Technomantra 2nd Edition

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The Second Edition of our College Research Magazine "Techno-Mantra" published by Research and Development Cell, SSIPMT Raipur.

Transcript of Technomantra 2nd Edition

  • 1

  • PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITIONIt gives the author and the editor immensepleasure in presenting the Second edition withall marked improvements over the previousone. Basically the main idea of publishing thismagazine is to create a sense of research andscience in the young technocrats. This is alsokept in mind that the way of lucidness is muchclear in approach. It covers articles-Biomedical, Solar, Embedded and many moreassociated fields. The author would also like tothank the readers(both teachers and students)who sent their valuable suggestions thatbecame the basis for the revision of thismagazine.

    The author would also like to appreciate thesincere efforts and contribution made by hisstudent Praveen G Nair in presentation of thisnew form.

    Lastly, but not the least, the author is thankfulto Rahul Sharma for bringing this magazine intime.

    September,2014 Pradeep Kumar Jaisal

    2

  • Research and

    Development

    Cell.The Research and Development cell

    (SSIPMT) works to implement the

    innovative ideas from the idea pool,

    which are contributed by R & D cell

    members. This cell performs a research

    into challenges present around us in our

    lives to come up with promising

    solutions and to implement them.

    This is the second edition and so We

    expect this magazine would help you in

    view of your technical mission. Any

    mistake in the entire content is deeply

    regreted.We welcome your opinions and

    suggestions regarding the betterment of

    this magazine. You can mail us regarding

    any queries.

    First edition- Jan 2014

    Second Edition-Sep 2014

    Mail to:

    C/O Mr.Pradeep Jaisal,Head coordinator

    Research and Development Cell.

    [email protected]

    [email protected]

    EDITORIAL BOARDMr.Rahul Sharma

    Mr.Rohit Nair

    Ms.Aarchi Agrawal

    Mr.Puru Agrawal

    Ms.Srijani Biswas

    PATRONS

    Shri Nishant Tripathi, Chairman

    SSIPMT,BOG (SGES)

    Dr.M.L Dewangan,Director SSIPMT

    Dr.Alok Jain,Principal SSIPMT

    ADVISORY BOARD

    MEMBERS

    Prof.Pankaj Mishra,HOD,ET Dept.

    Mr.Pradeep Jaisal,Asst.Prof.ET Dept

    Mr.Piyush Mishra,Asst.Prof.ET Dept.

    Mr.Dharmendra Singh,Asst.Prof.ET

    TECHNICAL PANEL

    Mr.Shailesh Prajapati,Technician

    Mr.Vinod Sahu,Technician

    EDITOR

    Mr. Praveen G Nair

    PUBLICITY

    Mr.Hemant Khushwaha

    Md.Anwar khan

    Ms.Ashwani Santawani

    Ms.Nausheen Khan

    Ms.Aishwarya Bondre

    Mr.Vivek Verma

    Mr.Akshyat Tapayksh

    3

  • Message from the Desk

    Research Articles

    Innov-it Now

    Know IT tools

    Puzzle time

    Gallery

    The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your

    sources

    -Albert Einstein

    4

  • ME

    SSA

    GE

    Technology is a revolutionary

    tool,having the power

    to construct and

    destruct.Thus science is

    what a student needs

    for constructing a lifeDr.M.L Dewangan

    Director,SSIPMT

    Shri Nishant Tripathi

    Chairman,SSIPMT

    BOG (SGES)

    A fruit laden tree always bows

    downwards. We

    want the trees,

    nurtured by us, to

    be rich and

    qualitative. Humility

    and empathy need

    to be cultivated.

    And, this is our

    ultimate aim.

    Dr.Alok Jain

    Principal,SSIPMT

    Innovation is what every field

    expect from a

    technocrat,and

    we live in a

    society totally

    dependent on

    science and

    technology

    5

  • Research

    Articles

    6

  • EOG is a recording technique that allows the standing potential

    between the cornea and the posterior pole of the eye to be recorded.

    The whole process of measurement of EOG is known as

    Electrooculography. This gives a review on Electrooculography and

    its use in various HCI systems. Detection of eye blinks from EOG

    signal has also been included in this review work Using electro-

    oculography (EOG), two types of eye-gaze interfaces have been

    developed; "EOG Pointer" and "EOG Switch". The former enables a

    user to move a computer cursor or to control a machine using only

    eye-gaze, regardless of drifting signal and blinking artifacts. In

    contrast, the latter output an ON/OFF signal only. Although it has the

    least simple function, it enables every user easily to turn ON/OFF a

    nurse-call device or to send one bit signal to a personal computer

    with high stability and reliability.

    The EOG Pointer consists of three modules; an EOG recording unit,

    a signal processor and a display unit . Disposable solid-gel electrodes

    connected to pinch-clip leads were attached to the right and left

    temples of a subject and to the forehead as a reference . Set a

    biopotential amplifier as DC mode, the EOG was amplified, and

    sampled to a computer through 12-bits analog I/O board with 200 Hz

    sampling frequency. Using EOG data that was collected by the EOG

    recording unit, the signal processor computes the direction of the

    user's eye gaze after the certain calibration mentioned shortly. A

    pointer on a computer monitor was then displayed to show the user's

    eye-gazing point in real time. At this moment, the individual's head

    was fixed into a chin-rest stabilizing apparatus because head

    movement leads to recording artifact. However, we have

    incorporated a head motion capturing system into the EOG Pointer,

    and it has become successful to allow for greater freedom of

    movement for the subject . 7

  • The above trials demonstrated how the EOG Pointer was useful as aneye-gaze interface if drifting signal and blinking artifacts wereproperly handled. The clinical trials of the EOG Pointer, however,reached the different conclusion. Subjects in the clinical trial, whosuffered from ASL or muscular dystrophy, were not so interested incursor control. Although the EOG Pointer has higher reliability, manyof subjects needed something more reliable and simple. Probably thisis the case of Less is More slogan . According to this slogan, everysingle element in a user interface places some additional burden onthe user in terms of having to consider whether to use that element.Having fewer options will often mean better usability because theusers can concentrate on understanding those fewer options. TheEOG Pointer is relatively simple and reliable comparing to other eye-gaze interfaces, it is still redundant for patients in a real world.Therefore, my research group switched our design concept to developthe simple version of the EOG Pointer, called EOG Switch.

    Reviewed by:

    Neha Chhabda

    IT Batch 2011

    Member R&d Cell

    SSIPMT,Raipur.D

    Do you know- Flame, a malware

    that attacks computers using

    Microsoft Windows, is discovered.

    Flame also has a kill command,

    wiping out all traces of it from the

    computer.

    8

  • 7 hidden features

    1).Your Omni box is a Calculator

    Omni box in Google Chrome

    As you may or may not know, Google will calculate basic math in thesearch bar. However, did you know that you can access a similar mathfunction in your omnibox without ever going to Google.com? Just type ina basic math problem and the correct answer will appear in thesuggestions below the omnibox without pressing enter (as you have todo on Google.com).

    2).Your Omni box Is a Unit Converter

    9

  • Your omnibox can also perform Google-like unit conversions without going toGoogle. As with the calculator, the correct answer will appear in the suggestionsbelow without ever hitting enter. As you type, Chrome will automaticallyconvert your number into a unit that you may or may not want. So, if you type"9 inches," Chrome may automatically suggest conversion rate to centimeters.

    3) A Simple Image Browser

    Have you ever been organizing your computer and come across some jpeg andyou have no idea what it is or how it got on your computer? Well if you justwant to see what it is real quick, you can just drag it directly into your Chromebrowser window and take a quick gander.

    4) Drag to search

    Why CROME?

    In design terminology, chrome refers to the non-webpage parts of the browser's interface

    the toolbars, tabs and buttons. This is part of the reason Chrome was chosen as the

    browser name.

    10

  • Highlighting a word and performing a drag and drop is fundamentally the same asperforming a cut and paste, so it stands to reason that you could just highlight aword or phrase and drag it into the omnibox to perform a Web search.

    5) Navigate Up and Down Using Key Commands

    You can use the spacebar to scroll down on any webpage, and you can scroll back up by pressing Shift and the spacebar.

    6) Open Accidentally Closed Tabs

    Have you ever mistakenly closed a tab? We all have. BUT thankfully Chrome is aforgiving browser and makes it possible to get it all back. All you have to do is pressControl-Shift-T (Command-Shift-T on a Mac) and Chrome will reopen any recentlyclosed tabs.

    7)A Lot of Information Hidden in That Omnibox

    You may have also noticed on the far left of your omnibar a little icon thatresembles a folded piece of paper or lock (to signify a secured site). If you click onit, it will prompt a window with all sorts of information about the site as well aspermissions particular to that site, which you can then manipulate.

    Reviewed by:

    Shubhankar MukherjeeCSE Batch -2011

    SSIPMT,Raipur

    11

  • Carbon Nanotubes-

    A Wonder Technology

    Overview:

    In todays world of practical applications we are familiar with the fact that carbon nanotubes

    (CNTs) have the potential to be a wonder technology.

    They take the form of cylindrical carbon molecules and have novel properties that make

    them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications in nanotechnology, electronics,

    optics and other fields of materials science. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique

    electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat.

    Basically there are two distinct kinds of nanotubes :

    Single wall (SWNT)Multi wall (MWNT)

    A CNT is a seamless cylinder of either one or many layers of graphene, or in simple words

    they are a nano structure just like a drinking straw. Hence are the term single or multi wall.

    Typically, MWNTs are being used in practical applications. SWNTs are mostly are much

    more expensive, although they hold out huge potential for the future. MWNTs has proved

    out to be a huge success because of its worldwide commercial production capacity

    presently exceeds several thousand tons per year. According to the data provided by

    Cambridge Universitys institute of manufacturing. What makes CNTs distinctive in its

    properties are its features as they are ideal for supporting different kinds of structures for

    example, in sports equipments, in rockets, airplanes, heavy vehicles, body armour and

    building materials, where they are being widely used. The nanotubes create networks within

    a composite material to bear the load of the weight and strain placed upon it. CNTs are

    quiet well established in their addition to polymer composites to enhance stiffness and

    improve damping.

    12

  • With enhancement in technology we are moving towards an era of flexible electronics

    where CNTs has infinite potential to bring revolution. They are also used in the field of

    medical science and bionics.Coming towards the single walled nanotubes (SWNTs).These

    are quite different in properties as compared to the MWNTs. The use of SWNTs is less but

    surprisingly progress is now happening with SWNTs, with UK company Thomas Swan

    being a world leader in making SWNTs with its Elicarb material, now being used in areas

    like advanced composites, electronic devices. Moving forward we find that these tubes are

    replacing the traditional silicon computers. One of the interesting things happening is the

    improvement in computer simulations of how CNTs are synthesized, which will hopefully

    enable us to tweak the fabrication process.Because the nanotubes are long and thin, they

    have high Vander Walls forces between them and stick together. These can be separated

    using ultrasound waves. But this may damagethem. But overall there are immense use of

    CNTs. There properties include a thermal conductivity higher than diamond, a much more

    greater mechanical strength than steel orders of magnitude by weight and better electrical

    conductivity than copper.There is immense to talk about this wonderful technology. And, in

    a few years time, billions of carbon nanotubes may be on our desks and in our pockets.

    Lighter-Body-Armor-for-

    Soldiers-Made-of-Carbon-

    Nanotubes.

    Reviewed by;

    Khyati GhaiET Batch 2012

    SSIPMT,Raipur13

  • Voice Activated Mobile

    CalculatorABSTRACT:

    The technology that is available in this present era in a mobile calculator is

    of the form of typing each and every digit to obtain result. This method of

    typing may cause human errors and this may lead to time consumption. In

    this paper we address several issues that are imperative to mobile

    calculation. We address these issues by embedding the upcoming

    technology. This facilitates a new form of human -mobile interaction. We

    embedded a voice recognition system in the mobile phone which will

    recognize the human commands for operations and performs calculation.

    This capability leads to a new form of synergy between human and mobile.

    Reviewed by

    Srijani Biswas

    IT Batch 2011

    Research & Development Cell,SSIPMT

    14

  • Voice recognition systemA microphone for receiving audible

    inputs consisting of numbers and

    operative words and converting said

    audible inputs to electric signals. A

    speech analyzer is coupled to

    microphone for converting electrical

    signals from microphone into digital

    words. An electronic memory

    representing the numbers and operative

    words. An electronic comparator is

    coupled to speech analyzer for

    receiving digital words and for

    comparing digital words to digitized

    words stored in electronic memory

    comparator. Processing means

    controlling the comparison of each

    digital words to digitized words such

    that comparator produces a digital

    number corresponding to an address

    location in electronic memory for a

    digitized word that matches a digital

    word generated by speech analyzer.

    Execution means for executing said

    audible inputs and displaying the result

    on display screen.The microphone

    reacts to the words uttered by the

    persons which are in the form of

    analog signal. The microphone

    converts the analog signal into the

    electrical signal. The voice

    recognition system connected to the

    microphone is constructed in such a

    way that the signal produced by the

    microphone representing certain

    operation command(such as one,

    two, add, multiply, etc) is

    converted into digital pulses. The voice

    recognition system response to

    selective words only. The comparator

    is connected with the memory by

    means of bus. In the memory

    location a group of digital words are

    stored, with each group

    corresponding with a word,

    registered by a program and present

    in a digital shape, word representing

    one of operation command

    mentioned. The comparator is used

    to compare the output of the voice

    recognition system which are in the

    digital shape and the words stored in

    the memory location which is also in

    the form of digital form. If they

    match that word is taken by the

    processor as a input and perform

    calculations according to the input

    given and produces the result which

    will display on the screen.

    By this means, the time consumption

    for pressing the numbers will be

    reduced. The manual process also

    decreases and thus it decreases the

    human strain.

    15

  • Thermoelectric Generators Turning Waste Heat into Usable Electrical Energy

    In the present global

    situation,energy conservation is of

    utmost importance. Keeping

    Newtons Third law in mind i.e

    Energy can neither be created nor

    destroyed;it can only be

    transformed from one form to

    another,One option that

    prominently comes into picture

    now a days is Waste Heat to

    Power.Waste heat from power

    generation plants is being used for

    further power generation for quite

    some time now,but there are some

    additional materials which generate

    power due to some material

    phenomenon,These materials are

    called Thermoelectric Materials

    and the phenomenon on which

    these materials work is Seebeck

    Effect.

    Seebeck Effect/Thermoelectric

    Effect

    In 1821,Thomas John Seebeck, a

    German physicist,discovered that a

    thermal gradient formed between

    two dissimilar conductors

    produces a voltage.The

    temperature difference between

    two conducting materials results in

    heat flow; this results in diffusion

    of charge carriers.The flow of

    charge carriers between hot and

    cold junction in turn generates a

    voltage which can be stored in a

    battery.The thermoelectric

    materials form Thermoelectric

    generators, or TEGs

    16

  • How do TEGs Actually work?

    TEGs depend upon a temperature

    difference to generate power.One side

    of TEG needs to be hot and the other

    to be cold.This temperature difference

    makes the electrons on the hot side

    vibrate more vigorously so they tend

    to move towards the colder side

    where the electrons are moving more

    slowly.This gives rise to a current that

    can be tapped off as electricity.TEGs

    produce a current proportional to

    temperature difference provided.

    The basic arrangement for a

    TEG (Basically a Seebeck

    effect demonstration)

    Reviewed by:

    Praveen G Nair

    ET&T Batch 2011

    Member IEEE

    Research & Development Cell,SSIPMT

    Domestic Application

    17

  • NO

    w

    INN V- It

    18

  • Abstract:A growing need of modern energy is

    alternarive fossil fuel or souce of

    energy.A bio battery is an energy

    storing device that is powered by

    organic compounds.Bio battery

    generates electricity from renewable

    fuels (glucose,Sucrose,fructose etc)

    providing a sustained,on-demand

    portable power source.When

    enzymes in our body break down

    glucose,several elctrons and protons

    are released.Therefore,by using

    enzymes to break down glucose,bio

    batteries directly receive energy

    from glucose.These batteries then

    store this energy for later use.

    This concept is almost identical to

    how both plants and many animals

    obtain energy.

    Construction:To make this, an anode which is a

    plastic coated copper wire attached

    to a strip of carbon felt.The wire/felt

    junction is then liberally covered in

    epoxy to minimize contzct between

    metal and the electrolyte.Finally,a

    layer of polyurethane is coated on

    the conducting paint layer and

    allowed to air-dry for 24 hrs,forming

    a water proof membrane on the

    cathode.This external,electrically

    conductive layer serves as an air

    cathode.A 22 guage titanium wire is

    tightly wrapped around each pot to

    connect the cathode to an external

    circuit.

    Bio-Battery

    19

  • Operation:The anodes of the bio batteries are

    inoculated with electrically active

    bacteria(EAB) present in an

    electrolyte solution taken from an

    existing microbial fuel cell which

    itself had been enriched for

    electrically acive bacteria present

    within the top 20cm layer of

    sediment.Anode and cathode

    potential of theterracotta bio battery

    at different currents are obtained by

    also varying the resistance across the

    battery.

    Applications:Bio batteries are environmentally

    friendly as they dont use harmful

    chemicals or metals.Scientists seem

    to be exploroing every possible

    option in bio-battery and fuel cell

    technology.Portable charging(Cell

    phone and solider powder),Medical

    implant(Insulin,pace maker),Toys

    and greeting cards,Disaster

    relief(Generators and remote

    powder) are some of the

    applications.

    Reviewed By:

    Rohit Nair

    IEEE Student Coordinator

    ET&T Batch 2011

    Reserch and Development Cell

    20

  • Do it Your Self:

    Stirling EngineRecently Stirling engines are

    talked about widely to convert

    low grade heat to rotary motion

    and finally in to electricity.It can

    work on even temperature

    difference of human body and

    atmosphere.With this you can

    imagine what would be the

    potential of such instruments.All

    we need to make it at home is

    scrap and some basic tools.

    1)Take two coke cans and cut

    itfrom bottom and also cut the

    inner lid of top portion.Make it

    burr free.

    2)The Diaphragm is made up of

    balloon with cut neck.Spread the

    balloon around the top cut

    section of the coke tin.Put a

    square inch rubber piece and glue

    it on the balloon.

    Pierce a hole at the centre for a

    displacer(piston) wire.put the pin

    till the wireis placed in the hole to

    make it apparently air tight.

    3)Take a piece of bottle cap and

    drill a hole exactly opposite on

    the collar and cut the piece in

    curved shape.

    4)Now take the balloon wrapped

    tin and reverse the diagraphragm

    on the inner ring so that the pins

    points outside the tin and the

    rubber piece glued initially goes

    inside.Now apply glue on the

    periphery of the tin to fix the

    balloon.

    21

  • 5)Now take asimilar cane and drill

    hole at the upper side of the can

    and cutawindow for inside view of

    appropriate size.

    6) Now take two electrical

    connectors and a stiff copper

    wire.And make a arrangement as

    shown in the crank picture.

    7) Now take two spoke bearing

    which you can get in bike shop

    and try to put the wire used for

    crank arrangement inside the

    holes.If doesnt fit then drill the

    hole of fitting size.Now make a

    displacer with wire mesh wrap by

    putting a wire string at the centre

    of the hole.Put this displacer

    arrangement in side the bottom

    cut in.Now take the cut bottom

    cut portion of the tin and put it

    inverted in the tin where the

    displacer arrangement is put

    up.Make sure the balloon is on

    the opposite side of this newly

    added portion.

    8) Now make a push rod which

    connects balloon diaphragm to

    the crank.The push rod can be

    made as shown in push rod figure

    9) Now its time to make a

    flywheel.usually CD can be useful

    for such application.You can take a

    wooden brush fitted into the CD

    hole centred at the crank middle

    wirecomming out of the tin.(refer

    point 8).

    22

  • 10)Now take the last can which will be a bit bigger than coke tin and

    cut it in two half with small drills on the bottom.Fix the previous

    assembly into the newly cut can.This can acts as the heat distributer

    for the arrangement.Now your Engine is ready.

    Basic Concept:

    It is based on the stirling engine which has the closest efficiency to

    carnot as claimed.

    Applications:

    Numerous applications mainly related to the low grade heat

    utlilization,like mentioned earlier even tempereature difference of

    human palm and atmosphere can run the engine.Major applications

    are direct utilization in many non conventional systems like thermal

    gasifiers,Solar heating equipments,waste heat in many power plants

    can be easily trapped for the power generation again.

    23

  • Energy AuditWhat and how?

    Energy audit is the initial activity towards instituting

    a comprehensive energy management program in an

    enterprise or establishment or a facility-be it

    industry,office,a building or home. Energy Audit can

    be termed as a formal,in-depth review of a facility

    undertaken as a professional study by competent

    specialists in the field of energy, to develop and

    evaluate ideas for improving energy

    efficiency.Energy audit should be done by non-

    experts,in a casual way with inaccurate data

    collection,incomplete analysis and vague

    recommendations.

    -Mr.Pradeep Jaisal

    Asst.Professor ET Dept.

    Research and Development Head

    SSIPMT.

    24

  • Know tools Apache Hadoop is an open-source software framework for

    storage and large-scale processing of data-sets on clusters ofcommodity hardware. Hadoop is an Apache top-levelproject being built and used by a global community ofcontributors and users.It is licensed under the ApacheLicense 2.0.

    The Apache Hadoop framework is composed of the followingmodules:

    Hadoop Common contains libraries and utilities needed by otherHadoop modules.

    Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) a distributed file-systemthat stores data on commodity machines, providing very highaggregate bandwidth across the cluster.

    Hadoop YARN a resource-management platform responsible formanaging compute resources in clusters and using them forscheduling of users' applications.

    Hadoop MapReduce a programming model for large scale dataprocessing.

    All the modules in Hadoop are designed with a fundamentalassumption that hardware failures (of individual machines, orracks of machines) are common and thus should be automaticallyhandled in software by the framework. Apache Hadoop'sMapReduce and HDFS components originally derived respectivelyfrom Google's MapReduce and Google File System (GFS) papers.

    YARN stands for "Yet Another Resource Negotiator" and wasadded later as part of Hadoop 2.0. YARN takes the resourcemanagement capabilities that were in MapReduce and packagesthem so they can be used by new engines. This also streamlinesMapReduce to do what it does best, process data. With YARN,you can now run multiple applications in Hadoop, all sharing acommon resource management.

    25

  • SAP HANA, shortly"High-Performance Analytic Appliance"

    is an in-memory, column-oriented, relational database

    management system developed and marketed by SAP SE. It is

    massively parallel, thus exploiting the maximum out of

    multicore processors and subsequently enabling very fast

    query execution. In 2008, teams from SAP SE working

    with Hasso Plattner Institute and Stanford

    University demonstrated an application architecture for real-

    time analytics and aggregation, mentioned as "Hasso's New

    Architecture" in SAP executive Vishal Sikka's blog. Before the

    name HANA settled in, people referred to this product as

    New Database. In January 2013, SAP enterprise resource

    planning software from its Business Suite was announced for

    HANA, and became available by May.In May 2013, a software

    as a service offering called the HANA Enterprise Cloud

    service was announced.

    SAP HANA converges database and application platform

    capabilities in-memory to transform transactions, analytics,

    text analysis, predictive and spatial processing so businesses

    can operate in real-time.

    The SAP HANA database configuration enables answering

    queries in seconds and can even execute parallel searches

    simultaneously, thus this technology has now become a

    breakthrough.

    The developers of HANA were SAP SE (Systems

    Applications Products in Data Processing) which is a

    European multinational software corporation that

    makes enterprise software to manage business operations and

    customer relations. Headquartered in Walldorf, Baden-

    Wrttemberg, Germany, with regional offices around the

    world.

    HANA declared the stable release on May 31,2014.

    Visit www.saphana.com for more reference26

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    IEEE Student Branch

    Inauguration and Launch of

    TECHNOMANTRA.

    HALL Of FAME

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    GALLERY

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    Aarohan Tech Fest 2014

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