Trần Văn Thái-DH8D
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Trn Vn Thi-DH8D
CONTENTSTHREE MAIN MISTAKES IN WRITINGVietnamese-English translationGrammarStylesII. GUIDELINES
VIETNAMESE-ENGLISH TRANSLATIONTranslating word by word from Vietnamese into English (using bilingual dictionary)This causes grammar and vocabulary mistakesReaders cannot understand
1. He is difficult.Difficult unsociable (strict)2. We took a bath in the sea when we went to Ha Tien Beach.Took a bath swam EXAMPLES OF WORD BY WORD TRANSLATION
COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES Wrong verb tenses Misuse of confusing structures Adjective order Position of adverbs Run-on sentences Fragment sentences Subject-verb agreement Using articles
TENSES OF VERBEX: Before the Second Word War Einstein has discovered his famous formula E=MC2Has discovered had discovered
CONFUSING STRUCTURESEX: USE TO / TO BE USE TO- Men are used to believing in their superiority over women- Men used to believe in their superiority over women Writers misuse grammar structures that have similar forms but different meanings
ADJECTIVE ORDERA large old oval painting5. COLOR (green/black/red) A small square black and white photograph6. WHERE FROM (French/Russia/Vietnamese) An ugly modern American car7. MATERIAL MADE OF (silver/paper/plastic) A pink Japanese silk blouse1. OPINION (enjoyable/horrible/boring) An enjoyable film2. DIMENSION (SIZE) (large/tiny/heavy) A disgusting little insect3. AGE (old/young/modern) A beautiful tall young woman4. SHAPE (round/square/rectangular)NOTE: do not use more than three adjectives before a noun
ADVERB ORDER1. Adv. of PLACE + Adv. of TIMZ I go for a walk round the park every day 2. Adv. of PLACE + Adv. of MANNER + Adv. of TIME I go for a walk round the park very slowly every day 3.Adv. of PLACE + Adv. of MANNER + Adv. of FREQUENCY + Adv. TIME I go for a walk round the park very slowly twice every day
FRAGMENTSWrong: He was very happy. Because he had passed the examRight: He was very happy because heSPLITTING OF INFINITIVESPoor: I told him to carefully drive on slippery street.Better: I told him to drive carefully on slippery street.PLURAL / SINGULAR NOUNSWrong: If a pupil studies hard, they will pass the examRight: If a pupil studies hard, he or she will pass the exam Or If pupils study hard, they will pass the examCOMMON MISTAKES IN SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION
MISTAKES OF WRITING STYLES1. Formal Informal writing style2. Directness
Express your ideas clearly Write good sentences which show UnityCoherenceEmphasis
VIETNAMESE-ENGLISH TRANSLATION Use sentence patterns Think in english as much as possible Reduce the use bilingual dictionary Write drafts Check & correct mistakes
Organise your ideas carefully Learn and practice grammar structures Do not write over three lines each sentence! Read a lot Writing journal
GUIDELINES1. VARY SENTENCE LENGTH AND PATTERNSEX: I have a little brother. His name is Tom. Hes now in the eighth form. His fovourite subject at school is English. I have a little brother whose name is Tom. He is now in the eighth form and his favourite subject is English.
GUIDELINES2. USE COORDINATION, COMPOUNDING, SUBORDINATION, REDUCTIONEX: Poor: He is not a good pupil. He passed the examination successfully.Better: He is not a good pupil, but he passed the examination successfully.Weak: He got good marks in the exam. His parents rewarded him.Clear: His parent rewarded him when he got good mark in the exam.
On-line resources for writers http:// owl. trc. purdue. edu/ by-topic.html http://www.coe.uncc.edu/~brmattin/adds.htmlhttp://webserver.maclab.comp.uvic.ca/ writersguide/Essay/ EssaysTOC. html http:// sti.larc. nasa. gov/ html/Chapt3/Chapt3-TOC.htmlhttp://www. hut. fi. / ~rvilmi / LangHelp/ Writing/
TECHNIQUES FOR SPELLING IMPROVEMENT STUDY THE CORRECT SPELLING OF A NEW WORD CAREFULLYLOOK AT IT ATTENTIVELYPRONOUNCE IT ALOUDSYLLABLE BY SYLLABLETRY TO SEE THE PRINTED WORD IN YOUR MINDALLOW YOURSELF TO CHECK THE SPEELING THAT YOU ARE UNSURE.
TECHNIQUES FOR SPELLING IMPROVEMENT MASTER A LIST OF MISSPELLED WORDSPractice writing these troublesome words several times.
TECHNIQUES FOR SPELLING IMPROVEMENTMASTER THE RULES OF SPELLING. IN SPITE OF EXEPTIONS, THOSE RULES ARE TRUE MOST OF THE TIMETHE FINAL Y RULETHE FINAL E RULERULE FOR DOUBLING A FINAL CONSONANTRULES FOR FORMING PLURALSTHE IE-EI RULE
4Rule for Forming Pluralsin generaladd -sroad roadsending in -s, -ss, -z, -sh, -chadd -esdish dishedending in consonant+"y"change "y""i"+"-es"skyskiesending in vowel+"y"keep "y"+"-s"monkey monkeysending in "f" change "f""v"+"-es"leaf leavesending in "o"add "-es"tomato tomatoes
HAIRCOLOR, HAIRSTYLE, FACE, DISTINGUISHING FEATURES, PERSONALITY, DRESS, ACCESSORIES, MOOD/FEEL, HOBBIES, FAMILY BACKGROUNDDISCRIBING PEOPLE