The Nomination Game The Campaign Game · 12/22/16 2 The Nomination Game LO 9.1: Evaluate the...

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12/22/16 1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter 9: Nominations and Campaigns The Nomination Game The Campaign Game Money and Campaigning The Impact of Campaigns Understanding Nominations and Campaigns Summary Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives The Nomination Game LO 9.1: Evaluate the fairness of our current system of presidential primaries and caucuses. The Campaign Game LO 9.2: Explain the key objectives of any political campaign. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives Money and Campaigning LO 9.3: Outline how fund-raising for federal offices is regulated by campaign finance laws. The Impact of Campaigns LO 9.4: Determine why campaigns have an important yet limited impact on election outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives Understanding Nominations and Campaigns LO 9.5: Assess the advantages and disadvantages of having a long presidential campaign.

Transcript of The Nomination Game The Campaign Game · 12/22/16 2 The Nomination Game LO 9.1: Evaluate the...

Page 1: The Nomination Game The Campaign Game · 12/22/16 2 The Nomination Game LO 9.1: Evaluate the fairness of our current system of presidential primaries and caucuses. • Deciding to

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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman! Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman!

Chapter 9: Nominations and Campaigns

•  The Nomination Game •  The Campaign Game •  Money and Campaigning •  The Impact of Campaigns •  Understanding Nominations and

Campaigns •  Summary

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman!

Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives

•  The Nomination Game •  LO 9.1: Evaluate the fairness of our current

system of presidential primaries and caucuses.

•  The Campaign Game •  LO 9.2: Explain the key objectives of any

political campaign.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman!

Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives

•  Money and Campaigning •  LO 9.3: Outline how fund-raising for federal

offices is regulated by campaign finance laws.

•  The Impact of Campaigns •  LO 9.4: Determine why campaigns have an

important yet limited impact on election outcomes.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman!

Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives

•  Understanding Nominations and Campaigns •  LO 9.5: Assess the advantages and

disadvantages of having a long presidential campaign.

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The Nomination Game LO 9.1: Evaluate the fairness of our current system of presidential primaries and caucuses. •  Deciding to Run •  Competing for Delegates •  The Convention Send-Off

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The Nomination Game

•  Nomination •  The official endorsement of a candidate for

office by a political party. •  Success in the nomination game requires

momentum, money, and media attention. •  Campaign Strategy •  Master game plan that guides a

candidate’s electoral campaign.

LO 9.1

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The Nomination Game

•  Deciding to Run •  A presidential candidacy in the United

States needs to be either announced or an “open secret” for at least a year before the election.

•  Barack Obama made clear his intention to run for president in January 2007.

LO 9.1

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The Nomination Game

•  Competing for Delegates •  National Party Convention – The

supreme power within each party. •  McGovern-Fraser Commission – In

response to demands for reform by minority groups and others seeking better representation.

•  Super-delegates – Party leaders automatically get delegate slot at national party convention.

LO 9.1

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LO 9.1

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The Nomination Game

•  Competing for Delegates •  Caucus - A system for selecting

convention delegates used in about a dozen mostly rural states in which voters must show up at a set time and attend an open meeting to express their presidential preference.

LO 9.1

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The Nomination Game

•  Competing for Delegates (cont.) •  Presidential primaries are elections in

which a state’s voters go to the polls to express their preference for a party’s nominee for president.

•  Frontloading – Recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar to capitalize on media attention.

LO 9.1

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The Nomination Game

•  Competing for Delegates (cont.) •  Evaluating the Primary and Caucus

System – Disproportionate attention goes to early ones; prominent politicians do not run; money plays too big a role; participation is low and unrepresentative; and too much power goes to the media.

LO 9.1

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The Nomination Game

•  The Convention Send-Off •  Rallying point for parties. •  Key note speaker on first day of

Convention. •  Party platform (2nd day) – Goals and

policies for next 4 years. •  Formal nomination of president and vice-

president candidates on third and fourth days.

LO 9.1

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LO 9.1

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The Campaign Game LO 9.2: Explain the key objectives of any political campaign. •  The High-Tech Media Campaign •  Organizing the Campaign

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The Campaign Game

•  The High-Tech Media Campaign •  Direct mail used to generate support and

money for candidate. •  Get media attention through ad budget and

free news coverage. •  The emphasis is on marketing a candidate

because news stories focus more on the horse race than substantive policy issues.

LO 9.2

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LO 9.2

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The Campaign Game

•  Organizing the Campaign •  Get a campaign manager, a fund-raiser,

and a campaign counsel. •  Hire media and campaign consultants. •  Assemble staff, plan logistics, and get

research staff, policy advisors, pollsters, and a good press secretary.

•  Establish a website.

LO 9.2

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LO 9.2

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Money and Campaigning LO 9.3: Outline how fund-raising for federal offices is regulated by campaign finance laws. •  The Maze of Campaign Finance

Reforms •  The Proliferation of PACs •  Are Campaigns Too Expensive?

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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman!

Money and Campaigning

•  The Maze of Campaign Finance Reforms •  Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974

created Federal Election Commission; provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections; limited presidential campaign spending; required disclosure; and limited contributions.

LO 9.3

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LO 9.3

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Money and Campaigning

•  The Maze of Campaign Finance Reforms (cont.) •  Soft Money – Contributions for party

building expenses or generic party advertising not subject to contribution limits.

•  McCain-Feingold Act (2002) bans soft money, increased amount of individual contributions, and limited issue ads.

LO 9.3

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Money and Campaigning

•  The Maze of Campaign Finance Reforms (cont.) •  527 Groups – Independent groups seek to

influence the political process but are not subject to contribution limits because they do not directly seek election of particular candidates.

•  The name 527 Groups comes from Section 527 of the federal tax code by which they are governed.

LO 9.3

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LO 9.3

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Money and Campaigning

•  The Proliferation of PACs •  Political Action Committees are funding

vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms.

•  A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create a political action committee (PAC) and register it with the Federal Election Commission.

LO 9.3

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Money and Campaigning

•  The Proliferation of PACs (cont.) •  There were 4,611 PACs during the 2007–

2008 election cycle, which contributed $412.8 million to House and Senate candidates.

•  PACs donate to candidates who support their issue.

•  PACs do not buy candidates, but give to candidates who support them in the first place.

LO 9.3

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LO 9.3

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Money and Campaigning

•  Are Campaigns Too Expensive? •  Center for Responsive Politics estimated in

2008 that the contests for the presidency and Congress cost over $5 billion.

•  More congressional incumbents spend, the worse they do.

•  Doctrine of sufficiency – Spend enough money to get a message across to compete effectively.

LO 9.3

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LO 9.3

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The Impact of Campaigns LO 9.4: Determine why campaigns have an important yet limited impact on election outcomes. •  Campaigns have three effects on

voters. •  Reinforcement – Reinforce voters’

preferences for candidates. •  Activation – Voters contribute money or

ring doorbells. •  Conversion – Convert, changing voters’

minds.

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The Impact of Campaigns

•  Some factors tend to weaken campaigns’ impact on voters. •  Selective perception – Most people pay

attention to things they agree with and interpret events according to predispositions.

•  Party identification influence voting behavior.

•  Incumbents – Advantage of name recognition and a track record.

LO 9.4

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Understanding Nominations and Campaigns LO 9.5: Assess the advantages and disadvantages of having a long presidential campaign. •  Are Nominations and Campaigns Too

Democratic? •  Do Big Campaigns Lead to an

Increased Scope of Government?

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Understanding Nominations and Campaigns

•  Are Nominations and Campaigns Too Democratic? •  Campaigns are open to almost everyone. •  Campaigns consume much time and

money. •  Campaigns promote individualism in

American politics.

LO 9.5

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Understanding Nominations and Campaigns

•  Do Big Campaigns Lead to an Increased Scope of Government? •  Candidates make numerous promises,

especially to state and local interests. •  Hard for politicians to promise to cut size of

government.

LO 9.5

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LO 9.1 Summary

•  The Nomination Game •  Presidential primaries and caucuses lead to

nomination at national party conventions and allow people to participate in the selection of the Democratic and Republican parties’ nominees for president.

•  The system gives some states much greater influence than others.

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LO 9.1 Summary

•  The Nomination Game (cont.) •  Iowa (1st caucus) and New Hampshire (1st

primary) have disproportionate power stemming from the massive media attention devoted to these early contests and the momentum generated by winning them.

•  Money plays too big a role; turnout rates are too low; and mass media has too much power deciding which candidates are serious contenders.

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Which of the following is a major criticism of the primary and caucus system?

A.  Disproportionate attention goes to the early caucuses and primaries.

B.  Prominent politicians do run. C.  Both money and media play too

little a role. D.  Participation is high and

representative.

LO 9.1

To Learning Objectives

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman!

Which of the following is a major criticism of the primary and caucus system?

A.  Disproportionate attention goes to the early caucuses and primaries.

B.  Prominent politicians do run. C.  Both money and media play too

little a role. D.  Participation is high and

representative.

LO 9.1

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LO 9.2 Summary

•  The Campaign Game •  Political campaigns are carried out to win

election for political office and require organization and effective use of high-tech media.

•  One important goals of any campaign is simply to get attention.

•  Campaigns seek to control political agenda by getting the media and the public to focus on the issues that they wish to emphasize.

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Why is a campaign manager important to a well-organized campaign?

A.  To assist the candidate in responding to reporters.

B.  To tell the candidate how he or she is viewed by voters.

C.  To feed the candidate the information needed to keep up with events.

D.  To keep the candidate from getting bogged down in organizational details.

LO 9.2

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Why is a campaign manager important to a well-organized campaign?

A.  To assist the candidate in responding to reporters.

B.  To tell the candidate how he or she is viewed by voters.

C.  To feed the candidate the information needed to keep up with events.

D.  To keep the candidate from getting bogged down in organizational details.

LO 9.2

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LO 9.3 Summary

•  Money and Campaigning •  Federal election law restricts direct

contributions to federal campaigns to $2,400 for individuals and $5,000 for political action committees (PACs).

•  In the presidential nomination process, federal matching funds are available to candidates who agree to limit their overall spending.

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LO 9.3 Summary

•  Money and Campaigning (cont.) •  General presidential election – $85 million

grant is available to each party nominee to finance their entire campaign, and candidates who turn down the grant are free to raise an unlimited total in increments equal or less than the maximum contribution limit.

•  McCain-Feingold Act (2002) banned unlimited soft money contributions.

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According to the textbook, the main benefit of campaign finance laws has been to _______.

A.  make political campaigns more open and honest.

B.  limit spending by candidates. C.  limit spending by corporations. D.  limit unregulated money spent in

campaigns.

LO 9.3

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According to the textbook, the main benefit of campaign finance laws has been to _______.

A.  make political campaigns more open and honest.

B.  limit spending by candidates. C.  limit spending by corporations. D.  limit unregulated money spent in

campaigns.

LO 9.3

To Learning Objectives

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LO 9.4 Summary

•  The Impact of Campaigns •  Campaigning serves primarily to reinforce

citizens’ views and to activate voters rather than to change views.

•  Factors such as selective perception, party identification, and the incumbency advantage tend to weaken the ability of campaigns to influence voters’ decisions.

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Which is true about the impacts that political campaigns have on voters?

A.  Always convert voters, but rarely activate voters.

B.  Reinforce party images and always convert voters.

C.  Reinforce preferences and activate voters, but rarely convert voters.

D.  Always convert voters, but rarely reinforce voters.

LO 9.4

To Learning Objectives

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Which is true about the impacts that political campaigns have on voters?

A.  Always convert voters, but rarely activate voters.

B.  Reinforce party images and always convert voters.

C.  Reinforce preferences and activate voters, but rarely convert voters.

D.  Always convert voters, but rarely reinforce voters.

LO 9.4

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LO 9.5 Summary

•  Understanding Nominations and Campaigns •  American election campaigns are open,

democratic, and long. •  Long campaigns provide a strenuous test for

all candidates. •  Campaigns lead politicians to make many

promises that increase the scope of government.

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Today’s campaigns clearly promote in American politics.

A.  egalitarianism B.  elitism C.  populism D.  individualism

LO 9.5

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Today’s campaigns clearly promote in American politics.

A.  egalitarianism B.  elitism C.  populism D.  individualism

LO 9.5

To Learning Objectives

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Text Credits

•  The Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism; “Winning the Media Campaign: How the Press Reported the 2008 Presidential General Election,” Oct 22, 2008, http://www.journalism.org/sites/journalism.org/files/WINNING%20THE%20MEDIA%20CAMPAIGN%20FINAL.pdf.

•  Federal Election Commission. Copyright Center for Responsive Politics, www.opensecrets.org.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman!

Photo Credits

•  252: Bruce Ely/The Oregonian •  203T: AP Photo •  203TC: Sean Tevis •  203TB: Ken Cordier/Reuters/HO/Landov •  203B: AP Photo •  255: AP Photo •  257: Jim Ruyman/Landov •  258: AP Photo •  257: John Cole •  263: Howell/Getty Images •  264: Sean Tevis •  270: Reuters/HO/Landov •  272: AP Photo •  275: Used with permission of Matt Wurker and the Cartoonist Group. All

Rights Reserved.