Teaching listening and speaking

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2. Introduction Teaching listening and speaking skills has becomevital to learning a second language. Listening was thought of as a mastery of skills, suchas identifying key words and recognizing reducedwords. It then became bottom-up and top-down, followedby prior knowledge and schema. The current view is that a listener is an activeparticipant that uses facilitation, monitoring, andevaluating strategies. 3. Speaking was Memorizing, repeating, and drill-based Communicative language changed grammar-basedsyllabi to communication syllabi. Fluency became popular. 4. The Teaching of Listening 2 views: listening as comprehension and listening asacquisition. Listening as comprehension is based on the mainfunction of listening in second language learning isto facilitate understanding of spoken discourse. Spoken discourse is instantaneous, unplanned, useshesitations, reduced forms, fillers and repeats, anda linear structure (p. 3). 5. Bottom-Up Processing Using the incoming input as the basis for understandingthe message. Comprehension is the process ofdecoding. Teaching Bottom-Up: Retain input while it is being processed Recognizing word and clause divisions Recognize key words Recognize key transitions in a discourse Recognize grammatical relations between key elements insentences Use stress and intonation to identify word and sentencefunction (Richards, 5). 6. Task Examples of Bottom-UpProcessing Identify sequence markers Identify key words Distinguish between positive and negativestatements. 7. Top-down Processing Use of background knowledge in understanding themeaning of a message. It could be previous knowledgeof a topic, situational/contextual, or schema. Teaching Top-down: Use key words to construct schema Infer the setting of the text Infer the role of the participants and their goals Infer cause and effect Infer unstated details of a situation Anticipate questions related to the topic or situation(Richards, 9). 8. Task Examples of Top-Down Processing KWL charts Predict another speakers part of the conversation Read news headlines, guess what happened, thenlisten to the news and compare 9. Strategies for Listening Cognitive: comprehension, storing/memory process,retrieval Metacognitive: assessing, monitoring, self-evaluating and self-testing 10. Listening as Acquisition Listeners extract meaning from the message. Use both bottom-up and top-down processing. Language of utterances is temporary. Teaching listening strategies can make moreeffective listeners. Some tasks to improve acquisition are true-false,picture identification, and sequencing tasks. 11. Input vs. Intake Schmidt (1990) argued that we wont learnanything from input we hear and understand unlesswe notice something about the input (Richards, 13). Input- what a learner hears Intake- the part that the learner notices Only intake can serve as the basis for languagedevelopment (Richards, 14). 12. Noticing and Restructuring Noticing Activities: using the listening texts forcomprehension activities and use them for languageawareness. Restructuring Activities: oral or written tasks thatinvolve productive use of selected items from thelistening text. 13. The Teaching of Speaking Employs more vague or generic words than writtenlanguage. Show variation between formal and informalspeech. May be planned or unplanned. 14. Conversational Routines Use of fixed Styles of Speakingexpressions What is appropriate It doesnt matter.for the context? I see what you mean. Whacha up to?/What Just looking, thanks. are you up to? Differences betweenformal and informalspeech. 15. Functions of Speaking 3 functions of speaking Talk as Interaction: primarily a social function. Focus ison the speaker, not the message. Talk as Transaction: focus on what is said or done. Themessage is #1! (Problem-solving activities, asking fordirections). Talk as Performance: public speaking, form ofmonolog, mimics written language. 16. Implications for Teaching What kinds of speaking skills does the course focuson? Identifying teaching strategies for each kind of talk Talk as Interaction: small talk, personal experiences Talk as Transaction: role play, small group activities Talk as Performance: examples of speeches 17. Challenges for Teachers Help develop fluency, accuracy, andappropriateness of language use. Move from linguistic competence (mastery oflinguistic system) to communicative competence(know how to use English appropriately for a rangeof different purposes). 18. Resources Richards, Jack C. Teaching Listening and Speaking:From Theory to Practice.