The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity by Sani Ibrahim

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY A person`s attitude towards his job not only governs his progress but also affects the progress of energy are else an organization. Olugbon (1984) has it that the lead of the effort an individual member of an organization will exert on an assignment or task depend on important the reward to be derived. “Naturally, which workers are classified their negative attitudes are generally associated with the environment where they are working. On the other hand when workers feel good about job, they associated their feelings with the job itself. Motivation is derived from the word “motive” which means a drive or force that leads to certain behavioural charge. G .A Cole (1997) describes motivation as a process in which people choose between alternative forms of behaviour in order to achieve personal goals although some of the psychology and social needs of individual won this may be at variance with organizational objectives management cannot disperse with the need to create the type of atmosphere that is permit the goal of the organization to be attained, National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 1

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY A person`s attitude towards his job not only governs his progress but also affects the progress of energy are else an organization. Olugbon (1984) has it that the lead of the effort an individual member of an organization will exert on an assignment or task depend on important the reward to be derived. Naturally, which workers are classified their negative attitudes are generally associated with the environment where they are working. On the other hand when workers feel good about job, they associated their feelings with the job itself. Motivation is derived from the word motive which means a drive or force that leads to certain behavioural charge. G .A Cole (1997) describes motivation as a process in which people choose between alternative forms of behaviour in order to achieve personal goals although some of the psychology and social needs of individual won this may be at variance with organizational objectives management cannot disperse with the need to create the type of atmosphere that is permit the goal of the organization to be attained, performance with improve within it instrumental in achieving higher wages gaining promotion and producing increases acceptance by workers. Secondly, there are sets of factors which are a relate to people`s inner needs concerning the job. It is in the light of the above observation that the staffs of Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA) are expected to fully commit themselves and progress. However for this commitment to be effective, the staff should be motivated in terms ofNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 1

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

wages,

training

promotions

and

advancements

after

training

appropriate to their schedule of work. The Nigerian Defence academy should constantly reminds it workers that time is best spent in honest, productive work, that hard work of any kind produces more satisfaction and well being. Haines (1978): that work in monotonous and techous only when it is done without enthusiasm and self confidence that love of work is love of self expression and the best quality of personal success. All these qualities cannot be achieved without motivating the staffs of Nigerian Defence Academy. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the leading theory that have influenced management attempt to achieve a motivated workface. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study will identify the nature of the problem intent and causes of dissatisfaction by the staff of Nigerian Defence Academy. It must not be forgotten that individual come into the academy as unique being with unique personality traits. These traits are sort of projection of psychological and social needs each of which an individual worker sacks satisfaction in order to complement the economic requirement that might be associated with the job through compensation. It is for this reasons, the job satisfaction is considered crucial to the success of the staff and Nigerian Defence Academy. The purpose of this research is to see whether the staffs are being paid in accordance with their training and need since the administration of salary is designed to motivate performance. Paying the staff for their achievement will help to ensure the continued dedication and will make them put in their best in their day-day activities thereby improving their performance.National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 2

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

Learning is all about improving current performance and developing potentials and this take place on the job. In this way the employee can rapidly learn to measure up to standard of performance thereby increasing their value to the organization and satisfying the human need for person`s growth on the job. (Pygors and Onyres 9th edition), when a worker is well trained, remunerated and motivated he is capable of achieving productivity through experience on the job. He also grows with the job, but his corporation in getting higher productivity cannot be taken for granted. It therefore, follows that job satisfaction is affected by both situations surrounding the job and the personality of the worker. This is because job satisfaction is influenced by people, promotion opportunities and participation in decision making. When a worker is satisfied with this job, he is not likely to resign an absentee cession will be will be reduced because the commitment to perform the Nigerian Defence Academy have suffered over the year as a result of ill motivation by the organization. The researcher will dig into the root cause dissatisfaction improvement. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study is to consider the role the top management of the Nigerian defence Academy is suppose to play in ensuring that the staff are motivated to perform better. The study will examine the issue of remuneration compiled with lack of manpower planning of the staff of Nigerian Defence Academy. This is important because at every point in time in life of every organization that must be right number ofNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 3

by

the

staff

and

make

recommendation

for

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

employees with the right time performing the right activities in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization to fulfil its purpose. For this reason, efforts will be in this study to revisit the manpower planning of Nigerian defence academy. The research intended to finds out whether the organization really sees their workers contributing their own quotes to the development of Nigerian defence academy or not it intended to find out the root causes of more morale among the staff and to recommend possible solutions. The research will also address the issue of lack of command to duty as the major cause of indiscipline by the staff. This project will prescribe solutions to all these administrative bottle necks. The project will prescribe managerial solutions to all the frustrations being experienced by the staff and how the already derived image could refurbish. The successful conduct of the project will go a long way to enhance the proper understanding of motivation in Nigerian defence academy particularly to the staff. It will assist the management to appreciate the significance of the study in decision making and policy execution. 1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS The research is essentially designed to validate the following prepositions as the likely hypothesis. H1: H0: The top management have fail in its duty to motivate the staffs. Workforce indiscipline in the academy is exhibitions of dissatisfaction and frustrations with the condition of service of the organization.

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

H2: H0: H3:

Lack of motivation is the cause of productivity and job dissatisfaction by the staff of Nigerian defence academy. Good attitude to work and job satisfaction of the staff on the academy can make the organization great. Staff in the academy with when concourses on the pest did not appreciate the effect of this training.

1.5

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study will be invaluable importance to the top management of the organization (Nigerian defence academy) who will find the literature review, findings and recommendations very helpful. Scholars interest in the area of motivation will also find the work of immense value. Apart from the Nigerian defence academy, other organizations whether military or not will benefit from the findings and recommendation of this study which may turn ours to the best needed to their own situations. Finally the study is one of the requirements for the national diploma in office technology and management in Nuhu Bamalli polytechnic.

1.6

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS Training: this is the bringing up of a person or animal into a desired standard of efficiency, condition or behaviour by giving instructions or practices. Performance: the act of doing something, duties or carrying function. Employees: the staff of an organization employed to achieve the goal of production, rendering of services. Staff: a person purposely employed to deal with specific task in the office. Like correspondences routine office work etc.National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 5

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

Employer: this is the management of organization who gives directives and has authority to employed staff and sees to the smooth running of the organization. Evaluation: this is to find our training need and also assess the value of training to the organization. Vestibule schools: this is an institution of our school where training takes place apart from on-the-job training. Concept of training: fundamental or underlying meaning of training. Motivation factor: this is a factor which encourages engineers a person or employee to perform well in his job Productivity: the finding input that an employee done put or field.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, manpower planning leadership, animal performance, evaluation reports, concept of motivation, and nature of motivation of organization are discussed extensively. 2.2 MANPOWER PLANNING Planning in any form is common to both government and business establishments and planning requires certain basic knowledge projection and invention. All planning is centred on objectives to beNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 6

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

achieved, looking ahead to anticipate opportunities and barriers is very essential to planning. Huse (1982) says that, planning is the process of determining the major objectives of an organization use and deposition of recourse to achieve these objectives. Planning is the most important managerial functions. Before administrators can perform any other function they have plan that have purpose and directions. For instance, when planning there are four basic questions one should ask himself. The first question is where are we now? This question is curtained with assessing the present situation and forecasting how the situation may change on the future. The second question is where are we going? This question involves determining objectives in term of the present and the future. The third question is what the difference is between where we are now and where we want to be. Finally how can we get there from there? This requires an outline of action and careful analysis of the future duplications of present decision. It is in this sense that we shall briefly go in to the analysis of manpower planning assist affect training of staff of Nigerian defence academy. As rightly pointed out by ubeku (1995) manpower requirements of any organization have to be planned for just a dynamic situation like the one in which we now find ourselves, no organization can grow effectively unless the function of manpower planning are carried out effectively some organization without well trained personnel department fall with the error of looking for a staff as one necessary. In every aspect of running an organization, forward looking shall be rule and this is even more important when we talk about adequateNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 7

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

manpower and the right type of manpower. We must plant ahead for it, because as it has been pointed out, the days of unsystematic use for manpower planning should not be seen in isolation concerned with the future plan and evolutionary organization structures. There are two main aim in manpower planning, the first is to ensure the optimum use of human resources correctly employed, and secondly to provide the for the future manpower needs of the organization in term of skills number and ages. This is within it is important that at every point in time in life of an organization. There must be right jobs at the right time performing the right activities in order to achieve the objectives of the organization and to fulfil its purpose. Manpower planning falls into two stages; the first to concern with the detailed manpower inventory of all types and level (unskilled, skilled, supervisory and managerial) of all employs throughout the period of manpower plan. The second stage is concerned with the manpower supply that is having decided on what you want; you know what to find out from what source you can get the right type of people to meet the requirement. A continuing fund in of manpower is to analyze actually the current manpower resources available in the organization. Before doing this, it is important to have an establishment as agreed will then from the basic for future analysis, the actual establishment either because without actually checking more people have been employed when the operation has drunk. With the above analysis, it will be people to decide whether the unit or development has surplus staffs who are not needed or who could be transferred to either section instead of recruiting new staffs. All employees are useful, when employees are under-employed, theyNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 8

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

demoralize as the job becomes unsatisfying. Conversely, its possible to discover through the exercise when people are over worked on a section whereby three or four people, but as a result of bed planning only two people are available to perform the job. A consistent examination of the establishment not just on paper only, but related to the work being done. An analysis of the establishment will reveal two areas for possible management action such as over stiffing and under-employment. No organization can plan sadistically for its future manpower requirement unless we know our present manpower resources. The first step therefore, is to examine the current human resources available such as managerial, technical, clerical or operation and so on. This is sometimes referred to as manpower inventory. The manpower inventory is nearly the stake taking of employees in the different categories and in the different sections. As was pointed out earlier, the stock taking will reveal the skills available and lacking and the number of unskilled sections that should or should not be employed. This phase will then be followed by a manpower audit which will form the basis of operation. Once the current establishment has been agreed the next thing to do is to plan for the future. The continued existence and growth of any organizational requires accurate forecasting of the manpower that will be needed. This is necessary because there may be unexpected changes which will result from rapid economic and technological changes. Successful manpower forecasting further future is dependent on three basic factors. The first one is knowledge of present manpower resources. Secondly, information on the manpower environment and a realistic plan must therefore take an amount of this. Once this source aNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 9

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

change have been discovered steps will then manpower environment can be divided into four categories such as, technological, social, economical and political. Having determined the type of manpower requirement and the availability, the next question is; what active need to be taken to achieve our future manpower requirement? According to H.I Graham manpower planning is the attempt by management mainly those in the personal department to forecast through a plan. For example, how many and what kind of secretarial staff will be required in the future and to what extent this demand is likely to occur in the future or where is in sufficient use of staff. An organizational manpower planning needs a continuous re-

adjustment, because the goals of an organization are unstable and its environment uncertain. It is also complex because it involves so many independent variables such as resistances to change, and government policies as far as the civil service is concerned. Manpower planning must include feedback system because of the plan cannot be fulfilled; the objectives of the organization may have to be modified so that they can be feasible in manpower terms. The major uses of manpower planning are to help determine recruitment level in order to avoid expensive and unsatisfactory panic measures. For instance, when an organization suddenly realized that it is short staffed or has face frustration through lack of trained staffs the organization could always look at its manpower plan and redesign it with an attempt to maintain it staff. Manpower planning is useful in various ways. It helps to reduce redundancy be a job situation, itNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

helping in dictating or showing a point of balance in ratio between human and financial costs. Most relevant to this project is that manpower planning will help in showing areas where staffs should be trained and developed in Nigerian defence academy. To achieve a successful manpower planning the organization should identify their future manpower need. The organization should identify what internal source it will have to meet. The demand should be compared with the present internal source. From the understanding of the manpower strength, the organization should find out where its needs are on the labour market and what it future requirement will be. There is also need to cope with number of problems which tend to make the planning of manpower difficult. The assignment of preset manpower requirement in an organization can be done by analyzing statistical data obtainable from various heads of department in the organization whether public or private organization. The case of short term requirements the nature and structure of incentives should be noted and comparison made short term manpower requirement is considered as a period of one to three years. It is also necessary to consider both the nature and structure of the incentives. The nature of the incentives includes the salary grading system while the nature of the incentive may include both monetary and none monetary reward of workers. 2.3 LEADERSHIP A leader is a member of a group with outstanding qualities and rates. He is the autodial of the group overall interest or objectives. He does not only define his role, he defines does of the other members of the

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

group to ensure that they are properly executed for the common purpose of the group. Follet (1960) identifies three types of leadership: leadership of personality, leadership of position, and leadership of function, but admitted that in modern complex organization that of personality is less important than the two. Following on this premise Abdussalam (1986) has attempt a distinction between leadership and leadership. To him leadership and leadership are two different phenomena although it is possible to find them with a single personality. The head who is not the effective leader depend heavily on the formal authority at his office to ensure obedience form members of the organization, while the one who is the effective leader relies mostly on his partial attributes. Some pertinent questions may be raised here to find out the nature of leadership this include the attempt to influence and the willingness to b influenced. For instance, why are some suggestions listed to closely and considered and others are dismissed without even full hearing? How does some person whose suggestions are frequently accepted attain this influence, and finally why do members do what they advocate? Simply put, when one person does what another wants him to do we say that, influence has power over the other. Leadership therefore involves power that is the ability to influence other people by whatever means necessary. The word power is associated with the ability to influence group members and move them into action. A leader is a person who has power over the other members of a group. Many of the past and current woes of man are attributed to mediocre and irresponsible leadership. Such leadership is to be found inNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

industries, commerce, government, education, churches, mosques, military organization, consultancy firms and indeed every form of organization on earth. There is a wide spread feeling in some circles that leaders are a selected minority different from the vast members of followers. According to Sampson (1971) the view of the world from beneath are not the same. This statement is valid whether we are talking about the entire society, organization, social institution and so on. In particular it could be argued that these views vary when the top to bottom relationship is one of master to slave. The master-slave terminology donates a situation in which one person or group occupies a position of wear total authority over a group of other persons. On one hand, continued operations procedures a person with lesson amount of creativity, curiously initiative and achievement. It is fallacious to assume that, leadership will behave exactly the same to all subordinate or subjects in all situations. Some leaders may be found utilizing their authority or traits in most extreme cases, while others may turn to be moderate in given situations affecting their subjects in their society or organizations. Having emerge as a leader, a leader usually develop his own style of motivations and leading his followers with the choice of style depends on the leader`s philosophy and management. A leader whose philosophy of management is that of the scientific management though will exhibit leadership style that will reflect the school of thoughts, while the one whose philosophy of management is inclined toward the human relation, school of thought will exhibit his leadership style to reflect the relation school of thoughts. Although, numerous leadership style can be deal field. TheNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

common one includes service, autocracy, and benevolent autocracy. Referent power where the person identifies with the other and respect him will often have the broadest range of influence. With reward power is likely to produce increase resistance, although the more legitimate the power, the less the resistance. Charismatic power may be eroded because of credibility gap and the individual leader who was once powerful, might find him devoid of power. No, one leader, up no matter how charismatic can exercise leadership poor ever. He might be charismatic with a group at one particular place and at one period of time. His charismatic may be accepted by everyone; in everyplace at all times at the right time when it is functional each type of source may be very powerful. Leadership is basically very situational, making on-the-spot decision and meeting new challenges. Therefore in many situations the leader influence is based on a combination of source of power. 2.4 TRAINING The importance of training staff in any organization in a smad invested, whether it is a public or private one. Training is part of manpower planning. Training helps the staff to add to their learning faster. A staff who has not received adequate training before being assigned with responsibilities lack the necessary confidence with which to carry out his duties. Diveker (1972), an employee can only perform if he can be helped to grow into more responsibilities by going through training and development. The next employee, for instance needs to have a clear explanation of the job constant of his job and how it relates to theNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

organization.

As a matter of fact it should be noted staff should be

continually trained so that they could increase their values to the organization to prepare the schools poor advancement in their various cadres. Training of staff should be the organization to prepare them for advancement on their various cadres. Training of staff increase their ability to learn; Training is not simply sending them on courses or putting them into formal learning instructions. Learning is all about place on the job. According to Pigor and Myers (1981) the staff can rapidly learn to measure up to standard of performance thereby increasing their value to the organization and satisfying their human need for the personal growth on their job. Furthermore, continued training can help to get their ability to learn thereby adopting themselves to major changes. In job content and work relationship. Performance appraisal by the superior office with each sub-ordinate is adopted. Good points should be stresses. All employees have a right to know from their superior supervisors how they are getting along, and a good supervisor let his sub-ordinates know more frequently that at the formal appraisal review. The appraisal decision should be in the nature of the progress review with an opportunity for employees to respond if they fell different about their job performance. Performance appraisal should be able to guide the management to know how the extent to which the fund extended to staff training productivity after a while should determine their training needs. Diveker (1977) is emphatic when he sees ones performance

expectation. This should start with looking at the major contributions expected from a man in his past and present position and are cord ofNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

his performance against the Gods. If he ends result of performance evaluation is unable to show an organization these that deserve advancement or promotion, training or replacement, the two methods here failed and re-examination. It is not that promotion is the best reward for outstanding performance but actually, it is a way of acknowledging that staffs are indiscriminate promoted without reference to their contribution to their organization or private organizations, profit or non-profit organization with reservation such a practice should be considered to be not result oriented. An appraisal system will normally take the form of pace-pace interview between superior and the subordinate. These should be thought in preparation by both the interview and interviewer. The time, day and place should be picked. The interview should as much as possible, be held at a time well separated from any inter-personal disagreement or disciplinary action by the reviewing officer. If the interviewing officer is pre-occupied with other matters so that he cannot concentrate on the interview, he should postpone it until a time when he will be able to give his full attention to it, the interview should be given the appraisal form to complete. The appraisal form should not go on record. 2.5 CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION Motivation is the condition responsible for variation in the intensity quality and direction of ongoing behaviour (Vinake, 1962). Performance is the behaviour that a person on the job meets or achieves personal goals. The concept of motivation is difficult to relate to human action or behaviours. Motivation refers to what prompt a person to act in a certain way or at least develop prosperity for a specific behaviour. 16 According to Alansa (1983) an ability to motivate

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

staff is probably the corner stone of effective management as such it is not surprising that there is a constant search for penance. The fact of the matter is that people are not the same. They behave in different ways different attitude and interest. Furthermore, the situations in which we all work are not the same. Alause (1983) has it that among the most relevant findings is that: 1. Level of performance works directly with the individual`s friend. 2. Achievement, particularly when the task is represented as being difficult and challenging. 3. A higher level of performance will result from workers who behaves they are over compensated for their job. 4. Individuals performing at a higher level of job require abilities which they value or behave themselves to possess. 5. Workers perform at a higher level when they are given feedback concerning their level of performance. 6. A lot of work still not to be done in his field however, it is possible to say that job satisfaction is affected by both the situation surrounding the job occupant. It is influence by such factors as pay, promotion opportunities, considerate and participate supervision, and so an. Although, some of the psychological and social needs of individuals workers may be at variance with the organizational goals, management cannot disperse with permit the need to strive to create the type of chamex that will permit the goals of the organization to be attained and at the same time satisfy the psychological and social need of its personnel.

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

As pointed out by Huse (1982) the employees estimate of the value of a reward and the amount of the effort necessary to achieve it are of necessity subjective. Nevertheless, the administrator can be influential in helping to verify the relationship between effort and reward. For example he can establish situations where the goals are dearer and feedback on performance is faster and more direct. The administrator can make certain that standards are dared. Secondly, to create and operate opportunities to make the work more interesting, thirdly, to design jobs so that they contain more opportunities for responsibility or achievement and provide gratification from the working if or from the reward system. Bray Fields and Crachit (1988) in the word paying someone well or giving praise and recognition tend to increase the performance level and higher the performance levels more the intrinsic satisfaction. From the above summary therefore, motivations can be said to be the conditions responsible for the intensity quantity and direction of ongoing behaviour. These conditions or both intrinsic and extrinsic to the individuals needs, believers and attitude and of the situation in which the person works. 2.6 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Humanistic psychologists behaves that every person has a strong desire to realize his full potential, to reach a level of self actualization. To prove that humans are not simply blindly reacting to situations, but trying to accomplish something greater, Maslow studied mentally healthy individuals instead of people with serious psychological issues. This informed his theory that people experiences; high point in life when the individuals in harmony with himself and his surroundings. InNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

Maslow`s view, self actualize people can have many experience through a day while others have experience less frequently. 2.6.1 MASLOW`S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS A visual aid Maslow created to explain his theory, which he called the hierarchy of needs. In a pyramid depleting the level of human needs psychological and physical. When a human being ascends the step of the pyramid he preaches self actualization. At the bottom of the pyramid are the basic needs or psychological needs of human beings, food, water and sex. The next level is safety needs: security order and stability. These two steps are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals here basic nutrition, shelter and safety, they attempt to the accomplish more. The third level of need is love and belonging, which are psychological need; when individual have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others. The final level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the Esteem level, the level of success and status (from self and others). The top of the pyramid, need for such actualization, occurs when individuals reaches a state of harmony and understanding. Maslow`s based his study on the writing of other psychologists, Albert Einstein and people he knew who clearly he met the standard of actualization. Maslow used Einstein`s writing and accomplishments to exemplify the characteristics of the self actualized person. He realizes that all the individuals he studied had similar personality traits. All were reality centre; able to differentiate what was fraudulent from what was genuine. They were also problem centred, meaning that they treated life`s difficulties as problems that demanded solutions.National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

These individuals also were comfortable being alone and had healthy personal relationships. One historical figures Maslow found to be helpful on his journey to understanding self-actualization was Lao Tzu, the father of Taoism. A tenet of Taoism is that people do not obtain personal meaning or pleasure by seeking material possessions.

SELF ACTUALISALIZATION

Self actualization Estee mSelf esteem, confidence, respect to others, respect by others

Love/belongingFriendship, family, sexual intimacy

Safet ySecurity of: body employment, resources, morality, the family, healthy property

Psyco ogist

An interpretation of Maslow`s hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom. National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 20

Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, excretion

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

2.6.2 THE NATURE OF MOTIVATION IN ORGANIZATION The already enumerated above, it can be rightly agreed worker`s motivation is a pre-requisite for human relations it is nevertheless synonymous with human relations while it is possible to have whether motivation without necessarily embracing the whole spectrum of human relations in organizations exclusive of workers compensation. Any organization seeks to attain and maintain a very high level of human relation must first of all strive to attain and maintain a very high level of workers motivation within the organization. Although the achievement of the former, enhance the chance of attaining good human relation both within and outside the organization and is therefore work pursuing. This is so because it exhibits a good image of their organization in view of this, the importance of workers motivation as an essential element of human relation cannot be over emphasised. According to Alugbuo, (1984) the level of effort and individual member of an organization will exert on an assignment or task will depend on how importance the reward to be derived from performing is to the individual. Exertion of effort at any level will viewed different result, referent to as first level outcome. It is unrealistic to suggest, There exist one universal instrument for measuring of job and employees. Ekpenyong (1983) maintained that, a close analysis and designation of a particular job to determine the basic of strength and weakness for employees motivation is crucial since a job may after all not need to

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

be enriched with increase responsibilities decision making feedback and so on. Pigors and Myers (1982) believed that an enriched can be a motivation such as pay that is adequate and fair, safe and healthy working conditions, immediate opportunity to use and develop individual capacities, continuing opportunities for personal openness, non-discrimination and the opportunity to develop a sense of community that extend beyond a given working group, constitutionalism in the organization, for example recognition of rights of privacy, free speech without fear of reappraisal, and due process in all aspects and phases of development, a balance between space time requirement for work including time for family life and promotion or merit without the necessity of repeated geographical relocation and perceived social relevance of work life. In work situation where employees are granted minimum rights productivity tend to be low because of the demoralizing effect of resentment and anxiety. However, as the quality or working life improves, productivity result will be obtained when management create conditions which the worker perceive as beneficial to them and where productivity gains are shared with employees. 2.7 PURPOSE AND EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION AND STAFF

PERFORMANCE Having discussed the concept and nature of motivation of staff in organizations, we shall now go further to see the purpose and effect of motivation on staff performance. Another way of motivating staff to put in their best is through management by objectives.National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

Ejiofor (1980) defines MBO as a method of management whereby the superior and sub-ordinate managers of an organization agree into a chain of specific short term goals, define such individuals major area of responsibility or term of results expected continually reviewed the accomplishment of the sub-ordinate and used goal accomplishment as the sole basis of assessing and rewarding the subordinate The Adjoin report of has devoted a portion in which the definition and importance of management by objectives have been stressed. According to a report management by objectives (MBO) is a process of identifying goals and objectives, achieving managerial responsibilities in term of expected result, and target of the organization with those of managers. In this approach the superior and subordinate managers in the organization identify objectives in the major areas of responsibilities in which the men will work. They design an action plan to achieve expected result in these areas and set performance standards for acceptable work. They are trained in a good position to measure actions result achieved against this projected plan and standard through them to the overall or corporate goals of the organization in this way, all the managers in the organization are working toward the same objectives, their activities are designed, directed and monitored toward meeting common goals and objectives of the management.

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The chapter deals with research methodology, a process of gathering data for analysis, interpretation of the data and arrival at conclusion in order to solve specific problems. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN For the purpose of the questionnaires and documentary methods mere used; Questionnaire: the researcher use for the gathering of data was made up of closed ended questions requiring yes/no.

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

Documentary: the researcher used already existing written materials for research purpose. These include the published or unpublished materials which were read and analysed. 3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY The population size of this research work covers the entire secretarial and management staff of Nigerian defence academy, Kaduna, in various departments and categories with specific reference to the importance of motivating employees. 3.4 SAMPLE SIZE As a result of the large population within the scope of this study, and after problems associated with carrying out this task, a sample of 60 populations was used, selected at random to server as interview. Therefore, the analysis of data was based on the information from defined sample size. 3.5 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT The staff interviewed on employee motivation as a way of enhancing productivity with each department and staff of the organization was represented effectively because it was difficult for each staff to be interviewed one after the other as time constraint did not allow the researcher to move on all staff. 3.6 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE In analysis of data statistical and explanatory method were used to explain and interpret data collection from respondents. All responses were based on an underlined percent (100%) as will be seen in chapter four.National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

E.g. NR X 100 TNR 1 Where 100 = percent NR = number of respondent TNR= total number of respondents

CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher presented and analyzed data collected and illustrated on the importance of employee motivation in an organization with reference to Nigerian defence academy, Kaduna. It will however, rest on the use of data collected from responses of NDA. The main instrument of the research is questionnaire, this is to

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

enable the researcher determine the validity of otherwise of need of motivation of the staff as it affect the level of performance of a staff. 4.2 RESPONDENTS CHARACTERISTICS The data presented throughout this chapter are in percentage and analyzed data are based on the questionnaire issued to different people. TABLE 1: WHAT IS YOUR HIGHEST QUALIFICATION? RESPONSES WASCE/NEC O NCE OND HND B. sc Total RESPONDENTS 10 10 35 5 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 17 17 58 8 100%

From table one above showed that 35 respondents, representing 58% are holders of HND, 10 are OND and NCE holders, while 5 respondents representing 8% are B. Sc holders.

TABLE 2: FOR HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN WORKING? RESPONSE S 1-3 yrs 3-5 yrs 5 and above Total RESPONDENTS 15 20 25 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 25 33 42 100%

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

The table above indicates that 25 respondents making up to 42% have been working with the academy for 5 and above yrs, 20 from the respondents representing 33% have been working for 3-5 years, and 15 respondents have worked for 1-3 years with the academy. TABLE 3: HOW COULD YOU DESCRIBE YOUR WORKING CONDITION? RESPONSE S Good Fair Poor Total RESPONDENTS 40 15 5 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 67 25 8 100%

From the above table, 40 respondents representing 67% describe their working condition being good, 15 said it is a fair and the rest of the 5 respondents representing 8% said their working condition is poor. TABLE 4: DOES YOUR MANAGEMENT NEEDS WELL EDUCATED STAFFS? RESPONSE S Yes No Total RESPONDENTS 60 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 100 100%

From the above table all the 60 respondents representing 100% agreed that their management needs well educated staffs.

TABLE 5: HAVE YOU EVER RECEIVED ANY TRAINING FROM THE ACADEMY? RESPONSE S Yes 28 RESPONDENTS 58 PERCENTAGE (%) 97

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

No Total

2 60

3 100%

From the above table 58 respondents representing 97% admitted that they have once receive training while two have not, that is 3% of the respondents. TABLE 6: DOES YOUR BOSS TRUST YOU? RESPONSE S Yes No Total RESPONDENTS 40 20 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 67 33 100%

The above table shows that 40 respondents representing 67% said there is trust between them and their bosses do not trust them. TABLE 7: ARE YOU DEDICATED TO CARRY OUTADDITIONAL PERCENTAGE (%) 93 7 100%

RESPONSIBILTIES OR DECISION MAKING? RESPONSE S Yes No Total RESPONDENTS 56 4 60

As it can be seen from the above table, it indicates that 56 respondents that are 93% are delegated to carry out additional responsibilities or decision making while 4 respondents representing 7% are not.

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

TABLE 8: WAS SOME STAFF WHO WENT ON COURSE IN THE PAST PROMOTED OR UPGRADED AFTER THEIR TRAINING? RESPONSE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) S Yes 20 33 No 40 67 Total 60 100% As it can be seen from the table above, 20 respondents said there is adequate staff promotion in the academy for those who went on courses or training while 40 of the respondents did not agree to this, that 67% of the respondents. TABLE 9: JOB SATISFACTION CAN MAKE THE ORGANIZATION GREAT? RESPONSE S Yes No Total RESPONDENTS 55 5 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 92 8 100%

From the above table 92% of the respondents agreed that if the staff of the academy where satisfied with their job, the academy will become great. It therefore, shows that the hypothesis was accepted. TABLE 10: WORKFORCE INDISCIPLINE IN THE ACADEMY IS EXHIBITION OF DISSATISFACTION AND FRUSTRATION? RESPONSE S Yes No Total RESPONDENTS 35 25 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 58 42 100%

As could be seen above, a total of thirty five respondents from the table agreed that indiscipline in the academy is exhibition ofNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

frustration, while 25 of the respondents said no. This hypothesis was also accepted.

TABLE

11:

DOES

YOUR

ORGNAIZATION

PUT

IN

PLACE

ANY

MOTIVATIONAL PROGRAMME? RESPONSE S Yes No Total RESPONDENTS 12 48 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 16 84 100%

From the above, 12 respondents representing 16% of the total respondents affirmed that staffs are regularly trained while 48 respondents disagree with this. TABLE 12: IS THERE BEEN CHANGE AS A RESULT OF THE MOTIBATION RECEIVED? RESPONSE S Yes No Total RESPONDENTS 59 1 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 98 2 100%

Table shows that 59 respondents representing 58% agreed that motivation has improve their performance considerably while only one respondents representing 2% disagreed that motivation does not affect any changes in his performance. TABLE 13: WOULD YOU SUPPORT THE CONTINUOUS MOTIVATION OF STAFFS? RESPONSE 31 RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

S Yes No Total In the table above,

60 60 all the respondents i.e.

100 100% 60 respondents

representing 100% of the respondents support the continuous motivation of staff. This is necessary because of the dynamic nature of the profession where new approaches are needed to meet up with the ever changing automation in office. TABLE 14: WITH PROPER MOTIVATION, DO YOU THINK THAT THE STAFF OF THE ORGANIZATION DEVELOP GOOD ATTITUDE TO WORK? RESPONS ES Yes No Total RESPONDENTS 52 8 60 PERCENTAGE (%) 87 13 100%

From the above table, the question centred on attitudes to work. Responses from the staff as could be seen showed 52% respondents, representing 87% accepted the proper motivation can improve the attitude to work while 8 respondents disagreed.

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1

INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the research tried to summaries, concluded and also makes recommendations to the top management of the Nigerian defence academy (NDA) on ways on how to improve or address the issue of inadequate motivation as it affects the staff of the organization.

5.2

SUMMARY It is obvious to observe that the factors affecting the performance of the staff of Nigerian defence academy it has been analyzed in preceding chapters. An attempt was made to briefly summarize the whole lot through, the factor motivation as the cause, which has

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

always affected employee performance, should be seen as an old problem and not new. 5.3 CONCLUSION From the findings of the study it can be said that there was lack of adequate and proper motivation to the staff of the academy. This greatly contributes to the lack of commitment, dedication and exhibition of some kind nonchalant attitude and indiscipline folk of the staff in the academy. Such negative feelings and attitudes in turn generate job dissatisfaction in the mind of the staff and eventually lead to low productivity. It has also been observed that absence sound men power and training scheme for the staff greatly contributes to the staffs inefficiency on the job. It is hoped that implementation of the recommendation to be offered could revitalize the staff workforce of the academy for better performance and achievement. 5.4 RECOMMENDATION Based on the conclusions above resulting from the finding of the study, the following recommendations are made. 1. A second training scheme is evolved for the staff with a view of addressing the problems of training and placement of staffs after the training for efficient/effective performance and job satisfaction. 2. In house training and workshops be introduced for the benefit of the staffs. This could create avenue for sharing new ideas and on the job training of staffs. 3. A welfare scheme that would be capable of addressing the welfare problems of the staffs is established so as to produce a channel of meeting the motivational short coming by the academy.National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

4. The academy should ensure that all allowances due to the staff, as obtained in other federal universities are promptly paid. And other additional benefits accruing from the military nature of the institution are paid as provided in the condition of service. Such gesture would serve as a great motivation. 5.5 LIMITATIONS Due to financial & time constraint involved, it was not possible for the researcher to give out questionnaires to each member of the staffs of the academy. However a great majority of the staff was presented through their departments. Lastly, this research work was only limited to the Nigerian defence academy, Kaduna.

REFERENCES Musa A.A (1983) motivating subordinates being a lecture during the D.S.L.S. courses Alugburo Martin A. (1984) the expectancy theory of motivation; it is application to managers in Nigeria (NIA, Lagos, vol. 20 p. 3 march) Adedoyin A.O. (1983) developing subordinate through appraisal being a lecture delivered during the developing supervisory leadership skill course. Nigerian institute of management Lagos. December 1983. Mislabel S. Novit (1975) essential of personnel management prince Hall inc new yolk 1975 p. 109. Druker Peter (1977) establishing training objectives vol.10. Vinaline .W (1902) motivation as a complex problem Nebraska press 1962, p.3. National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page 35

The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

Sampson Edward B. (1971) social psychology and contemporary society. John Wiley and sons Inc. New work.

DEPARTMENT OF OFFICE TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT NUHU BAMALLI POLYTECHNIC, ZARIA

Dear respondents, You are kindly required to tick in the box. The questionnaire is designed for the purpose of project work. Please you opinion is vitally needed and will only consider confidential and academically. Instruction: Please Tick Appropriately In The Provided Box. Section A: Biographical DataNational Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

1. What is your highest qualification? WASCE/NECO [ ] HND [ ] NCE/OND [ ] B. sc [ ] 2. For how long have you been working? 1-3 years [ ] 3-5 years [ ] 5 and [ ] 3. How could you describe your working condition? Good [ ] Fair [ ] Poor [ ] 4. Does your management need well educated staffs? Yes [ ] No [ ] 5. Have you ever received any training from the academy? Yes [ ] No [ ] 6. Does your boss trust you? Yes [ ] No [ ] 7. Are you delegated to carry out additional responsibility decision making?National Diploma In Office Technology & Management - 2011 Page

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The Essence of Motivation of Office Staff as a Tool Towards Enhancing Productivity By Sani Ibrahim

Yes [ ] No [ ] 8. Were some staffs that went on causes in the past promoted or upgraded after their training? Yes [ ] No [ ] 9. Job satisfaction can make the organization great, do you agree with the statement? Yes [ ] No [ ] 10.Workforce indiscipline in the academy is exhibiting of dissatisfaction and frustration due to condition of service in the organization. Do you agree? Yes [ ] No [ ] 11.Does your organization put or place any motivational programme? Yes [ ] No [ ] 12.Have there been changes as a result of the motivation received? Yes [ ] No [ ] 13.Would you support the continuous motivation of staff? Yes [ ] No [ ] 14.With proper motivation, do you think that the staff of the organization develop good attitude to work? Yes [ ] No [ ].

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