Thailand in the cold war: sarit thanom regime (1957-1973)

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Transcript of Thailand in the cold war: sarit thanom regime (1957-1973)

  1. 1. Thailand in the Cold War: Sarit-Thanom Regime (1957-1973) Politics and Government in Thailand Yaowaluk Chaobanpho
  2. 2. Group presentation; select 1 question and answer in 5 minutes 1. What is the cold war? What is its influence in Southeast Asian Region? 2. What is the role of Thailand that contributed to the cold war during Sarit Regime? 3. What is the role of USA in supporting Sarit to become the leader in Thai politics? 4. What are the key features of economic development in Sarit period? 5.Describe the change of Monarchs status during Sarits time 6. What is The Politics of Despotic Paternalism? 7. What is the political view of Sarit, particularly the view on democracy? 8. In what ways the country was modernized during Sarits time? 9.What are the factors that later caused the fall of dictatorship after Sarits time?
  3. 3. Phibuns regime 1 Phibunsongkhram as Prime Minister 1938-45 Increase modernization Pro fascism and nationalism Built Leadership Cult Aimed to uplift the national spirit and moral code of the nation and instilling progressive tendencies and a newness into Thai life Reform Thai language Encouraged western manner
  4. 4. Phibun Regime 2 1939 changed from Siam to Thailand 1941 changed new year from Songkran to January 1 Encouraged economic nationalism; Anti Chinese policy
  5. 5. Alliance with Japan 1941-45
  6. 6. 2nd Phibun term April 1948 Phibun assumed his second premiership 2 unsuccessful coupe attempts (1951) Promoted democracy Open Politics Entered Korean War to support USA Received large American aid Entered early Cold War
  7. 7. Sarit seized power Accused Phibun of cheating in election American supported Thai army played crucial roles in 1957 coup
  8. 8. Cold War ? Communist World (Soviet) VS. Western World (USA) Vietnam war (1955-1975), US military bases in Thailand (1965-75) USAs funding for development USA development model for allied countries
  9. 9. Map of Cold war
  10. 10. Sarit Thanarat (1908-1963) Successful in army Staged a coup in 1957 and second coup in 1958 Prime Minister 1958-1963 Strong leadership Started National Economic and Social Development Plan
  11. 11. Politics in Sarit Regime Governed under Martial Law Most authoritarian in the history of modern Thai politics Abrogating constitution Dissolving parliament Centralized power to his Revolutionary Party Controlled Bureaucratic system and military
  12. 12. Politics (2) Banned all political parties Strict censorship of the press (banned 18 publications) Intense crackdown on leftists Suppressed many professors, politicians and newspapers
  13. 13. Chit Phumisak Historian, writer, left wing intellectuals Che Guevara of Thailand Studied philosophy at Chulalongkorn The Face of Thai Feudalism 1965 joined Communist Party of Thailand Killed in 1966
  14. 14. Bureaucratic Polity No Elections No political power from society outside bureaucracy No political participation from people Decision making relied on bureaucratic elites
  15. 15. Economic Development Established National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) 1961 launched the 1st National Economic and Social Development Plan Technocrats role in decision making NESDB Bank of Thailand Finance Ministry
  16. 16. Mittraphap Road (#2)
  17. 17. Thai Railway
  18. 18. Ideology: Thai Style Democracy Political Instability caused by too much democracy Nation (and state) is more important than individual People do not need to participate, they can assure the country is in good hands (elites) Thainess should be applied in government and politics (Western is not suitable to Thai society)
  19. 19. Ideology: Despotic Paternalism Help children Keep family security Promote health and morality Command Visit family members Father or Dictator?
  20. 20. As Father
  21. 21. The Role of the King Represent Thailand to other countries Visited provinces Patronized development projects Personally presented degrees for university graduates Practice of laying on the ground in front of the royal family
  22. 22. WGCMfKyulo
  23. 23. Role of the King nk Role in Development National day Kings Birthday Role in Government
  24. 24. Sarits funeral
  25. 25. Thanom Kittikajorn Prime Minister 1963-1973 Army commander 1971 election, then made a coup against himself
  26. 26. University Students Upper Class (graduate ceremony) Enjoyed privileges Outside politics BUT 1960s Hippies culture Liberalism
  27. 27. Anti Vietnam war 1963- 3So Woodstock