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PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Cornell University Library] On: 24 February 2011 Access details: Access Details: [subscription number 928599634] Publisher Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37- 41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Third World Quarterly Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713448481 Food Security Politics and the Millennium Development Goals Philip McMichael a ; Mindi Schneider a a Department of Development Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Online publication date: 23 February 2011 To cite this Article McMichael, Philip and Schneider, Mindi(2011) 'Food Security Politics and the Millennium Development Goals', Third World Quarterly, 32: 1, 119 — 139 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2011.543818 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2011.543818 Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

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PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE

This article was downloaded by: [Cornell University Library]On: 24 February 2011Access details: Access Details: [subscription number 928599634]Publisher RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Third World QuarterlyPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713448481

Food Security Politics and the Millennium Development GoalsPhilip McMichaela; Mindi Schneidera

a Department of Development Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Online publication date: 23 February 2011

To cite this Article McMichael, Philip and Schneider, Mindi(2011) 'Food Security Politics and the Millennium DevelopmentGoals', Third World Quarterly, 32: 1, 119 — 139To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2011.543818URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2011.543818

Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf

This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial orsystematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply ordistribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.

The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contentswill be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug dosesshould be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss,actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directlyor indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

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Food Security Politics and theMillennium Development Goals

PHILIP MCMICHAEL & MINDI SCHNEIDER

ABSTRACT This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in thecontext of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and foodsecurity. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty andhunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There isthus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salienceof industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. TheWorld Bank’s new ‘agriculture for development’ initiative seeks to improvesmall-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into globalmarkets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternativeclaim, originating in ‘food sovereignty’ politics, demanding small-farmer rightsto develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision forlocal, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which impliesagribusiness as usual ‘’is no longer an option’. The basic divide is over whetheragriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as afoundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review andcompare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and theirpolitical and ecological implications.

The recent food crisis has been associated with rising food prices and risinghunger rates across the world and particularly in the global South. Thisexperience has refocused attention on world hunger, its persistence and itspotential rise. Roughly 15 per cent of humanity (over one billion people) isconsidered hungry or malnourished, especially women. The majority of thehungry (65 per cent) are in India, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo,Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia.1 In Central America,particularly vulnerable because of its dependence on food and fuel imports,a World Food Programme study warned that more than one million peopleslipped below the poverty line between September 2007 and June 2008.2

While global food prices peaked in 2008, staple foods still cost on averageover 25 per cent more than during the 2006–08 agflation and in Africa stapleprices remained roughly 50 per cent higher in countries like Senegal (for rice),Kenya (maize) and Sudan (sorghum) one year after the peak.3 Although for

Philip McMichael and Mindi Schneider are both in the Department of Development Sociology, Cornell

University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Email: [email protected]; [email protected].

Third World Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2011, pp 119–139

ISSN 0143-6597 print/ISSN 1360-2241 online/11/010119–21

� 2011 Southseries Inc., www.thirdworldquarterly.com

DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2011.543818 119

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some analysts the recent agflation was largely the result of speculation onfood commodities (given investment devaluation elsewhere), the era of ‘cheapfood’ is widely regarded as over.4 The 2010 ‘Agricultural Outlook’ Report ofthe Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) expects grain prices to remain15 per cent–40 per cent higher in real terms than the average price over 1997–06, vegetable oils 40 per cent higher, and dairy prices between 16 per cent and45 per cent higher over the next decade. It is also predicted by theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that climate change willincrease the number of undernourished people by between 40 and 170million.5 This combination of inflation and climatic conditions clearlythreatens the anti-hunger intentions of the Millennium Development Goals.This article considers the food crisis as a signal crisis of industrial

agriculture. We review responses to the food crisis, arguing that the officialresponse in particular is consistent with an entrenched market-centric view ofagriculture as a source of capital accumulation. As such the understanding ofthe crisis and methods proposed to solve it simply recycle the problem assolution, promoting the opening up of smallholder farmland to globalmarkets. This strategy serves to deepen the hold of upstream (industrial)investment on food production, to extract more food from underprivilegedregions to feed a minority global consumer class, and to further impoverishagricultural producing regions through the replacement of bio-regionallyevolved farming practices, knowledge and seeds with industrial methods andtechnologies built on a model of agricultural science that abstracts from localsocial and ecological conditions. Our argument is that subordinating foodsecurity to market mechanisms threatens to deepen food insecurity informerly self-reliant farming communities and regions in the global South.We also consider how the food crisis might be reframed, through the lens

of ‘food sovereignty’. While official approaches are concerned with proximatesources of the crisis, food sovereignty understands the crisis as historical andsystemic. Each perspective understands the crisis as providing an unusual‘opportunity’—perhaps best expressed in the International Assessment ofAgricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD)Report as a ‘crossroads’.6 While the market-centric perspective focuses on theopportunity to reinvest in agriculture and develop agricultural value-chains,the food sovereignty perspective views this moment as an opportunity torefocus agriculture around questions of social and ecological sustainability.The basic divide is over the question of whether agriculture is a servant ofeconomic growth, or is truly multifunctional and should be organised toexpress and fulfil its various socio-ecological functions. Here we review andcompare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and theirpolitical and ecological implications.

The official interpretation and response

The global food crisis of 2007–08 appears to have been a relatively short-termevent, now that food prices have settled (notwithstanding continuing foodinsecurity problems). Nevertheless, its occurrence and effects reveal a deeper

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structural crisis in agriculture and its organisational and institutionalframeworks. Even if, as some argue, the crisis was precipitated by financialspeculation and hoarding, this in itself indicates a structural problem insofaras food has become integrated into commodity markets in general.The official response to the food crisis brings together pressures on food

crop-land with extreme weather patterns, rising energy costs, speculation andecological stress into a ‘perfect storm’ scenario. According to the UnitedNations’ World Food Programme (WFP) ‘57 countries, including 29 in Africa,19 in Asia and nine in Latin America, have been hit by catastrophic floods.Harvests have been affected by drought and heat-waves in south Asia, Europe,China, Sudan, Mozambique and Uruguay’.7 From 2004 to 2007 crude oilprices rose 89 per cent, increasingly synchronised with food price rises of84 per cent.8 In the case of biofuels Chand notes that the OECD–FAOAgricultural Outlook 2007–2016 identified ‘knock-on’ effects, where expandingUS corn production for ethanol reduces oilseed acreage, such that ‘oilseedprices then also increased as a result of tightening supplies and this pricestrength was enhanced by rising demand for meals as a cereal feed substituteand increasing demand for vegetable oils for bio-diesel production’.9

At the same time official explanations have charted recent food productiondeclines, associating them with investment neglect in agriculture and theinfrastructure of national and regional food systems. Expenditure on farmingin the global South as a share of public expenditures fell 50 per cent between1980 and 2004, from US$7.6 billion in 1980 to $3.9 billion in 2006—justthree per cent of direct payments to OECD.10 From 1989 to 2004 the nationalbudget share of agriculture fell from seven per cent to 5.3 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa, 15 per cent to 7.4 per cent in Asia, and eight per cent to2.5 per cent in Latin America.11 And the proportion of ODA aid to agriculturefrom 1980 to 2006 declined from 17 per cent to three per cent.12 From FAO andOECD data it is noteworthy that the 10 countries accounting for almost70 per cent of the world’s hungry receive only 20 per cent of all agricultural aid.Much of this has gone to agricultural policy and administration, with aid forfood crop production declining by 50 per cent, and that for seeds, fertiliser andmachinery falling from 11.3 per cent to 1.9 per cent between 1980 and 2006.13

In consequence much of the official discourse surrounding the food crisisviewed it as an opportunity to reverse a long period of declining investmentin agriculture and to secure world food supplies.14 At the same time officialsand analysts proposed that smallholders should take advantage of rising foodprices by bringing them into, or deepening their connection to, national andglobal markets. The World Bank’s World Development Report 2008 declared:‘it is time to place agriculture afresh at the center of the developmentagenda’.15 FAO Secretary General Jacques Diouf wrote in a May 2008 pressrelease that ‘high food prices represent an excellent opportunity for increasedinvestments in agriculture by both the public and private sectors to stimulateproduction and productivity’, adding that ‘Governments, supported by theirinternational partners, must now undertake the necessary public investmentand provide a favourable environment for private investments’.16 In a co-authored article with France’s International Development Agency head

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Diouf underlined the need to ‘bring African agriculture into line withchanging conditions worldwide’, to prevent ‘its agricultural trade deficit todeteriorate any further’ in the event that food surplus nations reduceexports.17

In 2009 Diouf again urged: ‘World leaders looking for ways to save theglobal economy from disaster and to create jobs and income for millions ofpeople in rural areas would be well advised to invest heavily in agriculture’.18

What Diouf meant about ‘saving the global economy’ implies a call for ruraldevelopment driven by new export agriculture initiatives, given theprominence of the food trade now in national accounts. The dilemma is, asthe quotes in the previous paragraph suggest, that the improvement ofAfrican farming, and of its links to urban areas and local markets (a clearneed), is only attractive to foreign investors if there is a quid pro quo, namelynew markets for inputs (seed, fertiliser, pesticides, herbicides) and/or newopportunities for transnational value chain agriculture. In either or bothcases, there is of course the problem of reshaping African farming as abusiness rather than a vehicle for regional food security. This problem is atthe heart of the controversy over the Alliance for a Green Revolution inAfrica (AGRA).

AGRA represents a repackaging of the Green Revolution (targeting keystates in the Americas and Asia) of the 1960s, which internationalisedagribusiness technologies, but via the economic nationalist model ofmodernising Third World agriculture. This particular model, in practice,involved states using import protections on staples such as grains, beans,potatoes and poultry, and parastatals providing small farmers with variousforms of research, credit, marketing, transport and processing assistance.Some states subsidised food for low-wage consumers, and seeds, compost,co-operatives and equipment for small farmers. In short, during this periodmost countries met their food needs domestically.19 AGRA, by contrast, isreally an extension of the so-called Second Green Revolution,20 distinguishedby the privatisation of agricultural modernisation, deepening the applicationof agri-technologies (including biotechnology), and reorienting agriculture asan export industry producing ‘non-traditional exports’ (eg shrimp andsoybeans instead of pineapples and coffee) in the global South for worldmarkets.The form of privatisation is instructive, notably via the recent alliance of

AGRA with the US Lugar–Casey Global Food Security Act (2009) whichconstitutes a technologically driven ‘development strategy based on openingopportunities for the biotech industry’ by combining public subsidies for GM

crop research with private patenting of the results. This alliance includes newfunding for GM crop development via the Consultative Group onInternational Agricultural Research’s (CGIAR) system to produce drought-tolerant corn. While GM crops so far have not lifted yields (only reducinglabour costs and crop losses), this is basically an exercise in channellingpublic monies into private hands that in turn promote commodity cropsgrown on capital-intensive farms.21 AGRA, and the politico-philanthropic-corporate alliance associated with it, intends to export an agricultural model

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developed for the US to sub-Saharan Africa. The problem here is that a high-input monoculture is essentially alien to that region:

African agriculture is overwhelmingly small-scale (on farms of less than oneacre) and diverse, allowing for a more diverse diet as well as greater overalloutput given the dependence on rain-fed agriculture and very limited access toexternal expensive inputs such as fertilizer. It ‘s often claimed that biotech seedswill yield larger crops: In fact, there is no evidence that crops frombiotechnology seeds produce higher yields than do crops from conventionallybred seeds . . . Biotech becomes a vehicle to introduce a need for a slew ofexpensive, and commonly fossil fuel-based, inputs. African farmers havehistorically, and for centuries, provided necessary inputs for themselves on-farm.22

Parallel to this Western vision of modernising African agriculture, theinternational development and financial institutions are working behind thescenes on privatising land relations to enable and attract foreign investmentin African land. US investment, for example, is encouraged by the USgovernment’s Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), which disbursesmoney in the form of grants to particular countries on condition that theymeet certain neoliberal economic criteria. Most MCC Compacts signed withAfrican countries focus on agriculture, with a central land privatisationcomponent, supporting ‘market-based solutions to food security’. Suchprovisions include certifying outgrowers for food exports, constructinginfrastructure to gain access to world markets, and partnering with AGRA toprovide inputs to farmers in their first year—with the likelihood that eventualindebtedness will force them to sell land to larger farms and agribusinesscorporations.23

This instance of the global land grab is sponsored by organisations such asthe World Bank, its International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Interna-tional Rice Research Institute (IRRI) of the CGIAR, the European Bank forReconstruction and Development, and others, but with particular focus onsub-Saharan Africa. The Gates Foundation claims that, over time, enablingthe commercial development of African agriculture ‘will require some degreeof land mobility and a lower percentage of total employment involvedin direct agricultural production’ —a clear allusion to eviction (emphasisadded).24 According to GRAIN, over $100 billion has been mobilised since thefood crisis summit in Rome in June 2008 for land investments ‘not to harvestfood but to harvest money’, according to one analyst.25 Since 2006 between15 and 20 million hectares of farmland—‘the equivalent of the total arablesurface of France’—have been targeted by foreign investors.26 In light of thisrush to invest in land questions of legitimacy have arisen, addressed in partby the enunciation in 2010 of seven ‘Principles for Responsible AgriculturalInvestment’ by the World Bank, the FAO, its International Fund forAgricultural Development (IFAD), and the UNCTAD Secretariat. While theseprinciples claim to benefit investors and affected communities alike, theynevertheless provide an unequal comparative advantage to investors, giventhe relationship between privatising land and its ‘mobility’.27

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Banking on new agriculture

The reason why development agencies represent the land grab as a ‘win-win’situation is that they proceed from neoclassical assumptions that developmentis ultimately the transfer of rural people to urban centres. Haroon Akram-Lodhi notes that the Bank’s World Development Report 2008, ‘clearly expectsthat over time agriculture-based countries should, eventually, shift tobecoming transforming countries before, eventually, becoming urbanizedcountries’, despite various ‘idiosyncracies’.28 The official response to the foodcrisis follows this logic, proposing that these shifts be initiated and managedthrough the neoliberalisation of agriculture and concurrent de-peasantisation.TheWorld Development Report 2008 subdivides agriculture’s contributions

into three distinct worlds: agriculture-based countries, transforming coun-tries and urbanised countries—a hierarchical order in which countries ‘followevolutionary paths that can move them from one country type to another’.29

But countries don’t ‘move’; rather, their governments collect statisticsrecording changes in singular values of monetised activity. So the Bankclaims that ‘effective instruments in using agriculture for development’include increasing assets of poor households, making smallholders moreproductive, and expanding the rural non-farm economy30—logical enough ifthe goal is to expand the realm of monetary values and develop statistics.This goal is embedded in what the Bank calls the ‘new agriculture’, ‘led by

private entrepreneurs in extensive value chains linking producers toconsumers and including many entrepreneurial smallholders supported bytheir organizations’.31 But this conception is synchronic, insofar as itadvocates instant incorporation of smallholders into a hierarchical globalmarket structure, rather than an ‘evolutionary’ process within their particularcountry. Amin reclassifies this agrarian hierarchy:32 high-input grain-livestock farmers in the North, a relatively small group of industrial-capitalistfarmers in the New Agricultural Countries (NACs) of the South,33 and theglobally pervasive and underprivileged low-input smallholder population,which comprises about 40 per cent of humanity.34 Within this hierarchyagricultural productivity ratios across high- and low-input farming have risenfrom 10:1 before 1940 to 2000:1 in the 21st century, deepening the competitiveexposure of small farmers.35 Thus the Bank conflates a diachronicevolutionary assumption with a synchronic regime—whose competitiveadvantages reside in subsidised agribusiness trade and investment at theexpense of peasant agriculture, understood as a remnant of history.The apparent obsolescence of peasant agriculture in the face of a market-

driven project to subject smallholders to managed competition, acceleratedby government and development agency complicity in land grabbing, isreinforced by a developmentalist episteme that is unable to recognise thesocial, ecological and cultural functions and potentials of small farmingpractices and networks. This is so even for liberal NGOs such as Oxfam,which views investing in agriculture as potentially having ‘an enormouspoverty reduction ‘‘pay off’’, because of agriculture’s importance to foodsecurity’. The Oxfam International Research Report, Harnessing Agriculture

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for Development, argues ‘Agriculture is certainly an important part of the mixof activities that sustain household economies, but has to be viewed in thecontext of increased multi-activity by poor households, deepening urban–rural linkages and heightened national and international out-migration’.36

Acknowledging that ‘Certain features of small farms—their transmission oflocal knowledge for instance—can also mean they have a key role to play inprotecting environmental goods’, the executive summary continues, ‘it maybe necessary to recognise that, in some cases, investment in agriculture will beabout enabling rural populations to exercise greater choice about their live-lihoods, including leaving farming altogether’. That is, peasant agriculture isrepresented as essentially a ‘poverty baseline’ for development,37 and largelyaccepted as such in the official development paradigm.Since the register for development is the (apparent) absence of peasantries

in the global North,38 development agencies organise their data along theselines, making the assumption that there is a standard trajectory in play,governed by scale efficiencies, market-rational resource allocation, and soforth. In other words, it is unusual to find development agencies advocatingalternative paths of development, and in particular of shifting subsidies tosmallholders as stewards of the land and providers of food to localpopulations. Should peasants leave the land it is a function of eithereconomic underachievement or simply choice, as expressed in different waysin the above quotes from the World Bank and Oxfam.The market solution, again, is to incorporate small farmers into the World

Bank’s neoliberal conception of a ‘new agriculture’.39 The expectation is thatthe private sector would drive ‘the organization of value chains that bring themarket to smallholders and commercial farms’.40 The FAO echoes this scenarioin noting that many ‘successful cash-crop value chains have effectively over-come the lack of rural credit by providing input credit directly to farmers andfarmers’ associations, with reimbursement at the time of product sale’.41 Theassumption is that publicly-supplied rural credit for farmers is easily replaced bycorporate credit on contract. But the source of credit has substantive implica-tions for the form of agriculture: privatisation of credit implies a shift from apublicly supported domestically oriented agriculture producing staple foodsfor local and national markets, to a value-chain-oriented export agricultureproducing for those with purchasing power in world markets. TheWorld TradeOrganization’s (WTO) export regime has contributed to the transformation ofAfrica into a food importer, importing 25 per cent of its food, and exportinghigh-value crops such as green beans, coffee, flowers and biofuels. Whileeconomic theory postulates that high-value exports can assist in financing staplefood imports, the food crisis revealed the limits of this scenario.42

The FAO observes that food security research ‘has highlighted the strongpositive interactions between cash-crop and food-crop activities andinnovative methods for resolving many of the constraints facing small-holders’.43 In other words, commercial farming in general is the appropriatestrategy to increase productivity and thereby reduce poverty.44. Butimproving productivity is one thing, and considering what is produced andwhere it is consumed is another. Expanding export agriculture via increased

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productivity may raise rural income (and price volatility), but it also mayreduce the availability of local food for local markets or even self-consumption—one of the key determinants of hunger in the food crisis.45

If accomplished through market devices, such as commercial inputs, it alsotends to lead to small farmer debt and displacement.Paradoxically rising food prices do not provide sufficient commercial

stimuli for small farmers, despite FAO suggestions that rural householdsproducing food staples traded internationally could benefit from rising foodprices.46 Rather, the World Bank reports that, because farmers tend not toseek such market rewards because of fertiliser and fuel inflation, in additionto previous commitments to sell harvests at fixed rates, and/or that, becausefarmers in poor regions self-consume more of their own output, their gainsfrom price increases are marginal.47 Another World Bank report, based on asurvey of 1000 households in nine low-income countries, noted that poorpeople are particularly vulnerable to staple food price rises, given the greatershare of staple foods in their expenditure patterns.48 Further, an IFAD reporton the impact of the food crisis on the rural poor notes that not only are theybecoming poorer, but also, as producers, they are responding either bywithdrawing from the market and reverting to low-input, low-output prod-uction for home consumption, or, where they have the resources, by shiftinginto higher-value market-oriented production, as a means to earn the incometo assure their own food security.49 Either way this means that poor and/or small farmers’ choices do not at the moment include (having the publicsupport for) producing food for domestic markets under the auspices ofnational food security programmes.

The agrarian crisis in context

Just as the official response to the food crisis (an expression of the morefundamental agrarian crisis) has been ‘agribusiness as usual’, with the goalnow of incorporating small farmers into global commodity markets, so theresponse by the ‘food sovereignty’ movement has been to offer an alternativeinterpretation of the problem, and the solution. The ‘food sovereignty’perspective critiques the narrative of de-peasantisation and its enablingpolicies, and advocates protection of peasant farming as a social andenvironmental necessity in promoting food security across the world. Thisperspective, and movement, emerged in the early 1990s as a direct result of thepressures on small farming cultures across the world stemming from theprivatisation of food security, via the political mechanisms of tradeliberalisation and the belief in the ability of transnational food corporationsto ‘feed the world’. At a Food Security Summit in Rome in 1996 thesubstitution of ‘sovereignty’ for ‘security’ was a way in which the internationalpeasant coalition, La Vıa Campesina, politicised the corporate food regime.The corporate food regime, with its market-centric organising principle, is

represented in the WTO protocols of 1995.50 Through the Agreement onAgriculture, WTO trade rules stabilised competitive ‘dumping’ of surplusfoods by Europe and the US, liberalising agricultural trade via the opening of

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Southern markets to (still heavily subsidised) Northern agri-exports. Thecurrent global food crisis is deeply rooted in this food regime. Its first phase(1990s) deployed a declining world price of traded agricultural commoditiesagainst small producers across the world,51 providing relatively cheap food tocompensate for declining wages in the North. The second phase (2000s) hasbeen the reverse: a rising world price of food—against consumers, broadly,but especially wage-food consumers. The earlier crisis of low food prices (forfarmers) has been compounded in this century by a crisis of rising food prices(for wage-food consumers).52

The former crisis anticipated and deepened the latter crisis. Briefly, theartificial cheapening of traded food put smallholders across the world underintense price competition in their home markets,53 producing an ‘incomedeflation’ which has rendered their farming increasing unviable,54 andgenerated land consolidation by agribusiness. A 1997 study by the FAO of 16Southern countries reported the displacement of at least 20–30 million ruralpeople, identifying the impact of liberalisation as: ‘a general trend towardsthe concentration of farms, in a wide cross-section of countries . . . While thisled to increased productivity and competitiveness with positive results, in thevirtual absence of safety nets the process also marginalized small producersand added to unemployment and poverty’.55 Such ‘accumulation byencroachment’56 contributed to the stagnation in food supply over the pastquarter century, undermining small farmer capacity to respond to agflationby increasing food production.The premise for the WTO trade rules was stated clearly by the chairman of

Cargill, the global grain trader: ‘There is a mistaken belief that the greatestagricultural need in the developing world is to develop the capacity to growfood for local consumption. This is misguided. Countries should producewhat they produce best—and trade’.57 This corporate-sponsored ‘free trade’vision, despite the crisis, remains unshaken (despite the default of landgrabbing). The geography of hunger in the food crisis suggests that it is theexport priority that is misguided, if food security is understood as a right ofnational citizens, rather than that of global consumers with purchasingpower. When food becomes a market commodity it satisfies monetarydemand, rather than social need, which can skew agricultural resources. Forsome time now it has been acknowledged that, through the market, there isan uneven competition between those with purchasing power who consumegrain indirectly (as feed grain) and those who consume food grain directly—translated as pressure by meat eaters on basic grain supplies.58 Thiscompetition has now extended to biofuels, deepening a long-term discrimina-tion against peasant farmers, recently intensified by structural adjustmentpolicies that informed WTO trade rules.In a comprehensive multi-state review of the consequences of such policies

in 2002 the Structural Adjustment Participatory Review Initiative Network(SAPRIN) concluded:

Trade liberalization, agricultural reforms and other sectoral and structuraladjustment measures have served to marginalize the poor in rural areas, to

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reduce the availability of productive farmland for cultivation for the localmarket and to undermine food security . . . The more well-to-do, large-scaleproducers with access to productive resources, particularly those producing forexport, have generally benefited from the liberalizing reforms. Small farmers,particularly those producing food for the domestic population, have seen theircosts skyrocket and their access to credit, land and markets become moreproblematic.59

Such conclusions confirmed an agrarian crisis made manifest several yearslater in the food crisis, and countered the idealism of the MDGs of 2000. Inaddition, they anticipated the emerging legitimacy crisis facing thedevelopment agencies and international financial institutions—which argu-ably accounts for the renewed interest in agricultural reform, even though ithas come half a decade or so after the enunciation of the MDGs. Structuraladjustment policies generally were already in question by the turn of thecentury, and the development industry was reorienting its focus to‘empowering’ the grassroots. Most notably food price inflation has madevisible the shortcomings of the market as an efficient allocator of foodsupplies. Under these conditions vulnerable citizens rioted,60 states andinvestors are appropriating agricultural land offshore to secure future foodsupplies,61 and editorials at the time recalled the importance of public foodstocks, even as they may still accord primacy to the market. Public discoursenow acknowledges the perverse effect of biofuels on food prices, and some-times even the folly of a biofuels policy, especially as it concerns the Emis-sions Trading Scheme in Europe.62 Finally, the moral issue of fuel versusfood was articulated by UN human rights rapporteur, Jean Ziegler, inOctober 2007 as a ‘crime against humanity’.The official response to this legitimacy crisis, and its material under-

pinnings, has been to publicly harness agribusiness to the task of addressingthe agrarian crisis, targeting the smallholder sector. The proposed public–private partnership in the MDGs has entered here in a very direct manner—not simply through the AGRA-type initiatives mentioned above, but also inthe opportunity in the ‘food crisis’ for public–private partnerships tostrengthen small farming via value-chain agriculture to increase foodproduction. Acknowledging that the world market is unequal, officialanalysts assume that farmers should be producing for export marketsmanaged by global agribusiness firms (whose interests are not consonantwith local producers and domestic food security). This assumption accordswith a structural condition induced by the application of neoclassicaleconomic theory to trade and development policy. That is, the generalconversion of food into an export business has been a central consequence ofstructural adjustment policies over the past three decades. As a result, agro-exporting has become indispensable to macroeconomics and food prices.However, the world food order does not have to be held hostage to

macroeconomic relationships. Incorporating food as an export item likeshirts, computers and automobile parts, such that agriculture and nationalcurrencies must depend on the viability of the international food trade, is

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a political choice that can be reversed or modified. The premise that exportagriculture is an economic necessity is perhaps the most questionableassumption of the contemporary world from a social welfare, food rights andenvironmental sustainability perspective. It is this question that most clearlydistinguishes the market-centric from the food sovereignty perspective, whichargues against subordinating agriculture to trade and capital accumulation.

Agricultural policy at a crossroads

While there is general consensus on addressing the vulnerability ofsmallholding agriculture, how policy recommendations emerge suggests abasic divide. This divide is over the question of whether agriculture is aservant of economic growth, or whether it is truly multifunctional and shouldalternatively be developed as a foundational source of social and ecologicalsustainability. Here we review and compare these two positions, orparadigms, particularly in the context of the food crisis.

The agricultural value-chain approach

The current focus on improving small-farmer productivity with new inputs,and their incorporation into global markets via ‘value chains’ is a variant ofindustrial agriculture, and constitutes a central part of the World Bank’s‘agriculture for development’ initiative. To illustrate, in the context of thefood crisis, attention has turned to increasing rice yields in Africa,representing the problem as one of inefficiency to be resolved by high-yielding seeds—a conclusion giving rise to the New Rice for Africa (Nerica)project, supported with substantial private investment, concentrated in theupland agriculture of West Africa.63 Nerica varieties, developed inlaboratories with hybrids from the CGIAR gene bank, are channelled tolocal farmers via ‘participatory variety selection’ processes, or via contractproduction systems, or produced on large industrial estates.The Nerica story is symptomatic of a larger narrative. The African small

producer, representing a substantial remnant of peasant culture in the world,has become the new object of development,64 especially given that Africa holdsa disproportionate amount of unused suitable cropland, such that more than80 per cent of arable land expansion is projected for sub-Saharan Africa andLatin America.65 While 90 per cent of seeds in Africa are local varieties, theNerica story reminds us that seed privatisation is very much on the drawingboard, since the development paradigm defines productivity in terms of yieldper plant, and therefore concentrates on seed technologies. The difference isthat hybrid and genetically modified seeds individualise cropping at theexpense of systems of crop diversity. Thus the chemicals applied to herbicide-tolerant crops (a major part of the plant biotechnology industry) are at cross-purposes with mixed cropping systems, whose value lies in their ability toreduce soil depletion through chemical fertiliser, to spread risk, to sustain localseed and farming knowledge, and to produce higher outputs of food varietiesper unit of land than monocultures dependent on commercial inputs.

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In May 2008 the OECD claimed: ‘The curse of higher food prices can beturned into a blessing if African agriculture finally becomes a business’,66 andFAO director-general Diouf observed that ‘governments, supported by theirinternational partners, must now undertake the necessary public investmentand provide a favourable environment for private investments’.67 It is in thiscontext that ‘value-chain’ agriculture is commanding a great deal ofattention. Value-chain agriculture includes production for export as well asfor domestic retailers, particularly as the global supermarket revolutionspreads. Here we consider some of the evidence.Kenya is a model of ‘value-chain’ export agriculture. The graphs in

Figure 1 illustrate the significant trends: declining domestic production of‘peasant foods’ (sorghum and millet) juxtaposed with an explosion of teaexports in particular, as value-chain restructuring has transformedthese industries,68 in addition to a rising export trend in green beans andfresh vegetables, plus 90 per cent of horticultural exports destined for Europe(especially the UK). Export earnings on value-chain agriculture in turnfinance growing cereal imports of wheat and rice. This is a common patternfor countries that embrace value-chain exporting. While reconfiguring foodsecurity through trade in the new international division of labour (specialitycrops exchanged for basic grains), it nevertheless renders agro-exportersvulnerable to increased food price volatility, especially during food crises.In Kenya’s export horticulture growers rely on migrant female labour, with

gains being realised through the ‘comparative advantage of women’sdisadvantage’ which characterises the global horticulture labour force, whereglobal retailers (with just-in-time inventories) organise global commoditychains.69 From the household angle female migrant labour patternscomplement household decisions about enhancing household security andwell-being. Here the shift in the mid-1990s away from smallholder-contractproduction to centralised employment on farms and in packhouses (now over80 per cent of horticulture) has depended on a migrant labour force, as womenin particular migrate for short-term employment to help sustain thehousehold.70

This trend portrays the juxtaposition (and relationship) of peasantagriculture decline and the rising investment in value-chain agriculture. Notall value-chain agriculture inevitably shifts from contract production to estateproduction. Nevertheless, the Kenyan case is prototypical for successful value-chain agriculture—in particular through the ‘role of upscaling and enhancedsupply-chain coordination in responding to increasingly asymmetrical buyer-driven chains’.71 Here the large UK retailers capture almost 50 per cent of thehorticultural industry’s value-adding and determine terms of entry. The shifttowards private governance stimulates upgrading for firm dominanceinvolving: ‘increased volume capacity, quality consistency, supply reliability,product variety, innovation and ethical standards’,72 in addition to theeconomies of scale allowing large-investments irrigation, machinery andsupply-management information technologies. Despite private governance,the Kenyan state has been aggressive in providing extension support, investingin research and development and attracting foreign investment in the industry.

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FIG

URE1.Trendsin

Kenyanagriculture

inthecontextofvalue-chain

restructing.

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In short, value-chain agriculture encourages the incorporation ofsmallholders into networks dominated by large downstream processors andretailers that now mediate volatile world prices to these food circuits, withuneven results for producers—whether dispossession, enrichment or, in thelong term, being subject to downward price trends because of intensifyingcompetition.73 In addition, much of the food itself becomes just anothertradable commodity on the global market. Under these circumstances, whilesuccessful agro-exporting nations can use foreign exchange earnings toreplace exported food products with staple foods, the consequences are clearin the long run, namely, increased vulnerability to food price spikes (with lessaccess to national food reserves—including domestic capacity), and anincreasing bias of food accessibility to urban consumers with purchasingpower across the world.

The multifunctionality approach

An alternative approach, consonant with food sovereignty, is prefigured inthe research and recommendations of the World Bank and UN-sponsoredIAASTD report in 2008.74 This report, released at the same time as the WorldBank’s World Development Report 2008, advocates a multifunctional role foragriculture in reducing poverty and social/gender inequality, stabilising ruralcultures, reversing environmental degradation, and mitigating climatechange. Stating that ‘business as usual is not an option’, given thecombination of climate, energy, water and food crises, the IAASTD questionsindustrial agriculture and GM food as the solution to the social and ecologicalcrises associated with global agribusiness, on the grounds that markets failto adequately value environmental and social harm.75 The report alsoquestions the salience of a market-driven approach,76 and its narrow focus onproductivity, versus an integrative view of food, resource and nutritionalsecurity—underlining agriculture’s multifunctional contribution to complexsocial reproduction issues.Complementing the substantial literature on the greater overall productiv-

ity of small-scale farming,77 IAASTD contributor Jan van Aken noted, ‘a half-hectare plot in Thailand can grow 70 species of vegetables, fruits and herbs,providing far better nutrition and feeding more people than a half-hectareplot of high-yielding rice’.78 In order to strengthen and secure the future forsmall farming, IAASTD recommends altering institutional arrangements toensure the multiple functions of agriculture, in addition to a ‘shift tononhierarchical development models’, building trust and valuing farmerknowledge and natural and agricultural biodiversity, as well as seed exchangeand common resource management systems.79

The IAASTD recommends ending subsidies for Northern surpluses anddeveloping subsidies for environmental stewardship, and, contradicting WTO

liberalisation, recommends national policy flexibility to balance the needsof poor consumers and small farmers.80 In other words, the report under-lines the key problem in the trade paradigm, namely the attempt tostandardise trade relations across a state system in which all states may be

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formally equal, but some are more equal than others, and all have their ownparticular social configurations and needs. In addition, the report notes that‘international trade in agricultural commodities and food, as currentlyorganized, sets consumers in different countries into competition for the sameland and water resources. For example, the global average agricultural landavailability is 0.25 ha per person, yet food consumption in many countries,particularly developed countries, makes a much larger claim on this resource’.81

With respect to ‘multifunctionality’, IAASTD offers a holistic vision offorms of agro-ecology in which regeneration of natural carbon cycles, andgoals of food and nutritional security, outweigh the conventional path ofagricultural development and its narrow focus on increasing agricultural cropproductivity, including the use of biotechnological solutions. In this sense theIAASTD report differs markedly from the World Bank’s World DevelopmentReport 2008, establishing a significant contrast in paradigmatic approaches.IAASTD actually reinforces the critique and advocacy of the food sovereigntymovement, by recommending strengthening local and regional food systems,democratising food policy, and prioritising the needs of small farmers bysecuring access to productive resources (seeds, land, water), credit,information, market infrastructures and fair trade systems.82

Under the heading ‘Options Exist’ the IAASTD report maps out a generalstrategy to strengthen food system resilience in the face of environmentalcrises—including promoting agro-ecological practices with ‘triple-bottom-line’ goals, full-cost accounting to incorporate energy, health and environ-mental costs and, importantly, a rights-based framework, which is at oddswith a market-centric organisation of the agriculture and food system.83

In addition to the question of political and cultural rights, there is a wealthof research and practice that supports the claim that small farms are moreproductive than large mono-cultural factories in the fields.84 Miguel Altierisummarises the advantage of small, diversified farming:

In polycultures developed by smallholders, productivity, in terms of harvestableproducts, per unit area is higher than under sole cropping with the same level ofmanagement. Yield advantages range from 20 percent to 60 percent, becausepolycultures reduce losses due to weeds, insects and diseases, and make moreefficient use of the available resources of water, light and nutrients. In overalloutput, the diversified farm produces much more food, even if measured indollars. In the USA, data shows that the smallest two hectare farms produced$15,104 per hectare and netted about $2,902 per acre. The largest farms,averaging 15,581 hectares, yielded $249 per hectare and netted about $52 perhectare. Not only do small to medium sized farms exhibit higher yields thanconventional farms, but do so with much lower negative impact on theenvironment.85

Altieri points out that small farms ‘cool the climate’, treating their soils withorganic fertiliser that absorbs and sequesters carbon more effectively thanindustrial agriculture, noting research claiming that ‘the conversion of 10 000small- to medium-sized farms to organic production would store carbon inthe soil equivalent to taking 1 174 400 cars off the road’.86 At present small

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farmers (two hectares and less) produce the majority of staple crops forurban and rural inhabitants across the world—in Latin America 17 millionpeasant farms produce 51 per cent of the maize, 77 per cent of the beans and61 per cent of the potatoes consumed domestically; 33 million small (mostlyfemale-run) farms in Africa, representing 80 per cent of the farms, produce ‘asignificant amount of basic food crops with virtually no or little use offertilizers and improved seed’ and in Asia most of the rice consumed isproduced by more than 200 million small farmers.87 Michel Pimbert arguesthat ‘Food sovereignty is not against trade and science. But it does argue fora fundamental shift away from ‘‘business as usual,’’ emphasizing the need tosupport domestic markets and small-scale agricultural production based onresilient farming systems rich in biological and cultural diversity’.88 TheInternational Planning Committee on Food Sovereignty declares:

In the context of food sovereignty, agrarian reform benefits all of society,providing healthy, accessible and culturally appropriate food, and social justice.Agrarian reform can put an end to the massive and forced rural exodus fromthe countryside to the city, which has made cities grow at unsustainable ratesand under inhuman conditions.89

Conclusion

The 2010 Millennium Development Goals Report summarised globalaccomplishments over the past decade as follows:

Since 1990, developing regions have made some progress towards the MDG

target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger. The share ofundernourished populations decreased from 20 per cent in 1990–1992 to 16 percent in 2005–2007, the latest period with available data. However, progress hasstalled since 2000–2002. Overall progress in reducing the prevalence of hungerhas not been sufficient to reduce the number of undernourished people. In2005–2007, the last period assessed, 830 million people were still under-nourished, an increase from 817 million in 1990–1992. Food prices spiked in2008 and falling income due to the financial crisis further worsened thesituation. The Food and Agricultural [sic] Organization of the United Nationsestimates that the number of people who were undernourished in 2008 may beas high as 915 million and exceed 1 billion in 200.90

Clearly, the food crisis interrupted what appeared to be palpable progress inreducing measurable hunger. Our claim is that this was not so much aninterruption as an underlying structural problem, manifested in a crisis that isendemic rather than episodic. In this sense the crisis is not of prices so muchas of industrial agriculture, as it exposes existing global food systems toshort-term investment volatilities and long-term environmental and energyvulnerabilities. And it does this at the expense of preserving and enhancingsystems of small-holder agriculture that could well be a significant part of thesolution to hunger, displacement and environmental and energy crises.The International Planning Committee for Food Sovereignty has claimed

that small farmers ‘feed the world and cool the planet’. While this claim may

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not be literally true, it does offer an important insight into the deficiencies ofthe conventional model, as identified in the IAASTD report. Given theopportunity to realise this claim, with state support, a switching of subsidiesfrom overproducing agro-exports to stabilising smallholding communities(relieving pressure on urban centres, and addressing land degradation fromchemical fertilisers and agro-industrial farming) has the potential to revitalisethe myriad local and national food markets. These markets are those uponwhich much of the world (notably low-income consumers) depends evennow, however tenuously (as industrial agriculture and food crises impinge ontheir livelihoods). And these markets will become even more significant asindustrial food’s fossil fuel dependence, in combination with food inflationand trade disruption, render global sourcing increasingly nonviable.In sum, attaining the MDG targets for reducing hunger and promoting food

security will require a paradigm shift in development policy and strategies. Asthe IAASTD report recommends, solutions need to be democraticallygrounded and attentive to cultural diversity and biodiversity. Realisationof this goal depends first on stabilising small farming cultures and localecological knowledge, and on recognising the claims made by the foodsovereignty movement for a central voice and an alternative narrative offuture sustainability.

Notes

This article stems from a 35 000-word thematic paper entitled ‘Global food crisis: causes and prospects forpolicy alternatives’, prepared for the UNRISD Flagship Report, Combating Poverty and Inequality (2006–2010).1 FAO, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008: High Food Prices and Food Security—Threats andOpportunities, 2008, p 12, at http://www.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0291e/i0291e00a.htm.

2 R Gutierrez, ‘Poor eating less while food prices soar’, Inter Press Service, 21 May 2008, at: http://ipsnews.net/print.asp?idnews¼35921.

3 E Northoff, ‘Food prices remain high in developing countries’, FAO Newsroom, 2009, at www.fao.org/news/stroy/en/item/12660/icode.

4 The food inflation that brought this crisis to the world’s attention at the turn of 2008 involved thedoubling of maize prices, wheat prices rising by 50 per cent and rice by as much as 70 per cent.Arguments were made that this moment registered a ‘post-food-surplus era’ (Cf J Vidal, ‘Climatechange and shortages of fuel signal global food crisis’, Guardian Weekly, 11 September 2007); and TheEconomist published an article entitled ‘The end of cheap food’, arguing that by the end of 2007 thefood-price index had reached its highest point since originating in 1845, food prices had risen75 per cent since 2005, and world grain reserves were at their lowest, at 54 days. E Holt-Gimenez & IKenfield, ‘When renewable isn’t sustainable: agrofuels and the inconvenient truth behind the 2007 USEnergy Independence and Security Act’, Policy Brief, No 13, Oakland, CA: Institute for Food andDevelopment Policy, 2008. Financial speculation compounded the problem, for example with the priceof rice surging by 31 per cent on 27 March 2008, and wheat by 29 per cent on 25 February 2008. TheNew York Times of 22 April 2008, wrote: ‘This price boom has attracted a torrent of new investmentfrom Wall Street, estimated to be as much as $130 billion’; with the Commodity Futures TradingCommission noting that ‘Wall Street funds control a fifth to a half of the futures contracts forcommodities like corn, wheat and live cattle on Chicago, Kansas City and New York exchanges. Onthe Chicago exchanges . . . the funds make up 47 percent of long-term contracts for live hog futures, 40percent in wheat, 36 percent in live cattle and 21 percent in corn’. Quoted in J Berthelot, ‘Sorting thetruth out from the lies about the explosion of world agricultural prices’, Solidarite, 18 May 2008, athttp://solidarite.asso.fr. Meanwhile, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) suggestedthat food supply was compromised by the expansion of biofuels production, which ‘would lead todecreases in food availability and calorie consumption in all regions of the world, with Sub-SaharanAfrica suffering the most’. Holt-Gimenez & Kenfield, ‘When renewable isn’t sustainable’.

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5 A Evans, The Feeding of the Nine Billion: Global Food Security for the 21st Century, London: ChathamHouse, 2009, p 6, at http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/papers/view/-/id/694/.

6 International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development(IAASTD), Executive Summary of the Synthesis Report, 2008, at www.agassessment.org/docs/SR_Exec_Sum_280508_English.pdf.

7 Quoted in J Vidal, ‘Sorting the truth out from the lies about the explosion of world agricultural prices’.8 R Chand, ‘The global food crisis: causes, severity and outlook’, Economic & Political Weekly, 28 June2008, pp 117, 119.

9 Ibid, p 118.10 ‘The new face of hunger’, The Economist, 19 April 2008; and ActionAid, ‘Cereal offenders’, ActionAid

Policy Briefing, July 2008, at www.actionaid.org/docs/cereal%20ofenderspdf5cjapan_g8.pdf.11 S Fan, A Gulati & S Dalafi, ‘How to mobilize public resources to support poverty reduction’, 2020

Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People, Washington, DC: IFPRI, 2007.12 Evans, The Feeding of the Nine Billion, p 34.13 ActionAid, ‘Failing the rural poor: aid, agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals’,

ActionAid International, September 2008, at www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/AMMF-7JSHNM/$file/actionaid-sep2008.pdf?openelement.

14 FAO, ‘Initiative on FAO’s soaring food prices’, Information Note, 20 May 2008, at http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/worldfood/Reports_and_docs/Food_Prices_web1.pdf.

15 World Bank, World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development, Washington, DC: WorldBank, 2007, p 1.

16 Quoted in S Urquhart, ‘Food crisis, which crisis? Our crisis or theirs? The battle over the world’s foodsupply relocates to Rome’, Guerrilla News Network, 2 June 2008, at http://gnn.to/articles/3718/food_crisis_which_crisis.

17 J Diouf & J-M Severino, ‘Africa must grow to rely on its own farms’, Guardian Weekly, 2 May 2008,p 18.

18 International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), ‘As threat of a renewed food crisis looms,UN food agencies to join G8 agricultural ministers in Treviso’, ReliefWeb, 19 April 2009, atwww.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MYAI-7R98NJ?OpenDocument.

19 S Hattingh, ‘Liberalizing food trade to death’, MRZine, 5 June 2008, at www.monthlyreview.org/mrzine/hattingh060508.html.

20 B DeWalt, ‘Mexico’s second green revolution: food for feed’, Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, 1,1985, pp 29–60.

21 A Shattuck & E Holt-Gimenez, ‘Why the Lugar–Casey global food security act will fail to curbhunger’, Food First Policy Brief No 18, Oakland, CA: Institute for Food and Development Policy,2009.

22 D Keeney & S Murphy, ‘Colonialism is not dead’, Institute for Agriculture and Trade PolicyCommentary, Des Moines Register, 20 March 2010.

23 GRAIN, ‘Turning African farmland over to big business: the US’s Millennium Challenge Corporation’,Seedling, 3–5 April 2010.

24 Xcroc, ‘AGRA &Monsanto &Gates, green washing & poor washing’,Crossed Crocodiles, 6 April 2009, athttp://crossedcrocodiles.wordpress.com/2009/04/06/agra-monsanto-gates-green-washing-poor-washing/.

25 GRAIN, ‘Seized: the 2008 land grab for food and financial security’, GRAIN Briefings, October 2008, athttp://www.grain.org/briefings/?id¼212.

26 O De Schutter, ‘Responsibly destroying the world’s peasantry’, Food Crisis and the Global Land Grab, 4June 2010, at http://farmlandgrab.org/13528/.

27 Ibid; and S Borras, Jr & J Franco, ‘From threat to opportunity? Problems with the idea of a ‘‘Code ofConduct’’ for land-grabbing’, Yale Human Rights & Development Law Journal, 13, 2010, pp 507–523.

28 AH Akram-Lodhi, ‘(Re)imagining agrarian relations? The World Development Report 2008:Agriculture for Development’, Development and Change, 39(6), 2008, pp 1145–1161.

29 World Bank, World Development Report 2008, p 4.30 Ibid.31 Ibid, p 8.32 S Amin, ‘World poverty: pauperization and capital accumulation’, Monthly Review, 55(5), 2003,

pp 1–9.33 H Friedmann, ‘Changes in the international division of labor: agri-food complexes and export

agriculture’, in W Friedland, L Busch, FH Buttel & AP Rudy (eds), Towards a New Political Economyof Agriculture, Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991.

34 F Araghi, ‘The great global enclosure of our times: peasants and the agrarian question at the end of thetwentieth century’, in F Magdoff, JB Foster & FH Buttel (eds), Hungry for Profit: The AgribusinessThreat to Farmers , Food, and the Environment, New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000.

35 Amin, ‘World poverty’, p 2.

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36 A Fraser, ‘Harnessing agriculture for development’, Oxfam International Research Report, September2009, at http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/harnessing-agriculture-development.

37 Thus the opening paragraph of the World Bank’s, World Development Report 2008 reads: ‘An Africanwoman bent under the sun, weeding sorghum in an arid field with a hoe, a child strapped on herback—a vivid image of rural poverty . . . But others, women and men, have pursued different optionsto escape poverty. Some smallholders join producer organizations and contract with exporters andsupermarkets to sell the vegetables they produce under irrigation. Some work as laborers for largerfarmers who meet the scale economies required to supply modern food markets. Still others move intothe rural nonfarm economy, starting small enterprises selling processed foods’.

38 This is particularly the case for England and the USA, the two countries from whose developmentexperience ‘development theory’ was derived, even though arguably a process of ‘re-peasantisation’ isunderway in Europe. See JD van der Ploeg, The New Peasantries: Struggles for Autonomy andSustainability in an Era of Empire and Globalization, London: Earthscan, 2009.

39 World Bank, World Development Report 2008, p 8.40 Ibid.41 FAO, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008, p 37.42 P McMichael, ‘A food regime analysis of the world food crisis’, Agriculture and Human Values, 4, pp

281–295.43 FAO, State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008, p 37.44 There is African evidence that the volatility of agri-exporting has encouraged farmers close to dynamic

urban markets to shift into ‘fast crop’ production (fruits and vegetables) to regularise cash income as amatter of sustainability. S Ponte, Farmers and Markets in Tanzania: How Policy Reforms Affect RuralLivelihoods in Africa, Oxford: James Currey, 2002.

45 About 90 per cent of the world’s food consumption occurs where it is produced. While urbanitesdepend on the market for almost all their food consumption, rural populations consume 60% of thefood they produce. AF McCalla. ‘World agricultural directions: what do they mean for food security?’,presentation to Cornell Institute for International Food and Development, 30 March 1999.

46 FAO, Crop Prospects and Food Situation, No 2, April 2009, at http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/ai481e/ai481e00.htm.

47 L Macinnis, ‘Poorer farmers not benefiting from food price rise’, Reuters, 29 April 2008.48 M Ivanic & W Martin, ‘Implications of higher global food prices for poverty in low-income countries’,

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4594, April 2008, at http://www.wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/04/16/000158349_20080416103709/Rendered/PDF/wps4594.pdf.

49 IFAD, Soaring Food Prices and the Rural Poor: Feedback from the Field, 2008, at http://www.ifad.org/operations/food/food.htm.

50 P McMichael, ‘Global development and the corporate food regime’, in H Buttel & P McMichael (eds),New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005, pp 265–300.

51 Farm prices for the major commodities in world trade fell 30 per cent or more over the half-decadeafter the WTO agreement was signed in December 1994, according to M Ritchie, ‘The World TradeOrganization and the human right to food security’, presentation to the International CooperativeAgriculture Organization General Assembly, Quebec City, 29 August 2009, at www.wtowatch.org. TheEconomist of 17 April 1999 claimed that commodity prices were at an all-time low for the past centuryand a half. Underlying this institutionalised price reduction were a combination of long-term influencessuch as the green revolution and a decline in crude oil prices (in real terms) since the 1970s. See Chand,‘The global food crisis’, p 122.

52 P Rosset, ‘Food sovereignty and the contemporary food crisis’, Development, 51(4), 2008, pp 460–463.Farmers generally have not benefited from higher food prices, given that their input costs (fertiliser,seeds) have also risen. From January 2007 to June 2008 ‘input prices (fertilizers and crude oil) outpacedfood prices, dampening the positive production incentive of the food price increases’. FAO, The State ofFood Insecurity in the World 2008, p 35.

53 In Kenya sugar trade liberalisation expanded sugar imports from 65 000 tons in 1996 to 250 000 tons in2001. Foreign sugar producers controlled 41 per cent of the Kenyan market by 2004 (31 per cent in1998). Sugar sector employment declined by 79 per cent, with 32 000 retrenched and another 160 000households in sugar producing areas losing income. ActionAid, Cereal Offenders, p 20. For furtherdetails of the depressive effects of ‘import surges’, ‘An FAO study of 102 developing countries foundthat they had undergone between 7000 and 12 000 import surges over a 23 year period’ at the expenseof local producers. ActionAid, Impact of Agro-Import Surges in Developing Countries, 2008, p 8, atwww.actionaid.org/docs/cheap%20imports%20and%20protection%20of%20ag.pdf.

54 Amin claims an intensification of exposure of smallholders, as agricultural productivity ratios acrosshigh- and low-input farming, North and South respectively, rose from 10:1 before 1940 to 2000:1 in the21st century. Amin, ‘World poverty’, p 2.

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55 Quoted in J Madeley, Hungry for Trade, London: Zed Books, 2000, p 75.56 P Patnaik, ‘The accumulation process in the period of globalisation’, Economic & Political Weekly, 28

June 2008, pp 108–113.57 M Lynas, ‘Selling starvation’, Corporate Watch 7, Spring 2001.58 Thus: ‘meatification’ ‘takes up to 16 times more farmland to sustain people on a diet of animal protein

than on a diet of plant protein. The emerging meat-eaters of the emerging economies—especiallyChina—are driving industrial agriculture into the tropical rain forests of South America, sendinggreenhouse gases skyward in a dangerous new linkage between the palate and the warming of theplanet’. D Nepstad, ‘Diet for a hot planet’, Boston Globe, 22 November 2006, at www.boston.com/nes/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2006/11/22/diet_for_a_hot_planet. See also T Weis, The GlobalFood Economy: The Battle for the Future of Farming, London: Zed Books, 2007.

59 Structural Adjustment Participatory Review International Network (SAPRIN), The Policy Roots ofEconomic Crisis and Poverty, 2002, p 176, at http://www.saprin.org/global_rpt.htm.

60 M Schneider, We are Hungry! A Summary Report of Food Riots, Government Responses, and States ofDemocracy in 2008, at http://stuffedandstarved.org/drupal/node/450.

61 GRAIN, Seized.62 E Gallagher, The Gallagher Review of the Indirect Effects of Biofuels Production, UK Government

Renewable Fuels Agency, 2008.63 GRAIN, ‘Nerica: another trap for small farmers in Africa’, Briefing, January 2009, p 2, at

www.grain.org/go/nerica.64 There is some question about whether or why the green revolution did bypass Africa, even though the

CGIAR reportedly invested 40% of its $350 million per year budget onAfrica’s green revolution during thepast quarter century. R Patel & E Holt-Gimenez, ‘The new Green Revolution and world food prices’,FoodFirst/Institute for Food and Development Policy, 2008, at www.foodfirstorg/en/node/2083.

65 FAO, World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030, Rome: FAO, 2002, at http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y3557e/y3557e00.htm.

66 Quoted in D Wolter, ‘Higher food prices—a blessing in disguise for Africa?’, Policy Insights, 66, Paris:OECD Development Center, May 2008, at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/47/40986119.pdf.

67 Urquhart, op cit68 J Nielsen & B Pritchard, Value Chain Struggles: Institutions and Governance in the Plantation Districts

of South India, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.69 CS Dolan, ‘On farm and packhouse: employment at the bottom of a global value chain’, Rural

Sociology, 69(1), 2004, pp 99–126.70 Ibid.71 OH Farfan, ‘Understanding and escaping commodity-dependency: a global value chain perspective’,

paper prepared for the Investment Climate Unit, International Finance Corporation, World BankGroup, 2005, at http://www.cggc.duke.edu/db_search.php.

72 Ibid.73 It should be noted here that downward price trends for producers signal a combination of scale

economies of downstream firms, plus rising input costs, given energy price inflation, expressed in risingprices at the supermarket.

74 IAASTD, Executive Summary of the Synthesis Report.75 Ibid, p 20.76 The IAASTD emphasises that reinventing ‘agriculture’ requires experts in Agricultural Knowledge,

Science and Technology (AKST) to work with local farmers and other professionals such as social andhealth scientists, governments and civil society.

77 C Badgley, J Moghtader, E Quintero, E Zakem, MJ Chappell, K Aviles-Vazquez, A Samulon & IPerfecto, ‘Organic agriculture and the global food supply’, Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems,22(2), 2007, pp 86–108. While this study claims that organic yields and nitrogen fertility methods couldfeed the world, this is an aggregate rather than regionally specific point, and depends as much onpolicies and prices as on yields.

78 Quoted in S Leahy, ‘Reinventing agriculture’, Inter Press Service, 15 April 2008.79 IAASTD, Executive Summary of the Synthesis Reportt, pp 5, 7.80 Ibid, p 19.81 IAASTD, ‘Food security in a volatile world’, Issues in Brief, 2008, at www.agassessment.org/docs/

10505_FoodSecurity.pdf.82 BD McIntyre, HR Herren, J Wakhungu & RT Watson, Agriculture at a Crossroads: IAASTD Synthesis

Report, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2009.83 See www.panna.org/jt/agAssessment#Optionsexist.84 J Pretty et al, ‘Resource conserving agriculture increases yields in developing countries’, Environmental

Science & Technology, 40(4), 2006, pp 1114–1119.

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85 M Altieri, ‘Small farms as a planetary ecological asset: five key reasons why we should support therevitalization of small farms in the global South’, Food First, 2008, at www.foodfirst.org/en/node/2115.

86 Ibid.87 Ibid.88 M Pimbert, ‘Farmer power the key to green advance’, BBC News, 23 February 2008.89 Via Campesina, Sovranita Alimentare—Final Declaration: For a New Agrarian Reform Based on Food

Sovereignty, 9 March 2006, at www.viacampesina.org/main_en/index.php?option¼com_content&task¼view&id¼180&Itemid¼27.

90 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010,p 11, at http://www.unfpa.org/public/site/global/lang/en/pid/6090.

Notes on contributors

Philip McMichael is Professor of Development Sociology, Cornell Uni-versity. His current research applies food regime analysis to the food andenergy crisis and transnational agrarian movements. He has co-edited NewDirections in the Sociology of Global Development (2005), edited ContestingDevelopment: Critical Struggles for Social Change (2010), and authoredSettlers and the Agrarian Question (1984), and Development and SocialChange: A Global Perspective (2008). Mindi Schneider is a DoctoralCandidate in Development Sociology at Cornell University. Her researchfocuses on the relations between the industrialisation of meat production inChina and the reorganisation of rural economies and peasant agriculturalpractices.

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