Teaching Young Children

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Teaching Young Children OBJECTIVE 3.02 Understand selection and use of teaching methods.

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Teaching Young Children. OBJECTIVE 3.02 Understand selection and use of teaching methods. Teaching Young Children Part 1: Selecting Teaching Methods. Ways Children Learn The Role of Play Materials. Selecting Teaching Methods. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Teaching Young Children

Page 1: Teaching Young Children

Teaching Young

Children

OBJECTIVE 3.02Understand selection and use of teaching methods.

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Teaching Young Children

Part 1: Selecting Teaching Methods

Ways Children LearnThe Role of Play Materials

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Selecting Teaching Methods

• In order to select appropriate teaching methods, you need to know about– The ways children learn– The role of play materials– Factors to consider when selecting toys and

play materials

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How do children learn?

• From the environment

• From a teacher

• From their experiences

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Learning from the environment

• Using manipulative objects

• Interactive environment with opportunities to explore and experiment

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Learning from a teacher

• Provides positive reinforcement

• Is a good role model for children to imitate

When a person shows someone else how to do something, this is called

modeling.

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Learning from experiences

• Sensory elements

• Trial and error• Learn from

mistakes• Address all

areas of development

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The Role of Play Materials

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Play is the

business

of children.

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Play = Learning

Play “plays” a very important role in learning.

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2 Types of Play Materials

1. Open-ended --- can be used in a variety of ways, with no one correct way to play with them

2. Closed-ended --- structured materials meant to be used in one way, with one intended outcome

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Can you think of examples of each?

• Open-ended

Both types offer benefits for children.

• Closed-ended

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Benefits of Open-ended Materials for Children

1. Develop independence

2. Learn to make decisions

3. Learn to solve problems

4. Use their imagination

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Benefits of Closed-ended Materials for Children

1. Learn to follow directions

2. Develop sensory perception

3. Help develop motor skills

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Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials

• Safety– Rounded,

smooth edges

– Nontoxic

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Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials

• Durability• Easy to clean• Appropriate for

different ages• Encourages

cooperative play, not aggressive play

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Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials

• Number of children who can use at one time

• Storage space available

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Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials

• Multi-purpose• Encourages

active involvement, not passive observation

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Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials

• Teaches basic concepts

• Allows for sensory learning

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Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials

• Enjoyed by both boys and girls

• Fun to play with

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Teaching Young Children

Part 2: Using Teaching Methods

Planning

Lessons

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Using Teaching Methods

• In order to use teaching methods effectively, you need to know about– Planning lessons– Teaching styles– Teaching techniques

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Lesson Plan• A detailed written

explanation of a learning activity

Like an architect prepares a blueprint so that the builder will know

every detail about how the building should be built, and to

guarantee that the building is physically sound and aesthetically

pleasing; similarly, a teacher prepares a lesson plan with every

detail about how the lesson is to be taught, which better ensures

that the lesson will be effective and that children will participate

and learn. The only difference is that . . .

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The only difference is that the teacher is both the architect and the builder.

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Purposes of Lesson Plans

• Serves as an organizational tool• Forces teachers to think ahead• Enables teachers to think through

what they want to do• Provides time to gather needed

materials• Can be saved for future reference

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Results of Teaching without Lesson Plans???

• Lessons flounder and fail

• Time wasted• Children bored• Materials not ready• Things left out

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Components of Lesson Plans

• Target age group• Topic or theme• Purpose • Concepts to be learned• Skills to be developed• Materials needed• Procedures• Questions• Follow-up activities• Evaluation

Let’s look at each of these

more closely. . .

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Target Age Group

• Age or level of development of children

Example: Three-year-olds

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Purpose of Lesson

• Stated as objectives

• Things to aim for and reach

• Targets

Example: The learners will be able to

(TLWBAT) recognize basic shapes.

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What could be an objective for this learning activity?

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Concepts to Be LearnedSkills to Be Developed• List exactly the

concepts and skills that will be learned/developed.

Concept: Objects can be counted one at a time.

Skill: Counting from 1 to 10

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Concepts to Be LearnedSkills to Be Developed

• List exactly the concepts and skills that will be learned/developed.

What concepts and skills can be developed from playing dress-up?

Concept? Skill?

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Materials Needed

• List all materials needed

• State quantities

• This serves as the teacher’s checklist for getting prepared.

(Example)

Materials Needed6 sets crayons1 4-in. paper square per child6 bottles white glueYarn, assorted lengths, colors

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Procedures

• Outline steps for leading the activity

• Put them in correct sequence

• Be thorough

(Example)Procedures:1. Have children sit in a circle.2. Introduction: Ask children to close

their eyes and picture their most favorite food.

3. Tell children that they are going to learn about foods that make their bodies strong and healthy.

4. Read the first page of the book . . .

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Lessons usually include these lesson functions:

• Focus and review - an introduction to capture attention, focus on the topic, review

• Statement of objective – to state what children will learn

• Teacher input – to introduce new information• Student guided practice – to give children a chance to

use the new information• Independent practice –to see how well children can do

things on their own• Closure - to summarize, bring the activity to an end

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Questions

• To focus thinking and guide learning

Example: “What happens if we push just one button

at a time?”

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Follow-up Activities

• To reinforce what was learned

• To provide additional help for children who need it

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Evaluation

• To assess the effectiveness of the lesson– Number of children who

were successful– Adaptations needed for

different ability levels– Ways to improve– Would you use again?

Example: “Next time I will remember to work with a smaller number of

children at a time . . .”

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Transitions

• Short activities that guide children smoothly from one activity to another

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Transition signals may be

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Transition Methods

• Move a few children at a time while others do another activity

• Sort children by colors of clothing worn (or other categories); move by groups

• Have children move as though they were specific animals

“Move to Circle Time like an

elephant walking through the jungle.

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Transition Methods

• To start an activity, use a prop or something special to capture interest

• For clean-up transition, use a job board or a job jar

• Use choice time to let children decide the activity they wish to do next

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Teaching Young Children

Part 3: Using Teaching Methods

Teaching StylesTeaching Techniques

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TeachingStyles

• The ways in which teachers conduct their classes

Think about the ways in which some of YOUR teachers

conduct their classes . . .

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Teaching style includes

• The teacher’s expectations about behavior• The degree of structure in lessons• The degree of spontaneity in lessons

What’s spontaneity

?

You know, spontaneous! Spontaneity is when the

teacher follows her impulses, lets things happen naturally.

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Factors Affecting Teaching Styles• The teacher’s

personality• The teacher’s own

learning style• The teacher’s beliefs

about teaching and learning

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Ways Children Respond to Teaching Styles

• One style is not necessarily better

• Children benefit from many different styles

• Sensitive teachers are aware of their own teaching styles

• Effective teachers know how to adapt their styles as needed

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Teaching Techniques

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Teaching Technique #1:

Arrange the environment

• Provide adequate space

• Organize space so activity can be done safely and easily

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Teaching Technique #2:

Set the stage

• Use an opener to catch their attention

• Let children know what to expect• Help children get into the right

frame of mind• Use a focus object – an item related

to the activity that helps introduce it

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Teaching Technique #3:

Handle play activities

• Serve as the facilitator, not the controller

• Help children get the most out of play

• Recognize teachable moments --- unplanned times when children are ready to learn

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Teaching Technique #4:

Group children appropriately

• Factors to consider– Number of children– Age range– Ability levels

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Methods of Grouping

• Chronological grouping – same age together• Developmental grouping – same ability levels

together• Family grouping – same age range together• Random grouping – grouping with no pattern

in mind; each child has an equal chance to be in any group

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Advantages/Disadvantages of Grouping by Age or Ability

• Advantage: Easier to plan lessons

• Disadvantage: Children miss the opportunity to relate to children of other ages/abilities

• Can you think of other advantages or disadvantages?

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Advantages/Disadvantages of Family Grouping

• Advantage: Individual children have a greater chance of learning

• Advantage: Children have more opportunity to learn to relate with children of other ages

• Disadvantage: The range of developmental needs is challenging for teachers

• Can you think of other advantages or disadvantages?

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Conditions under which smaller groups are needed:

1. When much personal attention is required

2. When learning new skills

3. When the activity is complex

4. With younger children

5. When children are prone to misbehave

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Teaching Technique #5:

Use concrete objects

• Children understand best when they can see and touch

• Descriptive words sometimes have little meaning for young children

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Teaching Technique #6:

Use open-ended questions

• Require more than a “yes” or “no” answer

• There is no right or wrong response

• Encourage children to express themselves

• Stimulate creativity and language development

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Teaching Technique #7:

Use other techniques effectively.

• Visuals can reinforce learning

• Props can capture attention and add variety

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That’s all for now!