The Civil War: Industrial Innovations The Revolver Officer’s sidearm or a cavalry weapon;...

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The Civil War: The Civil War: Industrial Industrial Innovations Innovations

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  • The Civil War: Industrial Innovations

  • The RevolverOfficers sidearm or a cavalry weapon; effective at short range.This is a Colt Army revolver, .44 caliber

  • Standard Springfield Infantry Rifle.58 caliberdevastating at close range, effective at 600 yardsMany firefights took place at 100 yards or closer

  • The improved rifle, combined with old-fashioned fighting techniques (tactics) generated terrible battlefield casualties, because commanders still trained their men to advance in masses, the way Napoleon had fought 50 years earlier

  • Near the end of the warGenerals began to use trench warfarelet the other side do the attackingWith the new weapons, attacking troops could be slaughtered by troops who were relatively safe in fortified trenches

  • The Springfields conical bulletNote the grooves (rifling) that spun the bullet as it left the barrel and made it much more accuratelike a spiral football pass

  • In 1864, the first repeating rifles began to appearThis is a Henry Rifle, which could fire 16 shots before the soldier had to reload

  • Artillery was also rifledThis re-enactor stands with a Whitworth Rifle, which could fire a 12-pound explosive shell over a mile

  • The war introduced the first practical machine gunGatling guns had 6-10 rotating barrels which could fire 200 shots per minute

  • Perhaps the greatest innovations were with the navyIn March 1862, the first ironclad shipsthe U.S.S. Monitor and the C.S.S. Virginiafought to a draw at Hampton Roads, Virginia

  • Heres the Monitor after the battlecheck out the dents

  • The Monitor wasnt very seaworthyShe sank in a storm off North Carolinaheres a photo of the same gun turret after it was raised in 2002

  • The most famous Civil War ship?The C.S.S. Hunley, which drowned two crews before successfully sinking a Union ship in Charleston Harbor.

  • Question:Why would the South be so intent on sinking Union ships blockading their harbors?

  • That problem would show itself at Gettysburg Up to one-third of Lees Confederate army fought barefoot

  • The Hunleys crew turned the crankshaft by hand

  • The Hunley carried a torpedo mounted on a ships spar that would detonate on contact

  • It worked!!!

  • But the Hunley sank againAh, shoot!

  • In August, 2000, the Hunley and her crew were recovered

  • Including the commanders$20 lucky gold piecewhich didnt work too well that night

  • What the war ultimately provedIs that modern warfare would be decided as much by industrial production as by generals.In that respect, the South never really had a chance

  • The War would therefore createA Second Industrial Revolutionwith the United States, not Britain, taking the lead, and with steel, not textiles, as the product that generated industrial expansion