Trends in International Migration & Capital Movement

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Transcript of Trends in International Migration & Capital Movement

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    INDEX

    SR. NO. TOPIC PAGE NO.

    1. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATIONS 2

    2. TRENDS IN LABOUR MIGRATION 3

    3. CAUSES OF LABOUR MIGRATION 4

    4. EFFECTS OF LABOUR MIGRATION 6

    5. INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MOVEMENT 10

    6. TYPES OF CAPITAL MOVEMENTS 11

    7. DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLOW 17

    8. ROLE OF FOREIGN CAPITAL 20

    . IMPACT OF FOREIGN CAPITAL 22

    10. DRAWBAC!S OF FOREIGN CAPITAL 24

    11. CAPITAL FLOWS TO INDIA 26

    12. CONCLUSION 28

    13. BIBLIOGRAP"Y 2

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    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION

    Each year millions of women and men leave their homes and cross national borders in search of 

    greater security for themselves and their families. “Throughout human history, migration has been a

    courageous expression of the individual’s will to overcome adversity and to live a better life” (!,

    "##$, p. %&. 'any migrants are motivated by the uest for higher wages and better opportunities,

    responding to the demand for their s)ills abroad, but many others are forced to migrate because of 

    famine, natural disasters, violent conflict, persecution or simply a lac) of decent wor) in their home

    country. The *lobal +ommission on nternational 'igration (*+'& describes the driving forces in

    international migration in terms of “-s”/ development, demography and democracy (*+',

    "##%&. 0idening disparities in income, wealth, human rights and security across countries serve as

     push factors towards migration. 'igration in search of wor) has increasingly become a livelihood

    strategy for both women and men because of the lac) of opportunities for full employment and decent wor) in many developing countries. 1t the same time, the proliferation of s)ill2intensive

    economic sectors, increased demand for s)illed wor)ers, reluctance of local wor)ers to accept

    certain low2s)illed 3obs, and demographic trends such as population decline and population ageing

    in ma3or destination countries act as strong pull factors. 1 growing number of nations are involved

    with migration as countries of origin, destination or transit, or all three. The ma3ority of migrants

    move in search of employment, ta)ing their families with them4 it is estimated that there will be "56

    million international migrants in the world in "#5# (!7, "##8&. 1lmost half of international

    migrants are women, most of whom are now migrating on their own, rather than primarily as family

    members of other migrants.

    nternational 9abour :ffice estimates that economically active migrants will number some 5#%.6

    million in "#5#4 these and family members accompanying them will account for almost 8# per cent

    of total international migrants. :nly about ;ation (9:&5 approaches

    migration from a labour mar)et and decent wor) perspective within the overarching framewor) of 

    its ecent 0or) for 1ll agenda (9:, "##;a&. 0hile international migration can be a positive

    experience for migrant wor)ers, many suffer poor wor)ing and living conditions, including low

    wages, unsafe wor)ing environments, a virtual absence of social protection, denial of freedom of 

    association and wor)ers’ rights, discrimination and xenophobia. 'igrant integration policies in

    many destination countries leave much to be desired. espite a demonstrated demand for wor)ers,

    numerous immigration barriers persist in destination countries. 1s a result, an increasing proportion

    of migrants are now migrating through irregular channels, which has understandably been a cause of concern for the international community. 1s large numbers of wor)ers < particularly young

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     people < migrate to more developed countries where legal avenues for immigration are limited,

    many fall prey to criminal syndicates of smugglers and traffic)ers in human beings, leading to gross

    violations of human rights. espite international standards to protect migrants, their rights as

    wor)ers are too often undermined, especially if their status is irregular.

    TRENDS IN INERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION

    The nited !ations 7opulation ivision (!7& estimates that the world’s stoc) of migrants,

    defined as persons residing outside their country of birth or citi>enship, will be "56 million in "#5#.

    Thus, even though the percentage of the global population who migrate internationally is small (as

    noted above, about - per cent per year&, the total number is large < and it has more than doubled

    since 58=#, when it stood at 5#" million. The ! figures show the largest increase for 588#,

    reflecting the brea)2up of the ??@ into a number of independent countries, which added about ";

    million people to the total international migrant stoc). t should be noted, however, that many of 

    those in the former ??@ did not actually move, and some part of the statistical increase is

    accounted for by the fact that they were within newly defined national borders. This contributed to

    the growing share of migrants in the world population from ".- per cent in 58;% to -.5 per cent in

    "#5# (!7, "##8&. :ut of the total number, $# per cent were estimated to live in developed

    regions. nternational migrants represent between ; per cent and "# per cent of the population in

    most :rganisation for Economic +o2operation and evelopment (:E+& countries, while the share

    is much higher in the *ulf ?tates (see figure 5.5&. The large ma3ority of these people are migrants

    for employment and their families. t is interesting to note that the distribution of migrants by origin

    is more or less eually divided between three types of movement.

     +ontrary to popular belief, international migration from poor, developing countries (“the ?outh”& to

    rich, developed countries (“the !orth”& represents little more than a third of the global total. ?outh

    example, there have been large movements of wor)ers from Aur)ina Baso to +Cte d’voire, from

    Egypt to Dordan, from aiti to the ominican @epublic, from ndonesia to 'alaysia, and from

    neighbouring countries to 1rgentina. 'any countries are both sources of and destinations for 

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    migrants. +anada, for example, is a traditional destination for migrants, but +anada also sends

    significant numbers of people, particularly the highly s)illed, to the nited ?tates.

    ?imilar phenomena have emerged in 1sia. Bor example, Thailand receives many low2s)illed

    immigrants from +ambodia, the 9ao 7eople’s emocratic @epublic and 'yanmar, and also sends

    its own wor)ers to other countries, including srael, the @epublic of Forea and Taiwan (+hina&. Bor 

    a summary of the countries pro3ected to have the highest proportions of international migrants in

    "#5#, see figure 5.". G"# per cent ;ation4 reduction in the cost of transport and communications, resulting in

    increasing interactions among societies4 the absence of respect for human rights in some countries4

    and establishment of migration networ)s by earlier migrants. n the future, climate change may

    raise migration pressures. +ontemporary international migration can essentially be explained,

    however, by the increasing differences between countries, the lac) of gainful employment, decent

    wor) and human security in certain parts of the world, the growing demand for both high2 and low2

    s)illed wor)ers in destination countries, and the geographical proximity and historical lin)ages

     between origin and destination countries ('artin and 0idgren, "##"&.

    I. DECENT WORK DEFICITS:  The world’s population, calculated at $.; billion in "##=, is

    growing by about ;% million every year, with most of this increase ta)ing place in developing

    countries. The 9: report *lobal Employment Trends "##8 estimates the world’s labour force in

    "##= at around - billion people (9:, "##8a&. The global drop in economic activity since "##=

    has resulted in hiring free>es and wor)ers being dismissed in considerable numbers. @evised

     predictions for "##8 estimate that 9abour migration in a globali>ing world 58 global

    unemployment could rise by between "8 million and %8 million, with the middle case being -8 million (9:, "##8a&. The number of “wor)ing poor”, defined as persons living on the euivalent

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    of ?G" per day or less, has continued to grow, reaching an estimated total of more than 5.6

     billion in "##8, an increase of more than "## million since "##; (9:, "##8a&. The plight of 

    farmers in developing countries is a powerful eco