Teen Brains: Using/Citing Sources to Support a Claim Adapted from Teen Brains mini-unit by Beth...

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Sources to Support a Claim Adapted from Teen Brains mini-unit by Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Transcript of Teen Brains: Using/Citing Sources to Support a Claim Adapted from Teen Brains mini-unit by Beth...

Teen Brains: Using/Citing Sources to Support a Claim

Adapted from Teen Brains mini-unit by Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

2

Writing Reading Argument MINI-UNITEmphasis

# of Lessons

ARGUMENT SKILLS PRODUCT ELEMENTS OF

ARGUMENT CLOSE READING STRATEGIES

RESPONSE TO READINGS TOPICS

Draft, Feedback, Revise, Reflect Close reading strategies

Writing & talking to develop knowledge on

topic or issue

Use/Cite Sources toSupport a Claim

5 Lessons

Entering Skills:• Highlighting

text• Drafting a

claim

Foundational Skills: Citing Sources and Using Them to Illustrate and Authorize

Product: Multi-paragraph first draft

ClaimEvidence

Use of sources:

• Illustrating• Authorizing

Writing in Response to an Image

It Says/I Say

Highlighting New Ideas

Drafting in Response to Texts

Exit Slip Claim

TEEN BRAIN

Image, Video, Article

Mini-Unit Overview

Writing Standards Emphasized in the Mini-Unit

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using valid reasoning. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence…demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources….

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources…and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

Draw evidence from …informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5

Introduce Ways to Use Sources

Respond to Text 1: Teen Brain Graphic

Revise to cite source and give example

Take “It Says/ I Say” notes on Text 2: The Teenage Brain (HowStuffWorks video)

Share/Compare

Revise to fill out notes

Re-read notes

Write to incorporate video notes, ideas

Use stems to cite sources while introducing evidence

Partner check and Revision

Read “The Teenage Brain” by Amanda Leigh Mascarelli / October 17, 2012.

Highlight new information

Write using stems to cite sources while introducing evidence

Make a notecard claim

Write a 33-minute Kernel Essay

Partner Review

Reflection

Mini-Unit Sequence

Day 1

Ways to Use Sources

Illustrating – When writers use specific examples or facts from a text to support what they want to say.

Examples:● “argues that”● “claims that” ● “acknowledges that”● “emphasizes that” ● “tells the story of “● “reports that” ● “believes that”

Leeanne Bordelon, NSU Writing Project, 2014

The 18-wheeler carries lots of cargo, representing “material to think about: anecdotes, images, scenarios, data.” (Harris)

Example of Illustrating

from “The Early Bird Gets the Bad Grade” by Nancy Kalish

“When high schools in Fayette County in Kentucky delayed their start times to 8:30 a.m., the number of teenagers involved in car crashes dropped, even as they rose in the state.”

Ways to Use Sources

Leeanne Bordelon, NSU Writing Project, 2014

● Authorizing – When writers quote an expert or use the credibility or status of a source to support their claims.

Joseph Bauxbaum, a researcher at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, found …… , according to Susan Smith, principal of a school which encourages student cell phone use.A study conducted by the Gulf Coast Center for Law & Policy Center revealed that …

Example of Authorizing

Examples of Authorizing taken from “High schools with late start times help teens but bus schedules and after-school can conflict”

“…the focus on logistics is frustrating for Heather Macintosh, spokeswoman for a national organization called Start School Later…. “What Is the priority?” she said. “It should be education, health and safety.”

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Teen Brain Graphic

Study this image. Think about the meanings of these words.

What do you think?

●What do you think about this image as an example of teenage brains or how teens live their lives?

●Share your writing.●Add a “For example . . . .” ●Share.

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Sample Student Response, Grade 9

The author of the Teen Brain Graphic is claiming that teen brains are very impulsive and that most of the decisions and thoughts teens make are under these main categories. I believe a lot of that is true and that they eventually grow out of it. For example, when a teen gets money the first thing they do is go out and spend it. It's an impulsive decision.

Revise your entry:

citing source, giving example

Day 2

Text 2: Video, A Study of the Teenage Brain

Today we’ll learn how teens use their brains differently than adults by watching this video from TLC's "Understanding.“

[science.howstuffworks.com/life/29323-tlc...the-teenage-brain-video.htm]

First, make this chart in your notebook.

It Says

“A Study of the Teenage Brain” by TLC’s Understanding

I Say

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Video Instructions

●As you watch the video . . .○ Under “It Says”

• Take notes that explain how the teenage brain works

• Write down any words and phrases that stand out.

• Second viewing:• Add any additional notes you missed.• Where do we see illustrating and

authorizing? Or text we could use to illustrate or authorize?Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Share your noteswith your neighbor.

Add any new ideas to your notes.

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Sample Student Response

It says: ●During childhood, the brain makes billions more connections than we can use.

●Well used connections are strengthened, and seldom used ones die off.

●Teen brains work differently than adult brains.

●Teen brains use the amygdala. Adult brains use the frontal cortex instead.

●Frontal cortex is where planning, reason, and moral decisions reside.

I say:

What are some of the key facts that we heard?

●We’ll capture key ideas on a class “It Says” chart.●Then add big ideas that others share to your own chart (Column 1—It Says).

I SAY . . .

●Across from each “It Says” note• Write your reactions, responses,

comments, questions, agreements, or disagreements to the video notes

•See example (next slide)

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Sample Student Response

It says: ●Frontal cortex is where planning, reason, and moral decisions reside.

I say:When does a person switch from using the amygdala to the frontal cortex? This definitely explains the process of maturity, in a more scientific way. How can I keep my connections from dying off? Maybe I need to practice piano more now, and do more math.

I SAY . . .

• Share! • Add new ideas to the “I Say”

column.

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Day 3

Refresh Your Memory

Re-read your writing and “It Says/I Say” notes on teen brains.

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

WRITE! Add to your first entry…

Go back to your writing about the Teen Brain Graphic. What do you think about the teen brain now that you’ve seen the video?

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Add to your journal writing. Use your “It Says / I Say” Chart to add a paragraph or more to your writing about the Teen Brain. Try to use both illustrating and authorizing. Use sentence starters like these:

●“As Dr. Turgulen-Todd says, “●TLC Understanding’s video “A Study of the Teenage Brain” explains …”

●“ According to …”●“Supporting my example, …”●“Just as the TLC video shows …”●“Although the researcher says …”●“While the video explains …”

When you agree

When you disagree

Citing Sources / Introducing Evidence

How Could We Improve this Student Response?

According to the diagram of the teen brain, most of the decisions teens make are impulsive ones. I agree with this, but I don't necessarily think that's because of their age. Although the video says most teens use their amygdala to make decisions while adults use the frontal cortex, I don't agree with this. What about the adults that still haven't matured and act like they are teenagers?

“The Study of the Teenage Brain”

Partner Check

●Did you each use the agree/disagree sentence starters to talk about evidence from the video?

●Switch papers and read what your partner has written. Underline those starters.

●How could you improve your writing? REVISE!

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Day 4

WE’RE GOING TO ADD TO

OUR THINKING & WRITING WITH

MORE INFORMATION ON TEEN BRAINS!

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Highlight new information about the teen brain.

“The Teenage Brain” by Amanda Leigh Mascarelli / October 17, 2012.

Be ready to share ideas you marked.

Later,

this will

help us

quote

the text!

Continue Your Thinking

●Add to your writing using information from the new text.

●Use sentence stems to introduce the information. Focus especially on the expertise of the source (AUTHORIZING).

●Explain what you think about the evidence.

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Sample Sentence Starters

“Michael Frank of Brown University explains …”

“As B.J. Casey, a brain scientist at Cornell University, says,”

“According to “The Teenage Brain” by Amanda Leigh Mascarelli,”….

“Supporting my example, …” “Although the author, Amanda Leigh

Mascarelli, says …”Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

What claims could we make?

●We’ll try a claim starter:

○Because the research on teen brains says _____, we should (or should not) _____.

○Although the research on teen brains says _____, we should (or should not) _____.

●We’ll test our claims and revise, if needed:○ Test to make sure that it is a CLAIM (takes a position).

○ Test to make sure we aren’t just stating a fact or research finding from the article.

○ Test to make sure the claim is debatable, defensible, and compelling.

○ Test to make sure it is narrow, doesn’t use “I think,” doesn’t list all of your evidence.

Are These Good Claims?

Teen brains are impulsive.

Because teen brains are impulsive, we should provide teens with courses on decision-making.No! This

is a fact from the article.

Yes! This USES a fact from the

article to suggest an action.

More Ideas for Teen Brain Claims

○Because the research on teen brains shows teens are impulsive and emotional, we should __________________________.

○Because teen brain research shows it’s hard for teens to resist rewards, we should/shouldn’t_______________________________.

○Because brain research shows that we lose connections that we don’t use, we should/shouldn’t _______________________.

○Because teens’ brains make them rebellious, we should/shouldn’t ________________.

○Although teen brain research shows teens act on instinct instead of logic, we should/shouldn’t ______________.

Sample “Teen Brain” Claims

○Because the research on teen brains shows teens are impulsive and emotional, we should raise the driving age to 18.

○Because teen brain research shows it’s hard for teens to resist rewards, we should use more rewards to change classroom behavior .

○Because brain research shows that we lose connections that we don’t use, schools should provide more opportunities for students to learn foreign language in elementary school.

○Because teens’ brains make them rebellious, teachers should involve teens in making school rules.

○Although teen brain research shows teens act on instinct instead of logic, we need to give them room to make mistakes and learn from them.

Exit Slip—Notecard Claim

● Read over your writing so far and use the note card to write a claim about teenage brains and the choices teens make.

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Be sure your claim meets our “claim test” criteria.

Day 5

Entrance Slip—Notecard Claim

● Read the feedback you received on your Notecard Claim.

●Revise as needed.

Beth Rimer, Ohio Writing Project for NWP CRWP funded by the Department of Education

Be sure your claim meets our “claim test” criteria.

Let’s Get Ready to Write!

●Review your Notes & previous writing on the Teen Brain. Mark evidence that you can use in support of your claim, evidence that will ILLUSTRATE why your claim is a good one.

Graphic & writing response Video & writing response “It Says/I Say” chart Article & writing response Note card Claim and revision

Now we’re ready to complete a guided draft.

The 33-Minute Kernel Essay

Attention grabber and my claim on

the Issue

Here's what I’ve learned

But this fact really

convinces me

I now believe

The 33-Minute Kernel Essay

Attention grabber and my

claim on the Issue

3 minutes

Write an introduction that provides an interesting detail about teen brains to grab the reader’s attention. Then state your claim about “The Teen Brain.”

The 33-Minute Kernel Essay

Here's what I’ve learned

●4 minutesSelect 2-3 pieces of evidence that provide information to support your claim.

●10 minutesState a reason you believe this claim. Insert evidence using sentence starters that cite the source. Explain what you’ve learned about teen brains and why that evidence supports your claim.

The 33-Minute Kernel Essay

But this fact really convinces

me

●3 minutesIdentify 1-2 pieces of evidence that seem most convincing. It could be a fact from research or a quote from an authority.●10 minutesState the reason this seems most important. Introduce the evidence with the sentence starter, “According to…” Explain how this evidence supports your claim.

The 33-Minute Kernel Essay

I now believe

3 minutes

Write a final few sentences as a conclusion, perhaps restating your claim or explaining the impact, if we do as you suggest.

Searching for Ways You Used Sources

●Trade papers with a partner. ●Partners read and code the ways the

writer used sources in the margin ●Search draft for examples of

○ Illustrating= I○ Authorizing= A

REFLECTION

What have we learned about using sources to support a claim?