Teaching Effective Thinking Strategies

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Transcript of Teaching Effective Thinking Strategies

  • 1. Christina a/p [email protected] LP 111109 Chapter 8: Teaching Effective Thinking StrategiesTHINKING: problem solving, decision making, reading, reflecting, making predictions about what might happen.Thinking skills are not mysterious entities existing somewhere in the mind. Nor are they like mentalmuscles that have a physical presence in the brain. What the term refers to is the human capacity tothink in conscious ways to achieve certain purposes. Such processes include remembering, questioning,forming concepts, planning, reasoning, imagining, solving problems, making decisions and judgments,translating thoughts into words and so on. Critical thinking THINKING Metacognition SKILLS Creative Thinking 1
  • 2. Christina a/p [email protected] LP 1111091. Critical thinking: Critical thinking is the disciplined mental activity of evaluating arguments [information] or propositions and making judgments that can guide the development of beliefs and taking action. Ennis (1992) Critical thinking is based on concepts and principles, not on hard and fast, or step-by- step, procedures.2. Creative Thinking : ability to imagine or invent something new. ability to generate new ideas by combining, changing, or reapplying existing ideas. astonishing and brilliant, while others are just simple, good, practical ideas that no one seems to have thought of yet. 2
  • 3. Christina a/p [email protected] LP 111109Creative thinking techniquesThere is no limit to ways there are of thinking creatively. Some techniques you can begin withare: Brainstorm ideas on one topic onto a large piece of paper: dont edit these. Just write them down. Allowing yourself to play with an idea whilst you go for a walk. Draw or paint a theory on paper. Ask the same question at least twenty times and give a different answer each time. Combine some of the features of two different objects or ideas to see if you can create several more. Change your routine. Do things a different way. Walk a different route to college. Let your mind be influenced by new stimuli such as music you do not usually listen to. Be open to ideas when they are still new: look for ways of making things work and pushing the idea to its limits. Ask questions such as what if.? Or supposing.?. 3
  • 4. Christina a/p [email protected] LP 111109 3. Metacognition : involves thinking about ones own thinking.knowledge of oneself, for example of skills of recognizing problems, representingwhat one knows, what one has learnt, features of problems, planning what to do inwhat one can and cannot do and ways trying to solve problems, monitoring to improve ones learning or progress and evaluating the outcomes of achievement ones own thinking or problem-solving activity Metacognition is developed when pupils are helped to be strategic in organizing their activities and are encouraged to reflect before, during and after problem-solving processes. Metacognitive knowledge involves executive monitoring processes directed at the acquisition of information about thinking processes. They involve decisions that help to identify the task on which one is currently working, to check on current progress of that work, to evaluate that progress, and to predict what the outcome of that progress will be. 4
  • 5. Christina a/p [email protected] LP 111109 Thinking Skills Activities1.Brainstorming - a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find aconclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.2. Flexible Thinking - characteristic of high-level resilience. This is the ability to consider multipleperspectives, to consider different possible understandings of a situation or problem, as well as resultingdifferent possibilities for action.3. Forecasting making statements about events whose actual outcomes (typically) have not yet beenobserved. Brainstorm of possible causes and effects of certain idea or situation. 5
  • 6. Christina a/p [email protected] LP 1111094. Inductive Thinking - the process of coming up with a conclusion based on a series of events thatrepeat.5. Inference making activity of logical thinking and requires assumption of concept and general ideasstep-by-step to get the solution.6. Deductive Thinking - process of coming up with a conclusion based on facts that have already beenshown to be true. Hence, your conclusion will always be true.7. Problem solving- mental process of creating a solution to a problem. It is a special form of problemsolving in which the solution is independently created rather than learned with assistance.8. Decision Making - mental processes or thinking skill of resulting in the selection of a course of actionamong several alternative scenarios 6