The Baroque World. Chapter 15: The Baroque World OUTLINE The Counter-Reformation Spirit The Visual...

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The Baroque World Slide 2 Chapter 15: The Baroque World OUTLINE The Counter-Reformation Spirit The Visual Arts in the Baroque Period Painting in Rome: Caravaggio and the Carracci Roman Baroque Sculpture and Architecture: Bernini and Borromini Baroque Art in France and Spain Baroque Art in Northern Europe Baroque Music The Birth of Opera Baroque Instrumental and Vocal Music: Johann Sebastian Bach Philosophy and Science in the Baroque Period Galileo Descartes Hobbes and Locke Literature in the Seventeenth Century French Baroque Comedy and Tragedy The Novel in Spain: Cervantes The English Metaphysical Poets Milton's Heroic Vision Outline Chapter 15 Slide 3 Timeline Chapter 15: The Baroque World 1534 Loyola establishes the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 1601 Caravaggio, The Calling of Saint Matthew 1620 Artemesia Gentileschi, Judith and Holofernes 1629 Bernini appointed official architect of St. Peter's, Rome 1632 Galileo, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 1639 Poussin, Et in Arcadia, Ego 1642 Rembrandt, Night Watch 1645 Bernini, Saint Teresa in Ecstasy 1656 Velzquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) 1665 Vermeer, The Girl With Pearl Earring 1682 Louis XIV moves court to Versailles 1690Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Second Treatise on Government 1720 Vivaldi, The Four Seasons 1721 J. S. Bach, Brandenburg Concertos Timeline Chapter 15 Slide 4 If the history and culture of the sixteenth century were profoundly affected by the Reformation, the prime element to influence those of the seventeenth century was the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church's campaign to regain its authority and influence. By clarifying and forcefully asserting their teaching, backed up with a vigorous program of missionary work, church leaders aimed to present a positive and optimistic appearance that would eliminate past discords. The Counter-Reformation Spirit In this example of Catholic propaganda, the Pope holds his ears while Calvin and Luther battle, with the Bible as one of the weapons. Slide 5 Europe After the Reformation Slide 6 Among the resources used by Counter-Reformation reformers were the arts. Imposing architectural complexes like Saint Peter's Square in Rome, paintings and sculptures, music and verse could all serve to reinforce the glory of the church. In some cases works were commissioned officially; in others artists responded individually to the spirit of the times. Bernini's Saint Teresa in Ecstasy, a statue that reflects the artist's own devout faith, was commissioned for the church in Rome in which it still stands. Richard Crashaw's poetry represents a more personal response to the religious ideas of his day. Counter-Reformation Art Saint Peter's Square and Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome Bernini The Ecstasy of Saint Therese 1647-52 Marble Slide 7 For all the importance of religion, the seventeenth century was also marked by significant developments in philosophy and science. Galileo, the father of modern physics, revolutionized astronomy by proving Copernicus' claims of the previous century correct. Thinkers like Descartes and Hobbes, instead of accepting official church teachings, tried to examine the problems of human existence by their own intellectual approaches. Descartes was the founder of modern rational thought (although a believer in a supreme being); Hobbes was the first modern materialist The Rise of Science Copernicus Galileo DescartesHobbes Slide 8 The principal artistic style of the seventeenth century was the baroque, a term originally used for the visual arts but also applied by extension to the other arts of the period. Although the Baroque style was created in Italy, it spread quickly throughout Europe and was even carried to the New World by missionaries. The Arts in the Baroque Period Slide 9 Baroque art is marked by a wide range of achievements, but there are a number of common features. Artists in the seventeenth century were concerned to express strong emotions, either religious or personal. This in turn led to an interest in exploring human behavior from a psychological point of view. With the new subjects came new techniques, many of them emphasizing the virtuosity of the artist. These in turn led to the invention of new forms: in music that of opera, in painting that of landscape scenes, to take only two examples Common Features of the Arts of the Baroque Period Slide 10 The chief characteristics of baroque painting were created in Rome around 1600 by two artists. Caravaggio's work is emotional and dominated by strong contrasts of light and darkness. Annibale Carracci painted scenes of movement and splendor, many on classical themes. Both strongly influenced their contemporaries and successors. Caravaggio's use of light was the forerunner of the work of artists as diverse as the Spaniard Velzquez and the Dutchman Vermeer, while Carracci's choice of classical subjects was followed by the French Poussin. The two greatest painters of northern Europe, Rembrandt and Rubens, were also influenced by the ideas of their day. Rembrandt used strong contrasts of light and dark to paint deeply felt religious scenes as well as the self-portraits that explore his own inner emotions. Rubens, one of the most versatile of artists, ranged from mythological subjects to historical paintings like the Marie de' Medici cycle to intimate personal portraits. Baroque Painting Slide 11 Painting in Rome: Caravaggio dark contrasts The Fortune Teller 1596-97 Oil on canvas The Taking of Christ c. 1598 Oil on canvas St. John the Baptist (Youth with Ram) c. 1600 Oil on canvas Supper at Emmaus 1606 Oil on canvas Madonna with the Serpent 1606 Oil on canvas Slide 12 Painting in Rome: Carracci brilliant light Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne 1597-1602 Fresco Palazzo Farnese, Rome Slide 13 Artemisia Gentileschi Judith Beheading Holofernes 1611-12 Oil on canvas Susanna and the Elders 1610 Oil on canvas Slide 14 Although the seventeenth century saw architects increasingly employed in designing private houses, most of the principal building projects were public. At Rome the leading architect was Bernini, also one of the greatest sculptors of the age, whose churches, fountains, and piazzas changed the face of the city. In his sculpture Bernini drew on virtually all the themes of Counter-Reformation art, including mythological and religious works and vividly characterized portraits. The other great building project of the century was the palace built for Louis XIV at Versailles, where the splendor of the Sun King was reflected in the grandiose decoration scheme. Baroque Architecture The Ecstasy of S. Teresa of Avila, the centerpiece of Berninis Cornaro Chapel at the Church of S. Maria della Vittoria in Rome Slide 15 Roman Baroque Sculpture and Architecture: Bernini and Borromini Gian Lorenzo BERNINI David 1623-24 Marble The headquarters of the Propaganda fide in Rome, housed by architects Borromini and Bernini: etching by Giuseppe Vasi, 1761 Slide 16 Palace of Louis XIV at Versailles Versailles Palace, facade Versailles Palace, coutyard Slide 17 Baroque Art in France and Spain Georges de La Tour Nicolas Poussin Claude Le Lorrain (Claude Gellee) El Greco Diego Velazquez Slide 18 Georges de La Tour Fortune Teller 1632-35 Oil on canvas Magdalen of Night Light 1630-35 Oil on canvas Slide 19 Nicolas Poussin Midas and Bacchus 1629-30 Oil on canvas The Triumph of David 1630-31 The Rape of the Sabine Women 1634-35 Oil on canvas Slide 20 Claude Le Lorrain (Claude Gellee) Landscape with Acis and Galathe Oil on canvas Landscape with Apollo and Mercury Oil on canvas Embarkation of St Paula Romana at Ostia Slide 21 El Greco The Piet (The Lamentation of Christ) 1571-76 Tempera on panel Assumption of the Virgin 1577 Oil on canvas Christ on the Cross 1600-10 Oil on canvas View of Toledo 1597-99 Oil on canvas Slide 22 Diego Velzquez Peasants at the Table (El Almuerzo) c. 1620 Oil on canvas The Immaculate Conception c. 1618 Oil on canvas Prince Baltasar Carlos on Horseback 1635-36 Oil on canvas Slide 23 Diego Velzquez, Las Meninas Las Meninas 1656-57 Oil on canvas This is a composition of enormous representational impact. The Infanta Margarita stands proudly amongst her maids of honour, with a dwarf to the right. Although she is the smallest, she is clearly the central figure; one of her maids is kneeling before her, and the other leaning towards her, so that the standing Infanta, with her broad hooped skirt, becomes the fulcrum of the movement. The dwarf, about the same size as the Infanta, is so ugly that Margarita appears delicate, fragile and precious in comparison. On the left in the painting, dark and calm, the painter himself can be seen standing at his vast canvas. Above the head of the Infanta, we see the ruling couple reflected in the mirror. Slide 24 Baroque Art in Northern Europe Rubens Vermeer Rembrandt Slide 25 Rubens Virgin and Child c. 1604 Oil on panel Venus at a Mirror c. 1615 The Union of Earth and Water c. 1618 Oil on canvas Slide 26 Vermeer Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window 1657 Oil on canvas The Milkmaid c. 1658 View of Delft 1659-60 Woman Holding a Balance 1662-63 Slide 27 Rembrandt Self-Portrait 1659 Oil on canvas Descent from the Cross 1634 The Anatomy Lecture of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp 1632 Oil on canvas Slide 28 In music, as in the visual arts, the Baroque period was one of experimentation and high achievement. Counter-Reformation policy required that music for church use should be easily understood and appreciated, as was already the case in the Protestant countries of northern Europe. At the same time there was a growing demand for secular music for performance both in public and at home. Music in the Counter-Reformation 17 th Century Musical Instruments: Violin, Recorder, Lute, Double Virginal Slide 29 One of the most important innovations of the seventeenth century was opera. The first opera was performed just before 1600 in Florence, and by