The development of illustrated texts and picture books
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- 1. The development of illustrated texts and picture books Andreia Cereja Portugal 2014
2. The Tyger by William Blake Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire? And what shoulder, & what art, Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand? & what dread feet? What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp? When the stars threw down their spears And waterd heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? 3. Pictorial Representation Children learn to read pictures before words Pictures - earliest records of mans attempt at communication: 1 . Cave Painting 2. Church Mural 3. Stained Glass Window BUT it took a long while for due significance to be placed on the illustration of childrens books (similar to how hard it was for childrens literature to become more child oriented). Well Illustrated Book Badly Illustrated Book * Accompanying pictures enhance * The pictures lack relevance to the or add depth to the text text, or are ill placed or poorly drawn or reproduced 4. Rise of the Importance of Pictures & Improvement in Standards of Illustration First Illustrated Book (Significant for Children) John Amos Comeniuss Orbis Sensualium Pictus (1659) - Translated into English by Charles Hoole; - Had one picture at the top of each page, with thge name of the object that it depicted (in Latin and then in English); - Widest range of pictures for the young available at the time; STILL, illustrations for childrens books were very crude: the models were taken from the lower end of the market (chapbooks, broadsheets), selling cheaper than the better-class adult books. Pictures and Stories for Children, To Which is A 1638 broadsheet, Cuckold's Added The Picture Alphabet 1852 Haven Reproduction of Illustrations Methods available in the 17th and 18th centuries: - Manual processes most important was by woodcut Bevis of SouthHampton ( woodcut version done in 1565) Woodcut: Cheap method; text and pictures could be printed together, going through the press at the same time; same method used for chapbooks and broadsheets. Engraving: superior form of illustration; more expensive since text and pictures had to be printed separately. The use of this method indicates a change in attitude towards children and their books. 5. The aforementioned change in attitude was initiated by two men: John Newbery and his predecessor, Thomas Boreman (no picture found). was the 1st to to exploit commercially, the market in illustrated childrens books. * End of the 18th century: the idea of illustrated books for children had become established and some of their authors had become well known; - Emphasis on religious and moral matters (not good illustrative material), or social behavior which was seen as the key to prosperity. * Early 19th century: turned towards more factual themes; the books poor quality material it was still surprising, and more so that it was the most scorned type of reading the chapbook that was ultimately responsible for the revolution in childrens books! Samuel Pepys Chapbooks Collector BUT certain improvements were taking place! Rationalism (early 19th century) = in favour of childrens literature This view started being supplemented by an appreciation of new discoveries of all kinds. Publishers William Darton and John Harris produced books nearly always didactic in content, that sought to bring to children awareness of the rest of the world outside the U.K., as well as for them to get to know their own country in a more detailed fashion. Some titles produced by John Harris: - a number of travel books specifically for Little Tarry-at HomeTravellers; and such works as Scenes of British Wealth (1823), Rural Employments (1820) and City Scenes; or A Peep into London for Children (1828). These books were a popular if rather expensive part of childrens reading (publications of this kind demanded plenty of illustrations that were done by the engraving process described earlier). Names of the artists employed for the illustrating of these books were rarely known and much work remains to be done on the identities of the ones who worked for both John Harris and William Darton. (See last page for some examples of these publishers work) Did you know: Chapbooks were small, crudely illustrated booklets? They contained: folk tales, nursery rhymes, ballads, riddles, short entertaining or moral tales 6. Advent of Henry Cole and Joseph Cundall Sir Henry Cole (15 July 1808 18 April 1882) Joseph Cundall (22 September 1818 10 January 1895) Both were important for the acceptance of nonsense and the fairy tale in the nursery Henry Cole, under the pseudonym Felix Summerly, instituted the Home Treasury Series, publishing in them: fairy tales and nursery rhymes, commissioning well-known artists of the day, many of whom he knew personally, to illustrate them. He also commissioned special covers for his books. Joseph Cundall, with his interest in producing well-designed books, was the right man to work with Henry Cole. The illustrations were of good quality, relevant and attractive but (no doubt because of the cost) very few in number. 7. Great developments in the field of childrens books, in content and in production From the 1830s untill the early 20th century Click the link below to access chronology http://extrazoom.com/image-11067.html 8. Publishers William Darton and John Harris (Examples) Page from Pug's Tour, illustrated in color with verse below. Published by John Harris, 1824 Illustration from a book published by John Harris in 1824 William Darton, Trifles for Children, published in 1799 9. Further reading Alderson, B. (1986) Sing a Song for Sixpence: The English Illustrative Tradition and Randolph Caldecott, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press in association with the British Library. Bader, B. (1976) American Picture Books from Noahs Ark to the Beast Within, New York: Macmillan. Barr, J. (1986) Illustrated Childrens Books, London: British Library. Lewis, D. (1995a) The Picture Book: A Form Awaiting Its History, Signal 77: 99112. (1995b) The Jolly Postmans Long Ride, or Sketching a Picture-Book History, Signal 78: 17892. McLean, R. (1972) Victorian Book Design and Colour Printing, 2nd edn, London: Faber and Faber. Muir, P. (1985) English Childrens Books 16001900, 4th imp., London: Batsford. Nikolajeva, M. and Scott, C. (2001) How Picture Books Work, New York and London: Garland. Whalley, J. I. (1975) Cobwebs to Catch Flies: Illustrated Books for the Nursery and Schoolroom, 17001900, London: Elek. Whalley, J. I. and Chester, T. R. (1988) A History of Childrens Book Illustration, London: John Murray, with the Victoria and Albert Museum.