The Influence of Emoticons on Receiver Perception
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- 1. THE INFLUENCE OF EMOTICONS ON RECEIVER PERCEPTION LAUREN DEINTINIS FA I T H G O VA N B R I A N M C E LV E N E Y P E N N S TAT E B E H R E N D
- 2. Source:
- 3. Electronic Communication 87% of teens engage in some form of electronic communication (Pew Internet Project, 2008) 43% of teenagers now say texting is the number one reason they get a cell phone (Nielson, 2010) Voice usage has decreased by 14% among teens and is decreasing in all age groups under 55 (Nielson, 2010)
- 4. Research Topic Increase in Electronic and Computer- Mediated Communication Loss of Non-verbal cues Scott Fahlman creates the Smiley in 1981 :-) :-( ;-)
- 5. Previous Research Some non-verbal information is not transferred fully (McKenna & Bargh, 2000). Emoticons support written communication like non-verbal cues (Rezabek and Cochenour, 1998) Emoticons affect emotions felt in receiver (Luor, Wu, Lu & Tao, 2010)
- 6. Research Questions Who uses emoticons? How are emoticons used? Do emoticons affect the impression of anothers personality in an online chat?
- 7. Participants 77 Participants 35 Males, 42 Females 18-39 years old, M=19 years old Research Participation Pool Ethical Guidelines and Informed consent following IRB approval
- 8. MaterialsParticipant Opinion of Behrend as dryQuestionnaire campus.How many hours per day do youspend talking with someoneelectronically?____ 0-2 ____ 2-4____ 4-6 ____ 6-8____ 8+ hours1 2 3 4 5 6 7 89Please rate your current mood(1=very negative, 5=neutral, 9=very positive). _____
- 9. MaterialsPerception Questionnaire1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9(1=Strongly Disagree, 5=Neutral, 9=Strongly Agree) My chat partner is a likeable person. My chat partner is persuasive in his/her argument. I enjoyed communicating with this person. I would communicate with this person again. I use emoticons in everyday non-verbal communication. I only use emoticons in conversations with friends and family. I use emoticons more when my conversation partner uses emoticons. I use emoticons to express humor. I use emoticons to express sarcasm. I use emoticons to express sadness.
- 10. MaterialsBig Five Personality Questionnaire (Saucier, 1994) Forty-item inventory Measured five personality traits: Openness Contentiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Emotional Stability
- 11. Informed Consent Participant Questionnaire Big Five Questionnaire Chat About Dry Campus Article Positive Negativ Wink None e Big Five Questionnaire Perception Questionnaire Debriefing/CrediteSource: d
- 12. Emoticon use in everyday communication R2 = .12, F = 3.21, p = .028* Agreeableness = .19, p = .096 Extraversion = .14, p = .222 Emotional Stability = -.26, p = .022*
- 13. Using Emoticons to Express Humor? R2 = .20, F = 6.09, p = .001* Agreeableness = .26, p = .031* Conscientiousness = .26, p = .028* Emotional Stability = -.21, p = .049*
- 14. Results: Big Five Personality Ratings Based on 7 Emoticon TypePerceived Partner Trait Rating Agreeableness 6 Extraversion Emotional Stability Conscientiousness Openess 5 Positive Wink Negative None Emoticon F (3, 73) = 2.94, p = .039* F (3,73) = .877, p = .457 F (3, 73) = .844, p = .474 F (3,73) = .623, p = .602 F (3, 73) = 1.27, p = .291
- 15. Results: Chat Analyses 100Percent Affirmative 80 60 46.8 40 31.2 24.7 20.8 16.9 19.5 20 0
- 16. Discussion Less emotionally stable and the more agreeable, more likely to use emoticons. Chat partners are seen as more agreeable when they pair optimistic messages with positive emoticons (Luor, Wu, Lu, and Tao, 2010) Participants perceived extraversion rating higher when a wink emoticon and support statement of campus going dry was used Participants may have perceived the wink as a form of sarcasm (Walther and DAddario, 2001)
- 17. Limitations Participants Limited to college students only Small sample size Time constraints Unable to look at both FOR and AGAINST arguments Many variables Larger interactions could not be analyzed at this point in research
- 18. Implications Emoticons do affect the emotions felt by the receiver of a message Personality does play a role in how emoticons are perceived in a message Source:
- 19. ReferencesBrittan, D. (1995, October). The Shadow of Rezabek, L. L., & Cochenour, J. J. Your Smiley. Technology Review, 98(7). (1998, Fall). Visual Cues in Computer- Mediated Communication:Electronic Communication. (2008, May 22). Supplementing Text With Emoticons. In Pew Internet and American Life Journal of Visual Literacy, 18(2), Project. Retrieved April 10, 2012 201-215.Luor, T., Wu, L., Lu, H., & Tao, Y. U.S. Teen Mobile Report: Calling (2010, March 5). The Effect of Yesterday, Texting Today, Using Apps Emoticons in Simplex and Complex Tomorrow. (2010, October 14). In Task-Oriented Communication: An Nielsen Wire. Retrieved April 9, 2012 Empirical Study of Instant Messaging. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 889- Walther, J. B., & DAddario, K. P. 895. (2001, Fall). The Impacts of Emoticons on MessageMcKenna, K. Y., Bargh, J. A. (2004, July Interpretation in Computer-Mediated 11). The Internet and Social Life. Annual Communication. Social Science Review, 55(57), 573-590. doi: 10.1146 Computer Review, 19(3), 324-347. doi: 10.1177/089443930101900307.
- 20. Acknowledgments We would like to thank our facultyadvisor, Dr. Dawn Blasko, for her continued support and guidance throughout theduration of the study. We would also like tothank Dr. Robert Light, the senior associate dean of the Penn State Behrend Research Office, for supporting this study with a research grant.