The ûevelopment of Flapping Wings for a Hovering Micro Air Vehicle

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Transcript of The ûevelopment of Flapping Wings for a Hovering Micro Air Vehicle

  • The evelopment of Flapping Wings for a

    Hovering Micro Air Vehicle

    by

    Derek John Byk

    A tbesis submated in conformity withthe requirements for die degree of Masters of Appd Scierw

    Graduate Deparima of Aerospace Sckixe and Eaginaring University of Toronto

  • 3 uisitions and Acquisiis et B iognphic Services rrvkes bibliognphiques

    The author has gcanted a non- L'auteur a accord une licence non exclusive licence ailowing the exclusive -ettant la National Library of Canada to Bibliothque nationale du Canada de reproduce, loan, distribute or seil reproduire, prter, distri'buer ou copies of this thesis in microform, vendre des copies de cette these sous paper or electronic formais. la forme de microfiche/6Im, de

    reproduction sur papier ou sur format lectronique.

    The author retains ownership of the L'auteur coaserve la propriet du copyxight in this thesis. N e i k the &oit d'auteur qui protge cette thse. thesis nor substantial extfacts from it Ni la thse ni des extraits substantiels may be printed or otherwise de cecelle-ci ne doivent tre imprims reproduced without the author's ou autrement reproduits sans son permission. autorisation.

  • The Devcbpment of PLpping Wiiga for a Boveriag Mkm Air Vehick Mastcrs of Applied Scicncc, 2000

    W John Bilyk

    This documnt pcesents the mtbods ancl resuits of e d y experirrients, conducteci

    at the University of Toronto's Ii1Stitute for Aerospace Sndies, t o w d the evebpmnt of

    w b g s fbr a bovaing, ftapping-wing micro air vebick. The vehfcle envisiDrred

    symmetrically actuates four whgs within a 15 cm iameter, horizontai disc, tbnistuig the

    air downwacd, ushg the 'clepfing' d y n e m i c effect. The entire vehicle will fit

    witbiaa 15 cmcube.

    Foliowing an elementary, quasi-steady analysis to estimate the r q u g e d flapping-

    ikqpency, test quipmnt was desi@ to evaIuae verious wing concepts. An empirical

    test pocess &wed many wing designs to be evaiuated b u g h a wide tlapping-

    hquency range and at s e d flapping ampiitudes. One year of experhentaion led to a

    design capabk of geiiereting mm than 50 granrr of thrust d e coirpuming Iess than 6

    W of power. This peifornmnce is comparable to the best that an unclucteci p10peIIer or

    rotor of tk lp9nie! diameter wodd achieve.

  • I must acbwledge sevaal groups and individu&, without whom tbe

    completion o f this thesis would eabcr have been impossible or much more difficuit.

    1 should begin by thanking Mr. David Loewen. As tk MAV project's chief

    engimer, Dave Lown p e d o d much mre thaa his dure of the nscatch. Although,

    w b v e r possible in this document, 1 have given creda to Dave for both his ideas and his

    hard work, 1 csmiot begin to express how indebted 1 am to him I was fbrtunate to be

    involved in a project with such a thomugh. yet creative leader-

    1 must also thaaL h. DeLaurier. His bands-off supmUion style gave me grrat

    confiellce; somebody 1 respect& tnisted my judgement. Noaetheiess, each timt en

    issue mse requiring his iuput, it becemc obvious that "Dr. D." had been cbsely

    following my progress. 1 bope e>cpaicnce wl giaiit me the same wisdom.

    1 wuld LiLe to thank out peitrieis at SRI I n t h n a 1 for patting us on th back

    when we weren't sure Sour progcess was aequae. In particular, 1 would Iike to thaiiL

    Mr. Roy Kornbluh whose input kept our erxi of the pmject on the correct course.

    DAWA musi be recognzed for proMding such a fsscinathg rrsearch topic and

    the fundiig to explore it.

    1 mu& theak NSERC for tbe scbotsrship tha put K d Dinner on my table.

    Wabout tbis m i a l recognition, tk pursuit o f my master's degree would have been a

    great beidship tor both myseifand my mfe, Simimik

    Finally, thaaL you, S u ~ n n a Orily you hiow what 1 was Wte, tossing and turniag

    at2:am,wiilivisiotl~ofWmgactustiowchcmsdaocmginmy~ Youwete

    mlmrkabIy tolaad

  • To my beautiflll wif,

    Suuioaa Margaret Bilyk

  • Table of Contens

    ............ 2.1 Natuds SOI& ...m.m..o~.~.o.o~........o....H...m.HI..mHII..m.mmmm.H...~..H....mo. .... 2-1 ........................................................................................................ 2. 1.1 -QL of MwIa 2-1

    .............................................................................................................. 2 Cmtrol of Pitcb 2-2

    2.13 C l i p h g I CIapPal .................................................................................................... 2-2

    2-14 Flrpping Cycle Wave Shap and Musle Duty Cycle .............. .. ....... ............................. 2-3

    Frequcocy and Amplitude ............................................................................................... 2 4

    h a g ~ caxiumph .................................................................................................. 2 4

    Vaca< Chdan, SAAding, Pd V i i m .................... ................................ 2.7 .... CirpFhg .............. ....................-.... o................................*....... - .....................O....... 2-9

    me SIUUTUiF MA VAppmucb .......w.....~-..,... ~~..-..a..a.,~........... 3-1

  • 304 CudidrW Wh# CO-b o"oaomwoo"oo*a-~-o~ao~--aom~--"oomm~aoo-ooom-oo.oo.wmw J-7

    3.4.1 S h p k Mcmkane Wmg ................... .., ............................................................... 3 - 8 3.42 RiiReinBDrcsd Manbrane Wmg ......... ...... ............ ..,. ....................................... 3-9 3.43 Camber-Ca~mlkd M e m h e Wing .,.,............... .,.,..... .............................................. 3-9 3.4.4 SpanwisaStiffcned Metubmue Wmg .................... .. .............. ........................ 3-10 3.4.5 Double Surface and Ccuqpd M i l Wmgs .......................................................... 3-1 1

    4.3.1 Quasi-Stdy Fstbnatia~ of Wmg Twist fW Coaant Cr 'Ruwghout Cyck .............. ..... 4-5 4.32 Quasi-Stcady Estimath of Requwd Fhppmg Frequency for Wmg Twist Caizitent

    Tbrougbout Cycle .........*..................****................*.....*....*..*.**...**......*.*.............*........*......*.......... 4-9

    CL-C k Eirpc-rirlal i l g T d a HISC I ,.mmw,oo,m.,m,*woo..ooo.eoomowooooooo..m.ooao S-1

    5.1 Objec8iva & Eqctirmtatbi ~ - * o w o m o - o - - - . ~ o o o - . ~ * ~ ~ a o o o o o o o 1

    Tbc Trkngulr Manme Wmg ..., ,.................... .......... ....,....CU.....U....... .............. ..., 5-7 ............. W-!Wpcd Memhrne W- .,...~~.-~.tt.......................................... !M

    Fikic C d Oril Wmgs..-,.. .... , ..... ....~....-.U......~...... ........................................ 5 4 1

    Epr-rrkl W&I T m -@se a . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ H . . - H H ~ ~ ~ H m . . M

    vi

  • 6J W i e h e b p w i t Tut P b ~ e e e ~ a . a a e ~ a a ~ . w w . ~ e . . e e a e * m a m a a a e a . 6 5 6.3. i Higbcr Aspact-Ratio EUipsoid Wmgs ................ ... ...... .............. ................... 6 - 5 6.3.2 A %gui Rat Plate .................................................................................... 6-7

    6.3.3 SpawiSCIStiffaid W i p ......................... -... ..ti..ti................................................. 6-8 63.4 Rudimentary Flow Visualizatim ........................................................................ 6 - 1 2

    6.3.5 Bi- SpnmsbStiffmd Wmgs .......................... .. .......................................... 6 - 1 4 ................. 63.6 Illustraticm of 'lhnist and Efficiency Benefits of 'ClegFling' ...........+........ 616

    '13 P b III Eirpcriwitd Wiihi w ~ a a ~ e a m a ~ a w ~ ~ a ~ e ~ e a ~ e a e ~ e a e a e e ~ ~ o m a a a ~ w ~ e m ~ e e m a a a e o a m a e e 7 4

    73.1 nie Switch to Caron-Fike Reinkced Pak . Obtaining a Basclint Wmg ................ ..... 7-3 . .......... 73.2 Variati01s on a Thme The 'BAT Saies of Wmgs .. ......... ........................... 7 - 7

    7.33 'BAT- 12' O 'The Culminetitm of Che Y- of MAV Wmg Develo pmai t....... ................. 7-12 73.4 AttcmptoGenenrotheDesigriRoass(Kn0wl~ .,- ......................................... 7 - 1 7

    f a 4 T d k d VC~&& E l b ~ ~ ~ a ~ a u a u w m m e a w e e e a ~ e e e ~ a e m e e e e e e m m o ~ ~ ~ a a a w a a m ~ ~ a a e . ~ ~ m e - w a a 7-18

    ................. ...........*......*....... 7.4.1 'Ouhiggd Style SeacEh YdGe T & d Vchicle .............. 7-18 7.42 'CmCPmed Scatch Ydrt' Styk Tethemi Ve&icle ......................................... .......... 7-21

  • Apptdl. A: A Simple Q i r C S t d y "Bluk Bos'' Acrodyndr A m i ,

    A w d h C: Dib RcMw (. 'Phme 1' o l t k UTIAS M N W M D m b p r i t Rqru

  • List of Figures

    Ck4p1cr 2 t l &~t f f

    Figure 2-1 : Coiapetison o f a typical bird wing and a hummingbird wing [1] ............... -2-2 Figure 2-2: Illustration of the geaeration of 'supacirculation' using 'capfling' ............. 2-3

    Figure 2-3: Insects achieve a nearly sinusoida1 flapping waveform [2] ......................... 2-4 Figure 2-4: Hummingbid flapphg fkquency and amplitude changes when d c i a l l y

    loa&d with extra weight (31 ......................~.......................................................... 2.5

    .................. Figure 2-5: Stiong leading edge vortex dominates dragody aerodynamics 2-8 F i g m 2-6: Clapnuig' flow visualization h m [q ................ ............................. ....... 2.9

    Ck-r 3 Hg-

    Figure 3-1: Early concept image of SRVUTlAS MAV in flight ....................