THE FORMATION OF GOVERNMENTS SECTION 1.2. GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS.
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Transcript of THE FORMATION OF GOVERNMENTS SECTION 1.2. GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS.
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- THE FORMATION OF GOVERNMENTS SECTION 1.2
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- GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS
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- UNITARY SYSTEM A unitary system gives all key powers to a central or national government. The central government has the power to create state, provincial, or other local governments and may give them limited sovereignty. Countries with a unitary system of government are Great Britain, France, and Italy.
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- FEDERAL SYSTEM A federal system divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments. Countries with a federal system are Canada, Switzerland, Mexico, Australia, India, and the United States.
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- CONFEDERACY To begin with, the United States formed a confederacya loose union of independent states. But when the confederacy failed, American leaders wrote a Constitution that made the national government supreme while preserving some powers for state governments.
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- CONSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNMENT
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- A constitutional government is a government in which a constitution places limits on the powers of those who govern. A constitution is a plan that provides guidelines for government. Constitutions are incomplete guides because no written constitution can spell out all the laws, customs, and ideas of a government. However, a constitution does serve the following purposes:
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- GOALS AND IDEALS OF A CONSTITUTION A.It sets forth goals and ideals that the people of a nation believe in and share. These are usually stated in the preamble. B.It establishes the basic structure of government and defines the governments powers and duties. For example, in a federal state, a constitution describes the relationship between the national and state governments. C.It provides the supreme law for the country. Constitutional law involves the interpretation and application of the constitution. It defines the extent and limits of government power and the rights of citizens.
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- POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT People take part in politics when they try to control the actions and decisions of government. In the United States, for example, Americans continually struggle over what services the government should provide, how much it should spend, and who should pay the cost. Politics provides peaceful ways for citizens to settle these conflicts. The outcomes of political struggles affect the quality of air and water, jobs and prices, peace and war, rights and freedoms, and other important matters. Some people fear that politics often sacrifices the good of all for the benefit of a few. However, the misuse of politics should not prevent citizens from appreciating the accomplishments of the political system.
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- GOVERNING IN A COMPLEX WORLD
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- The United States and about 20 other countries, including Japan, Canada, Australia, and France, are industrialized nations. These countries have large industries and advanced technology that provide a more comfortable way of life than many developing nations do. Developing nations are only beginning to grow industrially. In the poorest of these countries, widespread hunger, disease, and political unrest are a way of life.
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- GOVERNING IN A COMPLEX WORLD (CONT.) Nations are becoming more and more interdependent. This means that they interact with or depend on one another economically and politically. Thus, what happens in one nation or area of the world affects what happens in other places. Global interdependence is increasing due to growing industrialization and rapid technological advances, such as the Internet. Many developing states are very dependent on industrialized ones for economic aid, medical supplies and services, financial investment, help in handling national disasters, and military aid.
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- NON-STATE GROUPS Non-state groups also play a role in international politics. These non-state groups fall into four categories: A.Terrorist groups and quasi-military organizations, such as al- Qaeda. B.Political movements such as the Palestine Liberation Organization(PLO)and the Irish Republican Army (IRA)
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- NON-STATE GROUPS C. Multinational corporations such as General Motors, Nabisco, Mitsubishi, and Sony. D. International organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), which is composed of many nations working together for common goals.