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  • Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    This Book Belongs to :

    Name ..............................................................

    Roll No.............................................................

    Class and Section ...........................................

    School .............................................................

    Lakhmir Singh’s


    CLASS 4

    Lakhmir Singh Manjit KaurC


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  • Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    S. CHAND SCHOOL BOOKS(An imprint of S. Chand Publishing)A Division of S. Chand And Company Pvt. Ltd.(An ISO 9001 : 2008 Company)7361, Ram Nagar, Qutab Road, New Delhi-110055Phone: 23672080-81-82, 9899107446, 9911310888; Fax:; e-mail : [email protected]

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    © 2016, Lakhmir Singh & Manjit Kaur

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any material form (including photocopying or storing it in any medium in form of graphics, electronic or mechanical means and whether or not transient or incidental to some other use of this publication) without written permission of the publisher. Any breach of this will entail legal action and prosecution without further notice.Jurisdiction : All disputes with respect to this publication shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Courts, Tribunals and Forums of New Delhi, India only.

    First Published in 2016

    First Impression 2016

    ISBN : 9789385676635


    By Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., Plot 20/4, Site-IV, Industrial Area Sahibabad, Ghaziabad-201010

    and Published by S. Chand And Company Pvt. Ltd., 7361, Ram Nagar, New Delhi -110 055.

  • Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4


    LAKHMIR SINGH did his M.Sc. from Delhi University in 1969. Since then he has been teaching in Dyal Singh College of Delhi University, Delhi. He started writing books in 1980. Lakhmir Singh believes that book writing is just like classroom teaching. Though a book can never replace a teacher but it should make the student feel the presence of a teacher. Keeping this in view, he writes books in such a style that students never get bored reading his books. Lakhmir Singh has written more than 15 books so far on all the science subjects: Physics, Chemistry and Biology. He believes in writing quality books. He does not believe in quantity.

    MANJIT KAUR did her B.Sc., B.Ed. from Delhi University in 1970. Since then she has been teaching in a reputed school of Directorate of Education, Delhi. Manjit Kaur is such a popular science teacher that all the students want to join those classes which she teaches in the school. She has a vast experience of teaching science to school children, and she knows the problems faced by the children in the study of science. Manjit Kaur has put all her teaching experience into the writing of science books. She has co-authored more than 15 books alongwith her husband, Lakhmir Singh.

    It is the team-work of Lakhmir Singh and Manjit Kaur which has given some of the most popular books in the history of science education in India. Lakhmir Singh and Manjit Kaur both write exclusively for the most reputed, respected and largest publishing house of India : S. Chand and Company Pvt. Ltd.

    An Open LetterDear Friend,

    We would like to talk to you for a few minutes, just to give you an idea of some of the special features of this book. Before we go further, let us tell you that this book conforms to the NCERT guidelines prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Just like our earlier books, we have written this book in such a simple style that even the weak students will be able to understand science very easily. Believe us, while writing this book, we have considered ourselves to be the students of the concerned class and tried to make things as simple as possible.

    The most important feature of this book is that we have included a large variety of different types of questions for assessing the learning abilities of the students. This book contains:

    (i) Objective type questions,

    (ii) Subjective type questions,

    (iii) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs),

    (iv) Questions based on Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), and

    (v) Activities.

    Please note that answers have also been given for the various types of questions, wherever required. All these features will make this book even more useful to the students as well as the teachers. “A picture can say a thousand words”. Keeping this in mind, a large number of coloured pictures and sketches of various scientific processes, procedures, appliances, manufacturing plants and everyday situations involving principles of science have been given in this book. This will help the students to understand the various concepts of science clearly. It will also tell them how science is applied in the real situations in homes, transport and industry.

    We are sure you will agree with us that the facts and formulae of science are just the same in all the books, the difference lies in the method of presenting these

  • Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    Books by Lakhmir Singh and Manjit Kaur

    1. Lakhmir Singh’s Science for Class 3

    2. Lakhmir Singh’s Science for Class 4

    3. Lakhmir Singh’s Science for Class 5

    4. Lakhmir Singh’s Science for Class 6

    5. Lakhmir Singh’s Science for Class 7

    6. Lakhmir Singh’s Science for Class 8

    7. Science for Ninth Class (Part 1) PHYSICS

    8. Science for Ninth Class (Part 2) CHEMISTRY

    9. Science for Tenth Class (Part 1) PHYSICS

    10. Science for Tenth Class (Part 2) CHEMISTRY

    11. Science for Tenth Class (Part 3) BIOLOGY

    12. Rapid Revision in Science

    (A Question-Answer Book for Class X)

    13. Science for Ninth Class (J & K Edition)

    14. Science for Tenth Class (J & K Edition)

    15. Science for Ninth Class (Hindi Edition) :


    16. Science for Tenth Class (Hindi Edition) :


    17. Saral Vigyan (A Question-Answer Science

    Book in Hindi for Class X)

    DISCLAIMERWhile the authors of this book have made every effort to avoid any mistake or omission and have used their skill, expertise and knowledge to the best of their capacity to provide accurate and updated information, the authors and the publisher do not give any representation or warranty with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this publication and are selling this publication on the condition and understanding that they shall not be made liable in any manner whatsoever. The publisher and the authors expressly disclaim all and any liability/responsibility to any person, whether a purchaser or reader of this publication or not, in respect of anything and everything forming part of the contents of this publication. The publisher and authors shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions or damages arising out of the use of the information contained in this publication. Further, the appearance of the personal name, location, place and incidence, if any; in the illustrations used herein is purely coincidental and work of imagination. Thus the same should in no manner be termed as defamatory to any individual.

    facts to the students. In this book, the various topics of science have been explained in such a simple way that while reading this book, a student will feel as if a teacher is sitting by his side and explaining the various things to him. We are sure that after reading this book, the students will develop a special interest in science and they would like to study science in higher classes as well.

    We think that the real judges of a book are the teachers concerned and the students for whom it is meant. So, we request our teacher friends as well as the students to point out our mistakes, if any, and send their comments and suggestions for the further improvement of this book.

    Wishing you a great success,

    Yours sincerely,

    396, Nilgiri Apartments,Alaknanda, New Delhi-110019 E-mail : [email protected]

  • Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4








    6. DIGESTION 57







    11. SOLAR SYSTEM 101




    13. SOIL 120


    TEST PAPER 1 75

    TEST PAPER 2 134

  • Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

  • Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    Learning Objectives:

    • Parts of a leaf

    • Functions of a leaf

    • How green leaves produce food

    • Interdependence of plants and animals

    Plants, animals and humans need energy to live. They get this energy from the food and nutrients they consume. Green plants can make their own food through a process known as photosynthesis. The green leaf is the site where this process of producing food occurs in plants. Humans and animals depend on plants for food, either directly or indirectly. So, plants are known as producers.

    GREEN LEAF – A PLANT’S KITCHEN The green colour of leaves comes from a substance called chlorophyll. This substance is essential for the process of producing food or photosynthesis to occur.

    Parts of a LeafLeaves are of different shapes and sizes and have different parts. However, there are some basic parts that are common in most leaves. These are:




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    Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4





    Side veins

    Parts of a leaf




    41. Blade: The broad flat part of the


    2. Apex: The tip of the leaf

    3. Midrib or main vein: Veins are framework of hollow tubes that carry water and minerals; the midrib runs along the centre

    4. Side veins: Veins that branch out from the midrib

    5. Petiole: The part that joins the leaf to the main stem

    Stomata are tiny openings or pores mostly found on the under-surface of leaves. Air enters and leaves the plant through these openings. Stoma helps the plant to breathe. A stoma is very tiny and can be seen only under a microscope.


    Stomata in leaf

    Know more

    The outer surface of the leaf has a waxy coating called cuticle which protects the leaf.

    Functions of a LeafLeaves are very useful for the plants. The main functions of a leaf are: • to produce food • exchange of gases through stomata • food storage • transpiration or evaporation of water • reproduction or vegetative propagation In this chapter we will learn about the role of leaves in photosynthesis or food production.

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    Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    How Green Leaves Produce FoodPlants need three basic things to live: water, sunlight and carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis is the process by which a plant produces its food using energy from sunlight, carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil. The word photosynthesis can be separated to make two smaller words: ‘photo’ which means light‘synthesis’ which means putting together In this process, light energy from the Sun is absorbed by the green substance, called chlorophyll, present in leaves. This energy allows the production of glucose (food) by the reaction between carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is also produced as a by-product.

    Carbon dioxide + Water Light energy → Glucose + Oxygen


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    Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    Photosynthesis is unique to green plants. This process supplies food for the plant and oxygen for other forms of life. A green plant helps make the oxygen we are breathing today. So, green plants are often referred as green lungs.

    ACTIVITYObjective: To find out if a plant has carried out photosynthesis by testing for starch. Presence of starch implies that photosynthesis has occurred. Important fact: Iodine solution is a special solution that is normally a brown liquid. When iodine solution is dropped on starch, the iodine and starch combine and produce a blue colour. Materials needed: A piece of potato, small amount of cooked rice, ink dropper, iodine solution, two dishesSteps:

    1. Fill some iodine in the ink dropper. 2. Add a few drops of iodine directly to the piece of potato and the cooked rice.

    Dish 1 Dish 2Iodine test for starch


    Dish 1: Potato Dish 2: Cooked rice

    The iodine turned blue-black The iodine turned blue-black

    Conclusion: Both potato and cooked rice contain starch as iodine turns blue-black in the presence of starch. Thus we can say that photosynthesis has occurred.


    FoodSome of the glucose is used to provide energy for the growth and development of plants while the rest is stored as starch in leaves, roots, fruits, flowers and seeds for later use by plants. These are food sources for humans and some animals too.

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    Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    ACTIVITYObjective: To show that sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis.Materials needed: A leafy potted plant, black paper, scissors, iodine solution, ink dropper and paper clipsSteps:

    1. Cover a leaf partly with black paper as shown below.

    Paper clip

    Exposed to sunlight Black paper clipped to both sides of a leaf

    Potted plant

    Demonstration of necessity of sunlight for photosynthesis

    2. Leave the potted plant in sunlight for 2-6 hours.3. Remove the paper and test the leaf for starch by doing the iodine starch test.Conclusion and explanation: Only the uncovered parts turn blue-black when iodine solution is dropped on the leaf. The part that had been covered does not change colour.

    Blue or BlackBrown

    The uncovered part turns blue-black

    Starch is produced only in the areas that received sunlight, showing that sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis.

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    Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    Some food we get from plants are

    carrot, beet, turnip onion, celery lettuce, spinach, cabbage


    peas, green beans, corn tomato, apple, watermelon broccoli, cauliflower


    Oxygen Oxygen produced during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. This oxygen is what we breathe to stay alive.

    INTERDEPENDENCE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALSPlants and animals depend on each other for many things.

    For Food Animals depend on plants and other animals for food. Animals can be divided into the following groups, according to what they eat: • Herbivores eat plants. • Carnivores eat other animals. • Omnivores eat both plants and animals. • Scavengers feed on dead animals. • Decomposers eat and break down the remains of dead animals. The elements

    that are released during this process are put back in the soil and become food for plants.

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    Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    Grass Deer (Herbivore) Lion (Carnivore) Vulture (Scavenger)Food chain

    For Pollination Plants depend on animals for pollination or transfer of pollen grains from one flower to another. Pollination helps in the growth of new plants. Bees, butterflies and wasps are some pollinators. They visit flowers to get nectar, which is food for them.Plants attract pollinators through • sweet nectar • nice smell or fragrance • colourful flowers

    Seed Dispersal Plants need to have their seeds spread over a wide area. If all the seeds fall in one area, the plants that grow will not have enough water, soil or sunlight to grow properly. Animals eat fruits. At times seeds get stuck to their fur and are carried away and dispersed at a distance. This is called seed dispersal. It helps in the growth of new plants. So, while animals get food from plants, they in turn, help in the growth of new plants.

    SUMMARY• Green plants or producers can make their own food through a process known as

    photosynthesis.• The green colour of leaves comes from a substance called chlorophyll.• Photosynthesis is the process by which a plant produces its food using energy from

    sunlight, carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil.• Photosynthesis is unique to green plants. This process supplies food for the plant

    and oxygen for other forms of life.• Plants and animals are dependent on each other.

    Pollination by bee

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    Lakhmir Singh’s Science Class 4

    GLOSSARY• Apex: the tip of the leaf• Blade: the broad flat part of the leaf• Chlorophyll: the substance that gives leaves their green colour• Petiole: the part that joins the leaf to the main stem • Photosynthesis: process through which green plants can make their own food• Stomata: tiny openings or pores mostly found on the under-surface of leaves• Veins: framework of hollow tubes that carry water and minerals

    Objective Type Questions 1.Underlinethecorrectwordstofillintheblanks.

    (a) Stomata are tiny openings or pores mostly found on the .................... (upper-surface/under-surface) of leaves.

    (b) The ............................ (green/brown) colour of leaves comes from a substance called chlorophyll.

    (c) Air enters and leaves the plant through ........................... (roots/stomata).

    (d) Photosynthesis is unique to ........................ (green plants/all living things).

    (e) ............................. (Oxygen/Carbon dioxide) produced during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere.

    2. Draw and label the following:

    (a) Parts of a leaf

    (b) Photosynthesis

    (c) Stomata

    3. Which part of the plant do we eat when we eat the following?

    (a) (b) (c)

    ..................................... ..................................... .....................................

    (d) (e) (f)

    ..................................... ..................................... ......................................

  • continue


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