2007)

RM

, cr

itL

/

May be crucial for laboratory dynamo, PM¿ 1

Re

PMÀ 1PM¿ 1

smooth velocity Kolmogorov (rough) velocity

Kinematic Dynamo with Helicity

K

EK

K0 K

K-5/3

K

It is natural to expect that turbulence can amplify magnetic

field at K ¸ K0

Can turbulence amplify

magnetic field at K ¿ K0 ? Yes, if velocity field has nonzero helicity“large-scale dynamo”

Dynamo with Helicity: Kazantsev Model

energy helicity

magnetic energy magnetic helicity

given

need to find

Equations for M(r, t) and F(r, t) were derived by Vainshtein and Kichatinov (1986)

h=s v¢ (r £ v)d3 x 0

Dynamo with Helicity: Kazantsev Model

Two equations for magnetic energy and magnetic helicity can be written in the quantum-mechanical “spinor” form:

h=s v¢ (r £ v)d3 x 0

r

r

h=s v¢ (r £ v)d3 x 0

S. B. , F. Cattaneo & R. Rosner (2004)

Kazantsev model and -model

r

- model

Kazantsev model, NO scale separation

The - model approaches the exact solution only at r 1

assumes scale separation

Conclusions

1. Main aspects of kinematic turbulent dynamo is relatively well understood both phenomenologically and analytically.

2. Dynamo always exists, but

3. Separation of small- and large-scale may be not a correct procedure.

PM

RM, crit

1