TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature...

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Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008

Transcript of TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature...

Page 1: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Pharmacology Basics

TERESA PECK BSN, RN

2008

Page 2: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Drug Nomenclature

� Chemical-Scientific Name

� Generic name

� NOT CAPITALIZED

� Official Name� Official Name

� Brand or Trade name

� Symbol R with a circle around it

� Name capitalized

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Drug Classifications

� Body system

� Therapeutic or clinical use

� Chemical action

Prescription vs non-prescription� Prescription vs non-prescription

� Illegal or recreational

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Pregnancy Categories

� A-no risk

� B-minimal risk or no studies done

� C-risk identified

D-well studied definite risk-benefit may out do � D-well studied definite risk-benefit may out do

risk

� X-positive evidence fetal anormalities-not

used

Page 5: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

PRACTICE EXAMPLES

� Use your drug book

� Find 5 Medications

� Tell us the scientific, trade and generic

namesnames

Page 6: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

What are drugs made of?

� Minerals

� Plant

� Animal

Synthesis� Synthesis

� Microorganisms

Page 7: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Drug Preparations

� VEHICLES

� Solid Preparations

� Capsule

� Tablet� Tablet

� Pill

� Lozenge

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Drug Preparations

� Solid Preparations

� Suppository

� Ointment

� Powder� Powder

� Tablets or pills may be “scored”

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Drug Preparations

� Fluid preparations

� Oral parenteral or injectable or IV

Page 10: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Pharmacokinetics

� Absorption

� Distribution

� Metabolism

Excretion� Excretion

Page 11: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Absorption-movement of a drug into the

bloodstream.

� May be via several routes

� Oral-broken down in aqueous environment

� Enters GI tract, absorption continues

� Absorption may be further influenced by gut� Absorption may be further influenced by gut

motility, prior surgery to the intestines,

simultaneous intake of food, other drugs, and

many other factors.

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Distribution

� Depends on tissue permeability

� Depends on tissue perfusion

� Depends on amount of blood flow

pH can affect � pH can affect

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Excretion

� Relies mostly on KIDNEYS

� Also referred to as clearance

Page 14: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Factors Influencing Drug Action

� Age

� Body Weight

� Metabolic Rate

� Illness

� Psychological Aspects

� Placebo effect

� Tolerance/Dependence

� Cumulative effect

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Drug Action

� Each drug has a DESIRED effect

� Can also cause undesirable effects-known as

side effects

LOOK IN DRUG BOOK- find desired action, list

of side effects

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Adverse Reactions

� Allergic Reactions

� Hives

� Itching

� Eddema� Eddema

� Anaphylactic reaction

� Respiratory distress

� Cardiovascular collapse

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Risks With Drugs

� Carcinogenicity

� Teratogen

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Drug Interactions

� Drugs can “mix” or interact with other things

� Drugs

� Foods

� Juices� Juices

Page 20: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Drug Legislation

� Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act 1938

� Controlled Substances Act, 1970

� Schedule I

� Schedule II� Schedule II

� Schedule III

� Schedule IV

� Schedule V

Page 21: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Drug Development

� Preclinical research

� Clinical research and development

� New drug application review

� Postmarketing surveillance

Page 22: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Common Abbreviations

� Daily

� BID=twice daily**

� PRN=as needed

Ad lib=as much as needed� Ad lib=as much as needed

� Mg=milligram

� Ml=milliliter

� C=with

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Common Abbreviations

� Tid=three times a day**

� Stat=NOW

� NGT=via nasogastric tube

Gr=grain� Gr=grain

� Gtt=drops

� Od=right eye

� Os=left eye

� Ou=both eyes

Page 24: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

� Pc=after eating

� Ac=before eating

� Q=every

Qh=every hour� Qh=every hour

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Six Rights of Medication Administration

� Right Drug

� Right Time

� Right Dose

Right Patient� Right Patient

� Right Route

� Right Documentation

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Nursing Process in Med Administration

� Assessment data collection

� Nursing diagnosis

� Planning

Implementation� Implementation

� Evaluation

Page 27: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...

Drug Action Across the LifeSpan

� Absorption

� Distribution

� Metabolism

Excretion� Excretion

� Toxicity

� Pregnancy/Breast-feeding

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Patient Education and Medication

Therapy� Noncompliance

� We learn three basic ways

� Learning needs to be focused, repetitive

Need to address all ways people learn� Need to address all ways people learn

� Determine readiness to learn

� Determine barriers (age, cognition,

hearing/vision impairments)

� SPACE OUT TEACHING

Page 29: TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008Pharmacology Basics TERESA PECK BSN, RN 2008. Drug Nomenclature Chemical-Scientific Name Generic name NOT CAPITALIZED Official Name Brand or Trade name ...