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    Chapter 18 ResourcesTimesaving Tools

    Interactive Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition andyour classroom resources with a few easy clicks.

    Interactive Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize yourweek, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to maketeaching creative, timely, and relevant.

    Use GlencoesPresentation Plus!multimedia teacher tool to easily present

    dynamic lessons that visually excite your stu-dents. Using Microsoft PowerPoint you can customize the presentations to create your ownpersonalized lessons.

    The following videotape program is available from Glencoe as a supplement to Chapter 18:

    Napoleon Bonaparte: The Glory of France(ISBN 0767012119)

    To order, call Glencoe at 18003347344. To findclassroom resources to accompany this video,check the following home pages:A&E Television: www.aande.comThe History Channel: www.historychannel.com




    Graphic Organizer StudentActivity 18 Transparency L2


    My glory is not to have wonforty battles, for Waterloosdefeat will destroy the memoryof as many victories. But whatnothing will destroy, what will live eternally is my Civil Code.

    Napoleon Bonaparte

    The French Revolution and Napoleon (17891815)

    Graphic Organizer 15: Chain-of-Events or Flowchart

    Map OverlayTransparency 18 L2

    France and Europe













    0 150


    300 mi.

    0 300 km


    NorthSea Baltic












    France, 1789





    Map Overlay Transparency 18

    Enrichment Activity 18 L3


    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Name Date Class

    Four months after the French revolution-aries proclaimed the first day of the Year 1of Liberty, they faced fierce attacks fromEuropean monarchies that feared the

    Enrichment Activity 18

    spread of the revolution. Desperate, theleaders of the revolution made a decisionthat would change the face of warfareforever.

    The Leve en Masse

    DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided.

    1. Why did French revolutionary leaders institute the leve en masse? _____________________

    2. How did the leve en masse change the French armies? _______________________________

    3. What basic principle does the author refer to?_____________________________________

    4. Frances enemies were reluctant to introduce conscription. Why do you think this was so?

    5. What do you think about Napoleons statement? How do you think this reflects on him?

    Almost all of the monarchies of Europe launched their armies against France to stamp out the sacri-legious revolutionaries, and when what was left of the old royal army, aided by volunteers, provedunable to stem the attacks, the National Convention decided on conscription: the leve en masse.

    . . . the convention issued the call for a leve en masse in August [1793]. By New Years Day,1794, the French armies numbered about 777,000 men, and the wars of mass armies that ensuedravaged Europe for the next two decades.

    Conscription was not an entirely new idea . . . but it had never really amounted to more than com-pulsory selection of an unfortunate minority, nor had it lasted long or been extended to an entirecountry. But the French Revolution, with its principles of liberty and equality, first stimulated and thenexploited a fervent nationalism which made conscription acceptable. It also made French troopsbehave differently.

    The nation in arms produced poorly trained soldiers . . . who had no time to master the intricatedrill of close-order formations, but their enthusiasm and numbers made up for it: attacking in cloudsof skirmishers and disorderly columns, they often simply overwhelmed their better-trained adver-saries. . . . Battles rarely ended in draws any moreCarnot of the Committee of Public Safetyinstructed the French armies in 1794 to act in mass formations and take the offensive. . . . Give bat-tle on a large scale and pursue the enemy until he is utterly destroyed.

    The basic principle underlying all this was that whereas the prerevolutionary regular soldiers hadbeen scarce and expensive, the lives of conscripts were plentiful and cheap. The disdain for casual-ties grew even greater once Napoleon had seized control of France in 1799. You cannot stop me,he boasted to Count Metternich, the Austrian diplomat. I spend thirty thousand men a month. Itwas not an idle boast: the losses of France in 17931814 amounted to 1.7 million deadalmost allsoldiersout of a population of 29 million.

    From War by Gwynne Dyer

    Primary Source Reading 18 L2

    Name Date Class











    es, I


    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Although the French Revolution later turned to violence and terror, thefirst bold public statement of the revolutionary National Assemblyechoes the high ideals of John Locke, the Enlightenment, and theAmerican Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of the Rights of Manand of the Citizen was issued in August 1789.

    Guided Reading In this selection, read to learn what problems and rights the Declaration addresses.

    The representatives of the French people,constituted in National Assembly, consideringthat ignorance, forgetfulness, or contempt of therights of man are the sole causes of public mis-fortunes and the corruption of governments,have resolved to set forth in a solemn declara-tion the natural, inalienable, and sacred rights ofman so that this declaration, being constantlybefore all members of the social body, mayunceasingly recall to them their rights and theirduties; so that the acts of the legislative powerand those of the executive power may always becompared with the true aim of political organi-zation and thus may be more respected; and sothat the demands of the citizens, founded hence-forth upon simple and incontestable principles,may always be aimed at maintaining the consti-tution and the happiness of all.

    In consequence, the National Assembly rec-ognizes and declares, in the presence and underthe auspices of the Supreme Being, the followingrights of man and citizen.

    1. Men are born and remain free and equal inrights. Social distinctions can be based onlyupon the common good.

    2. The aim of every political association is thepreservation of the natural and impre-scriptible rights of man. These rights are lib-erty, property, security, and resistance tooppression.

    3. The source of all sovereignty is essentiallyin the nation [that is, the people]; no body,no individual can exercise authority thatdoes not emanate from it expressly.

    4. Liberty consists in the power to do anythingthat does not injure others; accordingly, theexercise of the natural rights of each man

    has no limits except those that assure to theother members of society the enjoyment ofthese same rights. These limits can be deter-mined only by law.

    5. The law can forbid only such actions as areinjurious to society. Nothing can be forbid-den that is not forbidden by the law, and noone can be constrained to do that which itdoes not decree.

    6. Law is the expression of the general will.All citizens have the right to take part per-sonally, or by their representatives, in itsenactment. It must be the same for all,whether it protects or punishes. All citizensbeing equal in its eyes, are equally eligibleto all public dignities, places, and employ-ments, according to their capacities, andwithout other distinction than that of theirmerits and their talents.

    7. No man can be accused, arrested, ordetained, except in the cases determined bythe law and according to the forms which ithas prescribed. Those who call for, expedite,execute, or cause to be executed arbitraryorders should be punished; but every citi-zen summoned or seized by virtue of thelaw ought to obey instantly; he makes him-self culpable by resistance.

    8. The law ought to establish only punish-ments that are strictly and obviously neces-sary, and no one should be punished exceptby virtue of a law established and promul-gated prior to the offence and legallyapplied.

    9. Every man being presumed innocent untilhe has been declared guilty, if it is judgedindispensable to arrest him, all severity that

    P R I M A R Y S O U R C E R E A D I N G 18


    Name Date Class


    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.


    Unrest in BlaatRoles

    King BoraxYou are Gods lieutenant onearth. Like your father beforeyou, you have absolutepower given to you by Godto pass any law you wish, andthe people owe you unques-tioning allegiance.

    Archbishop LadlepateYou have been chosen byGod to lead the one truechurch. As such, you are thesecond most powerful per-son in Blaat. You owe yourallegiance to King Borax. If hefalls, so will you.

    Lady BolingreenYour family has owned thegreat Bolingreen blueberryplantation for generations,since the days of goodQueen Gertrude. Your familyhas always been loyal to themonarch, as have most of thegreat lords, but this kingoffends your honor. However,he is your king, and perhapshe is no worse than thosefanatic opposition preacherswho might replace him.

    Master ScarfordYou are a b