The sarit regime

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Transcript of The sarit regime

  1. 1. The Sarit Regime (1957-1963/2500-2506) By: Miss Yaowaluk Chaobanpho
  2. 2. -Sarit Thanarat (June 16, 1908 December 8, 1963) was a Thai career soldier who staged a coup in 1957, thereafter serving as Thailand's Prime Minister until his death in 1963. -He was born in Bangkok on June 16, 1908. -His father, Major Luang Ruangdetanan (birth name Thongdi Thanarat), was a career army officer best known for his translations into Thai of Cambodian literature.
  3. 3. Military career -Sarit Thanarat was educated at a monastery school in Bangkok, and entered the Royal Thai Military Academy in 1919. -During World War II he served as commander of an infantry battalion and took part in the invasion and occupation of the Shan States in Burma. -Sarit at first rose slowly in the army ranks. The first decade of his military career was spent in infantry regiments and training schools in Bangkok and nearby Lopburi.
  4. 4. Political Career -Unlike many of his fellow officers, Sarit did not take a prominent role in politics until 1947, when, as a colonel commanding an infantry battalion in Bangkok, he assumed a leading role in the military coup which overthrew civilian parliamentary government. -Sarit's promotion in rank to lieutenant general in 1950 and general in 1952 served to confirm power he already had.
  5. 5. Leader of a Coup -Phibun's power slipped rapidly in the 1950s as economic conditions worsened after the Korean War boom; official corruption became more blatant; and Phao's ruthless attacks on political rivals, the Chinese business community, and civilian political figures got out of hand. -Sarit capitalized on the publicly displayed royal displeasure with Phibun, public outrage, and student demonstrations to call out his troops and overthrow the Phibun government in September 1957.
  6. 6. Sarit seized power Accused Phibun of cheating in election American supported Thai army played crucial roles in 1957 coup
  7. 7. Map of Cold war
  8. 8. Sarit Thanarat (1908-1963) Successful in army Staged a coup in 1957 and second coup in 1958 Prime Minister 1958-1963 Strong leadership Started National Economic and Social Development Plan
  9. 9. Politics in Sarit Regime Governed under Martial Law Most authoritarian in the history of modern Thai politics Abrogating constitution Dissolving parliament Centralized power to his Revolutionary Party Controlled Bureaucratic system and military
  10. 10. Politics (2) Banned all political parties Strict censorship of the press (banned 18 publications) Intense crackdown on leftists Suppressed many professors, politicians and newspapers
  11. 11. Bureaucratic Polity No Elections No political power from society outside bureaucracy No political participation from people Decision making relied on bureaucratic elites
  12. 12. Economic Development Established National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) 1961 launched the 1st National Economic and Social Development Plan Technocrats role in decision making NESDB Bank of Thailand Finance Ministry
  13. 13. Mittraphap Road (#2)
  14. 14. Ideology: Thai Style Democracy Political Instability caused by too much democracy Nation (and state) is more important than individual People do not need to participate, they can assure the country is in good hands (elites) Thainess should be applied in government and politics (Western is not suitable to Thai society)
  15. 15. Ideology: Despotic Paternalism Help children Keep family security Promote health and morality Command Visit family members Father or Dictator?
  16. 16. As Father
  17. 17. The Role of the King Represent Thailand to other countries Visited provinces Patronized development projects Personally presented degrees for university graduates Practice of laying on the ground in front of the royal family
  18. 18. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5 WGCMfKyulo
  19. 19. Role of the King http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZjRAak_sx nk Role in Development National day Kings Birthday Role in Government
  20. 20. Sarits funeral
  21. 21. 1965: The constitution becomes violent Old editorial cartoon The constitution becomes violent by Ngo Ngae, Kieatisak Newspaper, August 7, 1965 It reads: Article 17 of the constitution of Administrative Kingdom shows miraculous power. The announcement by the P.M. to return assets taken by cheating is in trouble. This made the council of drafting the constitution come to mentor the government immediately.
  22. 22. Chiang Mai 1959 Opium Pipes The pile of opium pipes the police and Excise Dept. officers in CM brought to be burned at the Tha Pae gate after Field Marshall Sarit Thanarats decree to forbid opium trade and smoking nation wide.
  23. 23. Knig Bhumibol mit Feldmarschall Sarit Thanarat
  24. 24. From Kietisak, August 7, 1965 Dying Textile workers strike against employers Vijitra holds the white flag (of defeat) over article 17 of the government Asked Tawee to stay at home in Sapankwai temporary 2 diamond traders killed each other at the golf field, Suan Lumpini
  25. 25. Front page from 1964 From Bangkok Times, July 20, 1964 The headline reads: Daughter of Sarit reveals life - Blocked from seeing her father until his death - Field Marshal Sarits soul came to her in a dream. Do a ceremony to meet Field Marshal Por ["Por" is the nickname of Praek Piboonsongkram] - Sarit asked to drink young coconut milk [young coconut milk is normally used as offering in many Thai ordinary/ local ceremony hosted for spirituals] The important person confirmed Field Marshal Por separated from Sarit [Sarit died in December of the previous year, the only Thai PM to die in office. ] Eldest daughter of Field Marshal Sarit gives interview to the Bangkok Times telling her depressing life story since divorce of parents - Saying that Sarit sent diamond pendant for her - She sobbingly asked to see her father, but was prevented until after his death
  26. 26. Bangkok Times, March 6, 1964 The headlines read: Sarits mistress/concubine [minor wife] - Not to face broken home situation and hopeful for support Survive because of a charm [Buddhist image] - Senior colonel revealed the miracle - The Bangkok Times reveals the latest miracle of Luang Poh Tuad [revered monk whose charms are greatly cherished for miraculous power] who was well known by Thai people for the miracle life saving of the high-ranked soldier unbelievably Revelation of the estate case of His Excellency Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat that could be well disputed... many mistresses are to be supported and not to wander