Teaching Listening & Speaking Prepared by Dr Sabariah Md Rashid
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- Slide 1
- Teaching Listening & Speaking Prepared by Dr Sabariah Md Rashid
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- Is listening a component of speaking?
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- Key Questions about Listening What are listeners doing when they listen? What factors affect good listening? What are characteristics of real life listening? What are the many things listeners listen for? What are some principles for designing listening techniques? How can listening techniques be interactive? What are some common techniques for teaching listening?
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- What makes listening difficult? Clustering Redundancy Reduced forms Performance variables Colloquial language Rate of delivery Stress, rhythm, and intonation Interaction
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- What types of listening skills are developed? Microskills - attending to smaller bits of language; involving bottom-up approach to listening comprehension - is achieved by dividing and decoding the sound signal bit by bit.; the ability to separate the stream of speech into individual words
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- What types of listening skills are developed? (contd) Macroskills - focusing on larger elements; involving top- down approach to listening (listening for general idea; use of background knowledge)
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- What kinds of listening skills are taught? Reactive (listen and repeat) Intensive (listen on a focused sound) Responsive (listen and respond briefly) Selective (listen for particular items in a longer passage) Extensive (listen for interactive/responsive purposes) Interactive (listen to discuss, respond, debate)
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- Principles for teaching listening Integrate listening into the course Appeal to students personal goals Use authentic language and contexts Consider how students will respond Teach listening strategies Include both bottom-up & top-down listening
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- Common listening strategies Looking for key words Looking for nonverbal cues to meaning Predicting a speakers purpose by the context Activating background knowledge Guessing at meanings Seeking clarification Listening for the gist Developing test-taking strategies for listening
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- Activity (Take a break!) With a partner/group, consider some listening strategies. Briefly plan how you might teach these strategies to students. Report back to the whole group on at least two of the activities.
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- Current issues in teaching oral skills Conversational discourse Teaching pronunciation Accuracy and fluency Affective factors Interaction effect Questions about intelligibility Questions about what is correct speech
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- What makes speaking difficult? The same things that make listening difficult: Clustering Redundancy Reduced forms Performance variables Colloquial language Rate of delivery Stress, rhythm, and intonation Interaction
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- Types of classroom performance Imitative (this should be limited)repetition drill Intensive practise a grammatical/ phonological feature Responsive to respond to a question Transactional (dialogue) to convey information Interpersonal (dialogue) to interact socially Extensive monologue (intermediate/advanced)
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- Do drills have a place? Yes, BUT.
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- Guidelines for Drills Keep them short Keep them simple Keep them snappy Ensure that students know WHY they are doing the drill Limit the drill to phonological/grammatical points Ensure that they lead to a communicative goal DONT OVERUSE THEM (Excessive use becomes poisonous)
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- Principles for Teaching Speaking Focus on fluency and accuracy (depending on objective) Use intrinsically motivating techniques Use authentic language in meaningful contexts Provide appropriate feedback and correction Optimize the natural link between listening and speaking (and other skills) Give students the opportunity to initiate oral communication. Develop speaking strategies.
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- Sample activities for teaching conversation Interviews Guessing games Jigsaw tasks Ranking exercises Discussions Values clarification Problem-solving activities Role plays Simulations
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- Should we teach pronunciation? According to Wong (1987), sounds are less crucial for understanding than the way they are organized (as cited in Brown, 2008, p. 339). Native speakers rely more on stress and intonation than accurate articulation of a particular sound.
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- Factors that affect pronunciation Native language Age Exposure Innate phonetic ability Identity and language ego Motivation/concern for good pronunciation
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- When and how should I correct errors? Global errors - affect meaning; hinder communication - prevent listeners to comprehend some/all aspects of the conveyed message Local errors - do not prevent message from being understood - minor violation of a segment of a sentence Performance slip or competence error - e.g. slip of the tongue, spoonerisms
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- Question to ponder on! What is your attitude towards errors/mistakes (in speech/writing)? To what extent has your teaching or learning been characterised by a progression of noticing and repairing? How does your approach affect your pupils?
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- Common speaking strategies Asking for clarification (what?) Asking someone to repeat something Using fillers Using conversation maintenance cues (uh-huh, right, yeah, okay, hm) Getting someones attention Using paraphrases for structures one cannot produce Appealing for assistance from the interlocutor Using formulaic expressions Using mime and nonverbal expressions
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- References Brown, H.D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (3 rd ed). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. Richard-Amato, P.A. (2003). Making it happen: From interactive to participatory language teaching theory and practice (3 rd ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.