Teaching Speaking & Listening
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- 1.Teaching Speaking & Listeningthrough Communicative ActivitiesErin Lowry Senior English Language Fellow Workshop for Manizales Bilinge February 17, 2009
2. The Challenge To integrate skills To provide opportunities for authentic communication contexts To give a reason for communication (information gaps) To assess these skills in an objective manner 3. TEACHING LISTENING 4. What Makes Listening Difficult? Clustering Repetition Reduced forms Performance variables Colloquial language How fast someone speaks Stress, rhythm, and intonation Interaction 5. Principles for Teaching Listening1. Expose students to different ways of processing information Bottom-up vs. Top-down Interactive2. Expose students to different types of listening3. Teach a variety of tasks4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticityHelgeson, 2003 6. Types of Classroom Listening Reactive Intensive Responsive Selective Extensive InteractiveBrown, 2001 7. Principles for Designing Listening Techniques Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating Use authentic language and contexts Carefully consider the form of listeners responses Encourage the development of listening strategies Include bottom-up and top-down listening techniquesBrown, 2001 8. Successful Listening Activities Purpose for Listening A form of response(doing, choosing, answering, transferring, condensing, duplicating, extending, conversing) Repetition depends on objectives and students level A motivating listening text is authentic and relates to students interests and needs Have the skills integrated Stages: Pre-task , While-task, Post-task 9. Activities for Beginners Top-down Activities identifying emotions, understanding meaning of sentences, recognizing the topic 10. Activities for Beginners Bottom-up Activities discriminating between intonation contours, phonemes, or selective listening for different morphological endings, word or sentence recognition, listening for word order 11. Activities for Beginners Interactive Activities listening to a word and brainstorming related words, listening to a list and categorizing the words, following directions 12. Listening Strategies Teach student how to listen Looking for keywords Looking for nonverbal cues to meaning Predicting a speakers purpose by the context of the spoken discourse Associating information with ones existing background knowledge (activating schema) Guessing meanings Seeking clarification Listening for the general gist For tests of listening comprehension, various test- taking strategies 13. Easy-to-plan Pre-ListeningActivities Brainstorming Think-Pair-Share Word Webbing/Mind Mapping Team Interview 14. Easy-to-Plan Listening Tasks Agree or disagree (with explanation) Create Venn diagrams List characteristics, qualities, or features Strip story (sequencing game) Match speech to visuals Compare and contrast to another speech or text Give advice 15. More Listening Tasks Compare and contrast to your own experience Create your own version of the missing section Plan a solution to the problem Share reactions Create a visual Reenact your own version 16. Activities in a Listening Lesson Introductory Intro to topic of the listening text and activities that focus on the language that will be used Main Comprehension activities developing different listening subskills Post Learners talk about how a topic in the listening text relates to their own lives or give opinions 17. Easy to Plan Post-listeningAssessments Guess the meaning of unknown vocabulary Analyze the speakers intentions List the number of people involved and their function in the script Analyze the success of communication in the script Brainstorm alternative ways of expression 18. TEACHING SPEAKING 19. Distinctive Feature PHONOLOGYPhoneme SyllableMorpheme MORPHOLOGY Word STRESS Phrase SYNTAX RHYTHMINTONATION ClauseDISCOURSE Utterance Text 20. What Makes Speaking Difficult? Clustering Redundancy Reduced forms Performance variables Colloquial language Rate of delivery Stress, rhythm & intonation Interaction 21. Tips for Teaching Speaking Use a range of techniques Capitalize on intrinsic motivation Use authentic language in meaningful contexts Give feedback and be careful with corrections Teach it in conjunction with listening Allow students to initiate communication Encourage speaking strategies 22. Fluency vs. Accuracy Speaking at normal Speaking using correct speed, withoutforms of grammar, hesitation, repetition, vocabulary, and or self-correction, and pronunciation with the smooth use of connected speech 23. Principles of Teaching Speaking Beginners Provide something for the learners to talk about Create opportunities for students to interact by using groupwork or pairwork Manipulate physical arrangements to promote speaking practiceBailey, 2005 24. Principles of Teaching Speaking Intermediate Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning Design both transactional and interpersonal speaking activities Personalize the speaking activities whenever possibleBailey, 2005 25. Tasks & Materials 1. Conversations, guided conversations &interviews 2. Information gap & jigsaw activities 3. Scripted dialogues, drama, & role-play 4. Logic puzzles 5. Picture-based activities 6. Physical actions in speaking lessons 7. Extemporaneous speaking 26. Communicative Tasks Motivation is to achieve some outcome using the language Activity takes place in real time Achieving the outcome requires participants to interact No restriction on language used 27. Example Communicative Tasks Information gaps Jigsaw activities Info gap race (p. 83) Surveys Guessing games 28. Questions? Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://colombotech.pbwiki.com 29. References Bailey, K.M. (2005). Practical English Language Teaching: Speaking. New York: McGraw-Hill. Bishop, G. (2006). AP State English Lecturers Retraining Program Teachers Handboook. Senior ELF Seminar Series given in Hyderabad, India. Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Longman. Helgesen, M. (2003). Listening. In D. Nunan (Ed.). Practical English Language Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill. Liao, X.A. (2001). Information Gap in Communicative Classrooms. EL Forum, 39 (4). Retrieved from http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol39/no4/p38.htm. Lynch, T. (2003). Communication in the language classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Richards, J.C. & Renandya, W.A. (eds.) (2002). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Slagoski, J.D. (2006). Teaching Listening Skills. Senior ELF Seminar given in Samara, Russia. Retrieved from http://slagoski.googlepages.com/downloadpresentations.