The Evolution of Federalism. Defining Federalism Federalism Constitutional arrangement whereby power...

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The Evolution of Federalism
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Transcript of The Evolution of Federalism. Defining Federalism Federalism Constitutional arrangement whereby power...

  • Slide 1
  • The Evolution of Federalism
  • Slide 2
  • Defining Federalism Federalism Constitutional arrangement whereby power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional governments exercise direct authority over individuals Look, the American people dont want to be bossed around by federal bureaucrats. They want to be bossed around by state bureaucrats
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  • Advantages of Federalism Federalism allows for experimentation/diversity Multiple levels of government provide flexibility Citizens can choose where to live Citizens have many ways to influence their govt Provides additional checks & balances
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  • Disadvantages of Federalism The complexity of the federal system Larger bureaucracy/duplication Coordination confusion Slow to respond to crisis Complex tax system Federalism is expensive Potential for inequality in services & policies
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  • Versions of Federalism Dual Federalism (Layer Cake Federalism) Views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers to the national government, leaving the rest to sovereign states Cooperative Federalism (Marble Cake Federalism) Federalism as a cooperative system of intergovernmental relations in delivering goods and services to the people As the colors are mixed in a marble cake, so functions are mixed in the American federal system.
  • Slide 6
  • The Significance of the 10th Amendment The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. The 10th Amendment was seen as a reservoir of reserved powers for state governments However, its rarely had much significance since McCulloch v. Maryland in 1819 The doctrine of implied national powers, and the necessary and proper clause have undercut the words and apparent intent of the 10th Amendment
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  • Why Divide Authority in the First Place? The Constitution may have never been ratified if the Framers had pushed for a unitary system Federalism was a compromise, allowing the states to maintain their independence Why? Prevent tyranny Provision for increased participation Uses states for experimentation for new policies/programs
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  • The Evolution of Federalism State-Centered Federalism 1787 to 1868 From the adoption of the Constitution to the end of the Civil War, the states were the most important units of the American Federal System McCulloch v. Maryland decided during this phase Construes necessary and proper to favor expansion of national authority
  • Slide 10
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) It determined that Congress had not only the powers expressly conferred upon it by the Constitution but also all authority appropriate to carry out such powers The national supremacy principle states that all federal laws (including the Constitution itself) are superior to any conflicting state or local laws, such that the federal laws will always take precedence. Doctrine of Implied National Powers Doctrine of National Supremacy
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  • Evolution of Federalism Doctrine of Nullification Each state could declare any laws or actions of the national government null and void (ruled unconstitutional) Doctrine of Secession States could chose to withdraw from the United States if they wanted Used by the Confederate States in the Civil War
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  • The Evolution of Federalism Dual Federalism 1868 to 1913 In this phase, the national government narrowly interpreted its delegated powers and the states continued to decide most domestic policy issues. Believed the national government shouldn t exceed enumerated powers
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  • Evolution of Federalism After the Civil War, industrialization and urbanization created new challenges for the federal system
  • Slide 14
  • The Evolution of American Federalism The system was likened to a marble cake in that as the colors are mixed in a marble cake, so functions are mixed in the American federal system. Cooperative Federalism 1913 to 1964
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  • Cooperative Federalism 1913-1964 New Deal= centralized response to national crisis, become nationally-based welfare state Many social programs remain under state control Congress controls commerce leading up to and during WWII
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  • The Evolution of American Federalism The presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) marked a critical point in the evolution of federalism Federal government clearly had its own national goals Centralized or Creative Federalism 1964-1980
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  • The Great Society and Creative Federalism Johnsons Great Society War on Poverty Civil Rights Acts Federal funds were directed to states, local government, and a wide variety of social programs
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  • The Great Society and Creative Federalism
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  • New Federalism Ronald Reagan sought to return more power and responsibility to the states Block grants and revenue sharing reduce federal requirements Government is not the solution; its the problem -Ronald Reagan
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  • Devolution (Beginning in 1995) The Republican Contract with America called for devolution-- the transfer of political and economic power to the states (with decreased federal funding) 1996 Welfare Reform devolved the program to states
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  • The Supreme Court s Shift in Perspective Beginning in 1995, justices interested in granting more deference to state authority gained a slim five-to-four majority in the Supreme Court The Constitutional Counterrevolution A return to an older version of federalism not embraced since the constitutional crisis over the New Deal in the 1930s United States v. Lopez (1995) Printz v. United States (1997) United States v. Morrison (2000)
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  • The Changing Nature of Federal Grants In 1996 there was a shift from Categorical Grants to Block Grants 2 types of Categorical Grants (Grants-in- Aid): Formula grants Project grants Block Grants (Revenue-sharing Grants) Far more flexible
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  • The Changing Nature of Federal Grants Grants-in-Aid Federal funds given to state and local governments on the condition that the money be spent for specified purposes, defined by officials in Washington Such funds are usually accompanied by requirements and standards set by the governing body for how they are to be spent. An example of this would be how the United States Congress required states to raise the drinking age for alcohol from 18 to 21 in order for the individual states to continue to qualify for federal funds for interstate highways located within each state.
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  • The Future of Federalism The persistence of international terrorism, the war in Afghanistan, and rising deficits all ensure a substantial role for the national government in the years to come
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  • The Future of Federalism TARP (Troubled Asset Relief Program) Health Care Law No Child Left Behind
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  • No Child Left Behind Example Problem= declining student performance Solution= federal funding requires tough performance standards Unintended consequences: localities forced to make huge investment to implement testing requirements Localities sue states--> unfunded mandate States opting out of federal funds (& performance standards)