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  • Ancient GreeksThe

    c. 750 B.C.Greeces DarkAge comes toan end

    c. 650 B.C.Tyrants over-throw noblesin city-states

    480 B.C.XerxesinvadesGreece

    431 B.C.PeloponnesianWar begins

    700 B.C. 600 B.C. 500 B.C. 400 B.C.700 B.C. 600 B.C. 500 B.C. 400 B.C.

    The Parthenon rises above the cityof Athens. The people of ancientGreece built this temple to celebrate their goddess Athena.

    Vanni Archive/CORBIS

    332-335 C07-868874 1/5/05 8:14 PM Page 332

  • Chapter Overview Visitca.hss.glencoe.com for a preview of Chapter 7.

    The Early GreeksPhysical geography plays a role in how civilizations develop and decline.

    Greeces mountains, climate, and surrounding seas played a largerole in its history. The earliest civilizations in Greece were theMinoans and the Mycenaeans.

    Sparta and AthensSystems of order, such as law and government, contribute to stable

    societies. Athens and Sparta, the two major city-states in ancientGreece, developed different governments that emphasized oppositeaspects of society. Sparta focused on its military, while Athensfocused on trade, culture, and democracy.

    Persia Attacks the GreeksConflict often brings about great changes. The Persian Empire gained

    control of most of southwest Asia. However, when the Persianstried to conquer the Greeks, Athens and Sparta united to defeat them.

    The Age of PericlesCivilizations with strong economies prosper and grow. Under the

    leadership of Pericles, Athens became a powerful city-state with astrong economy and blossoming culture.

    View the Chapter 7 video in the Glencoe Video Program.

    Summarizing Information Make this foldable to help you organize andsummarize information about the ancient Greeks.

    Reading and WritingAs you read the chapter,write information undereach appropriate tab. Besure to summarize theinformation you find bywriting only main ideasand supporting details.

    Step 1 Mark themidpoint of a side edgeof one sheet of paper.Then fold the outsideedges in to touch themidpoint.

    Step 2 Fold the paper in half again from side toside.

    Step 3 Open thepaper and cut alongthe inside fold linesto form four tabs.

    Step 4 Label as shown.Cut along the

    fold lines on both sides.

    TheEarly

    GreeksPersia

    Attacksthe

    Greeks

    Spartaand

    Athens

    TheAge ofPericles

    333

    332-335 C07-868874 1/5/05 8:18 PM Page 333

    http://ca.hss.glencoe.com

  • Good readers compare and contrast information as they read. Thismeans they look for similarities and differences. Comparing the ways inwhich people, places, or ideas are the same or different helps youunderstand how each is unique. Look for signal words in the text. Somecomparison signal words are same, at the same time, like, and still.Contrast signal words include some, others, different, however, rather, yet,but, and or. Read the passage about Persian religion and then look at thequestions that follow.

    Comparing and Contrasting

    Look for the compa

    re and

    contrast signal wor

    ds when

    you take tests.

    334

    1) Persian religion is beingcompared to Jewish religion.

    3) Like signals a comparison,and however signals contrast.

    2) The similarities are high-lighted in blue and the con-trasts in orange.

    Like the Jews, Zoroaster believedin one god. He viewed this supremebeing as the creator of all things anda force of goodness. However,Zoroaster recognized evil in theworld, too. He taught that humanshad the freedom to choose betweenright and wrong, and that goodnesswould triumph in the end.

    from page 353

    As you compare and contrast, ask these questions:1) What things are being compared or contrasted?2) Which characteristics can be compared or con-

    trasted? 3) How are they similar, and how are they different?4) Are there any signal words?

    332-335 C07-868874 7/12/05 9:11 PM Page 334

  • As you read the chapter, choose threepairs of subjects to compare and con-trast. List the similarities and differ-ences using a graphic organizer, suchas the one above.

    Read the passage and the directions below.

    Read Section 2 and use a chart like the one below toorganize the similarities and differences between Spartaand Athens. In the first column, fill in the characteristicsthat you will compare and contrast. In the second andthird columns, describe the characteristics of each city-state.

    335

    Reread the passagelabeled Roles of Men andWomen in Section 4 ofthis chapter. Then writea short paragraphcomparing andcontrasting what lifewas like for men andwomen in ancientAthens.

    Read to Write

    Athens and Sparta, the twomajor city-states in ancient Greece,developed different governmentsthat emphasized opposite aspectsof society. Sparta focused on itsmilitary, while Athens focused ontrade, culture, and democracy.

    from page 333

    Characteristic Sparta Athens

    Spartan warrior

    Foto

    Mar

    bur

    g/A

    rt R

    esou

    rce,

    NY

    332-335 C07-868874 1/5/05 8:24 PM Page 335

  • c. 2000 B.C.Minoans control easternMediterranean

    c. 1200 B.C.Mycenaeancivilization declines

    c. 750 B.C.Greeces Dark Agecomes to an end

    GREECE

    Crete Knossos

    Mycenae

    2000 B.C. 1250 B.C. 500 B.C.2000 B.C. 1250 B.C. 500 B.C.

    336 CHAPTER 7 The Ancient Greeks

    Early GreeksThe

    Looking Back, Looking AheadIn Chapters 1 and 2, you learned

    about Mesopotamia and Egypt. Thesecivilizations grew up in great rivervalleys with rich soil. Greece had nogreat river valleys. Instead, it hadmountains, rocky soil, and manymiles of seacoasts.

    Focusing on the The geography of Greece influenced

    where people settled and what theydid. (page 337)

    The Minoans earned their living bybuilding ships and trading. (page 338)

    Mycenaeans built the first Greek king-doms and spread their power acrossthe Mediterranean region. (page 339)

    The idea of citizenship developed inGreek city-states. (page 341)

    Colonies and trade spread Greek culture and spurred industry. (page 343)

    Meeting PeopleAgamemnon (AguhMEHMnahn)

    Locating PlacesCrete (KREET) Mycenae (mySEEnee)Peloponnesus

    (PEH luhpuhNEEsuhs)

    Content Vocabularypeninsula (puhNIHNsuh luh)polis (PAH luhs)agora (Aguhruh)colony (KAH luhnee)

    Academic Vocabularyregion (REE juhn)culture (KUHLchuhr)overseas (OHvuhrSEEZ)community (kuhMYOOnuhtee)

    Reading StrategyFinding Details Draw a diagram likethe one below. In each oval write onedetail about a polis.

    polis

    HistorySocial ScienceStandardsWH6.4 Studentsanalyze the geographic,political, economic,religious, and socialstructures of the earlycivilizations of AncientGreece.

    336-343 C07-868874 1/5/05 9:30 PM Page 336

  • WH6.4.1 Discuss the connections between geography and the development of city-states in the region of the Aegean Sea, includingpatterns of trade and commerce among Greek city-states and within the wider Mediterranean region.

    100 kilometers0Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection

    100 miles0

    20E 30E

    40N

    30E

    20E

    A e g e a nS e a

    Sea ofMarmara

    M e d i t e r r a n e a nS e a

    I o n i a nS e a

    S e a o f C r e t e

    M

    e di t e r r a n e a n

    Se a

    Gulf of Corinth

    G R E E C E

    Crete

    B A L K A NP E N I N S U L A

    PELOPONNESUS

    Mt. Olympus

    M A C E D O N I A

    A S I A M I N O R

    Miletus

    Sparta

    Athens

    ThebesDelphi

    Corinth

    Troy

    Knossos

    Mycenae

    N

    S

    W E

    Ancient Greece c. 750 B.C.

    The Geography of GreeceThe geography of Greece influenced

    where people settled and what they did.Reading Connection Do you rake leaves in the fall?Do you walk uphill to school? Your answers explain howgeography shapes your life. Read to learn how geogra-phy shaped life in early Greece.

    If you fly over Greece today, you will seea mountainous land framed by sparklingblue water. To the west is the Ionian (eye OH nee uhn) Sea, to the south is theMediterranean Sea, and to the east is theAegean (ih JEE uhn) Sea. Hundreds ofislands lie offshore, stretching across to Asialike stepping-stones. Mainland Greece is a

    peninsula (puh NIHN suh luh)a body ofland with water on three sides.

    Many ancient Greeks made a living fromthe sea. They became fishers, sailors, andtraders. Others settled in farming communi-ties. Greeces mountains and rocky soil werenot ideal for growing crops. However, the cli-mate was mild, and in some places peoplecould grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes.They also raised sheep and goats.

    Ancient Greeks felt deep ties to the land,but the mountains and seas divided themfrom one another. As a result, early Greekcommunities grew up fiercely independent.

    Cause and Effect How didgeography discourage Greek unity?

    Ancient Greece

    KEY

    Mountains and seasplayed an important role in Greek history.

    1. Location What body of water liesdirectly east of the BalkanPeninsula?

    2. Movement What transportationwas probably most useful to theearly Greeks?

    Find NGS online map resources @www.nationalgeographic.com/maps

    336-343 C07-868874 1/5/05 9:32 PM Page 337

    http://www.nationalgeographic.com/maps

  • WH6.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Ancient Greece.

    WH6.4.1 Discuss the connections between geography and the development of city-states in the region of the Aegean Sea,including patterns of trade and commerce among Greek city-states and within the wider Mediterranean region.

    Minoan calendar

    This wall painting from Knos