Tools for Teaching English Grammar to Spanish-Speaking Students

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1 Tools for Teaching English Grammar to Spanish-Speaking Students Who Know Almost Nothing About It
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Transcript of Tools for Teaching English Grammar to Spanish-Speaking Students

  • Tools for Teaching English Grammar to Spanish-Speaking Students Who Know Almost Nothing About It

  • What Well DiscussGramtica del ingls: Paso a paso At last: a grammar book written in Spanish that assumes no prior knowledge of English or Spanish grammarWinning strategies for teaching grammar to Spanish-speakers who know very little about grammar in English or Spanish

  • Introducing: Gramtica del ingls: Paso a Paso Written in readers native language: Spanish (with English addition available)Explicitly teaches punctuation and parts of speech in addition to teaching grammarAssumes no prior knowledge of Spanish or English grammar or punctuation

  • Topics CoveredIdentifying nouns, pronouns, and adjectives Using capital letters, periods, and question marksDistinguishing between singular and plural nounsUsing a, an, and theConjugating the verbs to be and to have Possessive adjectives, his, her, etc. Contractions

  • PacePresents concepts in small, manageable stepsFor exampleSection 1: my Section 2: his, herSection 3: your, ourSection 4: its, their

  • FormatEmploys consistent, easy to use layoutEach page of explanation is followed by a page of practice exercises

  • Focus on Error CorrectionCalls out differences between Spanish and English grammarIncludes exercises in which students choose between the correct and incorrect grammatical structure:

    I no tired. Im not tiredShe hairHer hair

  • Practice Makes (almost) Perfect About a thousand exercisesAnswers to all exercises includedAll vocabulary is defined before it is usedBilingual dictionary includes all words used in exercises

  • How to Use This Book:As a class text As an optional text that students purchase themselves for use at homeIn one-on-one tutoring programsIn Study at Home programsAs a resource for teachers with Spanish-speaking students

  • And pleasePurchase, dont copy, these books! Its cheaper for you.Its better for your students.

  • Almost hot off the pressGramtica del ingls: Paso a paso 2 will be available early next year, if not sooner. It coversSimple presentDo and does

    -- Present Progressive-- and LOTS more

  • Goals for todayMake teaching grammar more fun and effectiveMake learning grammar more fun and productive

  • Grammar Conundrum #1The Audio-lingual Method produced students who knew a lot about specific language structures but couldnt apply what they knew to spontaneous conversation.The Communicative Approach produces students who communicate well but lack grammatical competency.

    Audio Lingual Method: Common in the 50s and 60s. Merging of two two key advances mid 20th Century: Structural linguistics, combined two key methodologies of the 50s and 60s: structuralism, which developed tools for dissecting language into its smallest parts and behavioralism. Focus is on dialogues. Typically students learn a dialog. Then change a few words and learn revised structure. Emphasis on memorization as opposed to spontaneous speech. Communicative approach: Focus on meaningful, FUNCTIONAL communication, Focus on conversation, role play, etc.

  • Grammar Conundrum #2

    Explicit knowledge: conscious knowledge of grammar rules learned through formal classroom instructionImplicit knowledge: unconscious, internalized knowledge of a language that is available for spontaneous speech

    Explicit knowledge: Jose knows every rule about subject-verb agreement but makes frequent mistakes in natural speech. This knowledge is only available to him when he has time to think about the rules and then apply them (i.e. a grammar exercise or a writing assignment).

    Jose speaks English with near perfect use of the basic rules of subject-verb agreement. This is despite the fact that he may have no idea what subject-verb agreement is or what the rules are.

  • Resolving the Grammar Conundrum: GoalsEnable students to develop grammatical competency even in spontaneous speech.Make correct grammar automatic.Avoid the inert knowledge problem, inability to activate knowledge or transfer knowledge when you need it.

  • CASE STUDYShort Answer, present tense, with to beStudents answer these questions: Are you tired? Are your parents in the United States?

    Audio Lingual Method: Common in the 50s and 60s. Merging of two two key advances mid 20th Century: Structural linguistics, combined two key methodologies of the 50s and 60s: structuralism, which developed tools for dissecting language into its smallest parts and behavioralism. Focus is on dialogues. Typically students learn a dialog. Then change a few words and learn revised structure. Emphasis on memorization as opposed to spontaneous speech. Communicative approach: Focus on meaningful, FUNCTIONAL communication, Focus on conversation, role play, etc.

  • CASE STUDYShort Answer, present tense, with to bePrior knowledge required to answer these questions: Statements vs. questions Conjugating the verb to be Parts of speech (you vs. your)Singular vs. plural Contractions (or not)

    Audio Lingual Method: Common in the 50s and 60s. Merging of two two key advances mid 20th Century: Structural linguistics, combined two key methodologies of the 50s and 60s: structuralism, which developed tools for dissecting language into its smallest parts and behavioralism. Focus is on dialogues. Typically students learn a dialog. Then change a few words and learn revised structure. Emphasis on memorization as opposed to spontaneous speech. Communicative approach: Focus on meaningful, FUNCTIONAL communication, Focus on conversation, role play, etc.

  • How do you do it?*ExplainExperienceExplore

  • EXPLAIN grammar forms

    Be briefBe organizedBe repetitiveBe authentic

  • For every grammar formFocus on error detection1. Im not tired. I no tired. 2. It is empty. Is empty. 3. I have an old car. I have car old. 4. The cars are new The cars is new.Can you identify the root of each grammar error?

  • For every grammar formTest for understanding often! Assignment: Write a sentence that includes the word cleans.She is a cleans the house. Marias cleans her house. He clean his house. She has cleans her house. Maria is clean her house.Louisa is a housecleaner. She cleans the her house.

  • Teach parts of speech from Day 1Teach them in this order:nouns (person, place, animal, thing)subject pronouns (replace nouns) adjectivesverbs (start with to be)prepositionsadverbs

  • Teach parts of speech from Day 1Use a variety of techniquesContests Four cornersFill the formIdentification exercises Analylze texts

    Practice parts of speech often!

  • EXPERICNE grammar using these strategies:

    Make grammar a stand-up activity.Make grammar a cooperative activity.Make grammar a kinesthetic activity.Make grammar a joyous activity!

  • Make grammar a stand-up activity Four CornersGerties Grammar Cards

  • Make grammar a stand-up activity 3. Student InterviewsWritingSpeaking

  • Make grammar a stand-up activity 4. Find three people who

  • Make grammar a cooperative activity1. Picture Q and A

  • Make grammar a cooperative activityDictation Part 1: Listening and writing

  • Make grammar a cooperative activity2. Dictation: Part 2: Speaking (including pronunciation)

  • Make grammar a kinesthetic activity 1. Scrambled sentences

  • Make grammar a kinesthetic activity 2. Fill the form

  • Make grammar a joyous activity: Sing! Sing! (And explore grammar too!) Do You Want to Dance? (Beach Boys): asking questionsI Cant Smile Without You (Barry Manilow): can and cant Wonderful Tonight (Eric Clapton): simple present Email me for more examples

  • Make grammar a joyous activity: Sing! How to do it Select a song based on the grammar structure you want to teach.Use iTunes to download the song.Print the lyrics from the Internet. Develop lessons based on the lyrics and one grammar point.

  • Make grammar a joyous activity: Sing!Day 1: Play the song.Talk about what it meansNote grammar form

  • Make grammar a joyous activity: Sing!Day 2 and 3: Focus on vocabulary

  • Make grammar a joyous activity: Sing!Day 4: Practice the grammar form using vocabulary from the song.

  • Make grammar a joyous activity: Sing!Day 5: Do a cloze activity.Students listen to the song and fill in the missing words.

  • Make grammar a joyous activity: Sing! Sing every day! Make a Class CD with lyrics

  • EXPLORE: Let students discover grammar formsThe goal of discovering grammar forms is for students to develop awareness of rather than production of target forms. This awareness helps learners notice target forms in future input and facilitates the eventual acquisition of these forms as implicit.

    Explicit knowledge: Jose knows every rule about subject-verb agreement but makes frequent mistakes in natural speech. This knowledge is only available to him when he has time to think about the rules and then apply them (i.e. a grammar exercise or a writing assignment).

    Jose speaks English with near perfect use of the basic rules of subject-verb agreement. This is despite the fact that he may have no idea what subject-verb agreement is or what the rules are.

  • EXPLORE: Let students discover grammar formsFive part lesson plan: 1. Listening to comprehend2. Listening to notice3. Discovery4. Checking5. Trying it

  • CASE STUDYShort Answer, present tense, with to beExplanation:

    Present information in small, manageable chunks: Day 1: Are you talkative?Day 2: Is your sister talkative? Day 3: Are your classmates talkative?

  • CASE STUDYShort Answer, present tense, with to beExplanation: Provide one reference sheet that students refer to whenever this topic is discussedRepeat the grammar explanation prior to each activity

  • CASE STUDYShort Answer, present tense, with to beExploration: Worksheets plusFour CornersGerties grammar cardsClass interviewsScrambled sentencesFind 3 People Who.Dictation

  • In sumEven though English grammar is excruciatingly difficult You can make it fun!

    Audio Lingual Method: Common in the 50s and 60s. Merging of two two key advances mid 20th Century: Structural linguistics, combined two key methodologies of the 50s and 60s: structuralism, which developed tools for dissecting language into its smallest parts and behavioralism. Focus is on dialogues. Typically students learn a dialog. Then change a few words and learn revised structure. Emphasis on memorization as opposed to spontaneous speech. Communicative approach: Focus on meaningful, FUNCTIONAL communication, Focus on conversation, role play, etc. Explicit knowledge: Jose knows every rule about subject-verb agreement but makes frequent mistakes in natural speech. This knowledge is only available to him when he has time to think about the rules and then apply them (i.e. a grammar exercise or a writing assignment).

    Jose speaks English with near perfect use of the basic rules of subject-verb agreement. This is despite the fact that he may have no idea what subject-verb agreement is or what the rules are.

    Audio Lingual Method: Common in the 50s and 60s. Merging of two two key advances mid 20th Century: Structural linguistics, combined two key methodologies of the 50s and 60s: structuralism, which developed tools for dissecting language into its smallest parts and behavioralism. Focus is on dialogues. Typically students learn a dialog. Then change a few words and learn revised structure. Emphasis on memorization as opposed to spontaneous speech. Communicative approach: Focus on meaningful, FUNCTIONAL communication, Focus on conversation, role play, etc. Audio Lingual Method: Common in the 50s and 60s. Merging of two two key advances mid 20th Century: Structural linguistics, combined two key methodologies of the 50s and 60s: structuralism, which developed tools for dissecting language into its smallest parts and behavioralism. Focus is on dialogues. Typically students learn a dialog. Then change a few words and learn revised structure. Emphasis on memorization as opposed to spontaneous speech. Communicative approach: Focus on meaningful, FUNCTIONAL communication, Focus on conversation, role play, etc.

    Explicit knowledge: Jose knows every rule about subject-verb agreement but makes frequent mistakes in natural speech. This knowledge is only available to him when he has time to think about the rules and then apply them (i.e. a grammar exercise or a writing assignment).

    Jose speaks English with near perfect use of the basic rules of subject-verb agreement. This is despite the fact that he may have no idea what subject-verb agreement is or what the rules are.