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3/10/04 1 Thirty Seconds over Tokyo in memorium March 10, 1945 FC 84

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    Thirty Seconds over Tokyo

    in memorium

    March 10, 1945

    FC 84

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    Thirty Seconds Over TokyoThe Doolittle Raid

    The Air War

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    • April 18, 1942 – Doolittle raiders bomb Tokyo, taking off from USS Hornet, approximately 700 miles off the Japanese coast

    • Led by Lt. Col. Jimmy Doolittle

    • A little “shock and awe” air campaign

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    Doolittle pilots in China

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    Air power

    Allied forces developed doctrines of urban aerial bombardment as key to waging total war

    British General “Bomber” Harris – planned the fire bombing of Dresden

    U.S. Gen. Curtis LeMay – planned aerial campaigns against Tokyo, went on to head the Strategic Air Command

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    US Air campaign

    Bombing started in earnest in 1944Needed Pacific island bases for bombers Mockups of Japanese cities built in the US

    southwest for bombing practices Invention of napalm – intended for burning

    wooden cities

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    American bombings 1944-45• Over 130 Japanese cities intensively bombed

    • Massive evacuations of urban civilian population

    • Culminated in the fire bombing of Tokyo March 10, 1945

    • Casualty estimates run as high as 150,000 people in a single night

    • Raids planned to maximize damage and terror to civilian population

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    Kanto region

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    March 10 raids

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    Aftermath of March 10 raids

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    Aftermath of March 10 raids

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    up to 150,000 casualties

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    The Ultimate Shock and Awe

    Hiroshima, Aug 6

    Nagasaki, Aug 9

    V-J Day, Aug 15

    Thirty Seconds over Tokyo��in memorium��March 10, 1945Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo�The Doolittle Raid Doolittle pilots in ChinaAir powerUS Air campaignAmerican bombings 1944-45Kanto regionMarch 10 raidsAftermath of March 10 raidsAftermath of March 10 raidsup to 150,000 casualtiesThe Ultimate Shock and Awe